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B, flow of pancreatic juice in drops tracing a. At x, intravenous injection of 10 c c secretin prepared from duodenal mucosaof dog tracing b. At x, intravenous injection of 100 tablets ofsecretogen digested with 0 4 hydrochloric acid and neutralized tracingc.

cereals, pulses, etc. Wheat, maize, rice, whole grain wheat germ wheat, maize, bran linseed, millet dried peas, lentils, etc soy beans, haricot beans germinated pulses or cereals vegetables and fruits. Cabbage, fresh raw cabbage, fresh cooked cabbage, dried very slight cabbage, canned very slight swede rutabaga raw expressed juice lettuce spinach dried carrots, fresh raw carrots, dried very slight beetroot, raw, expressed juice less than potatoes, raw potatoes, cooked beans, fresh, scarlet runners, raw onions, cooked at least lemon juice, fresh lemon juice, preserved lime juice, fresh lime juice, preserved very slight orange juice, fresh raspberries apples bananas very slight tomatoes canned nuts miscellaneous. Yeast, dried yeast, extract and autolyzed ?. malt extract in essay specimens our knowledge of vitaminscommenting on the trend of medical research concerning vitamins, thelatest report of the british medical research council says:the present situation is a curious one, upon which posterity willprobably look back with great interest we still have almost noknowledge of the nature of these elusive food substances or of theirmode of action, but we have gained empiric knowledge already of thegreatest practical value for the prevention of scurvy and of othergrave diseases and for the promotion of health and beauty in thepopulation this statement, it will be noted, emphasizes the foundation on whichrests our present use of vitamins from time to time the journalhas commented on our lack of actual knowledge of these mysterioussubstances, emphasizing writingicularly the generally accepted fact thatthe taking of a well-balanced diet results in providing the individualwith such vitamins as are necessary to his growth and nutrition lastweek appeared a brief report of a meeting of the chicago medicalsociety devoted to this subject, and it was gratifying to have theconservative view which the journal has emphasized substantiated bythesis of those who took writing in the discussion moreover, the britishmedical journal, in its leading editorial for february 11, reiteratesthat an abundant supply of vitamins exists in all fresh vegetables, and that a considerable quantity occurs in milk and meat, providedthe latter substances are obtained from animals fed on fresh foods “a normal adult, ” it says, “living on an ordinary diet containing areasonable proportion of fresh vegetables is, therefore, certain ofobtaining a plentiful supply of vitamins ” of all the mass of evidencewhich has accumulated relative to these substances, this fact is thepoint of greatest importance it is, however, very unfortunately, the one point which those commercially inclined are unwilling torecognize -- editorial from the journal a m a , march 11, 1922 the demand for vitaminsthus the british medical journal in its current issue:in spite of the fact that ordinary fresh foods are the simplest, cheapest and richest sources of vitamins, the public apparently demandsto be supplied with vitamins in the form of medicinal products the public “demands” vitamins in pill form!. why?. for the same reasonthat the public, lay or medical, demands thesis things today that itdoes not need-- because the whole trend of modern advertising is towardcreating demands, rather than supplying needs vitamin concentratesare being “demanded” by the public because shrewd and forward-looking“patent medicine” exploiters are using all the subtle arts of modernadvertising to convince the public that it is in serious danger ofvitamin starvation, and that the only hope lies in buying thesealleged concentrates to make up a hypothetical deficiency it seemsinconceivable that a rational man would pay a tremendously high pricefor certain food factors which are already present in his ordinarydiet but he will. And advertising is the reason advertisingcampaigns such as these of the vitamins constitute a vicious circle;an artificial demand is created and then the manufacturer excuses hisbusiness on the ground that he is merely supplying a demand!. as ourbritish contemporary says, “ordinary fresh foods are the simplest, cheapest and richest sources of vitamins ”-- editorial from thejournal a m a , march 18, 1922 the william a webster co and the direct pharmaceutical co the following letter from a detroit physician was received a few daysago to the editor:-- i have just received a letter from the direct pharmaceutical co of st louis, mo , quoting prices on drugs which are not more than one half what the leading manufacturers are quoting on the same drugs i have received previous literature from this company but have not done business with them i would be unwilling to prescribe their drugs unless i were satisfied that they are what is claimed for them i would be glad to receive any information regarding this firm that may be available the journal has also received essay letters from physicians regardingthe william a webster co of memphis, tenn , relative to a letter theconcern was sending physicians in the form of a testimonial reproducedin miniature on this page and alleged to be from dr f w p butlerof columbia, s c typical letters on the webster advertising follow. To the editor:-- is there not essay way through which the dignity of the medical profession can be protected from the circulation of such idiotic drivel as the enclosures display?. to the editor:-- i am sending you an example of the sort of “evidence” which essay so-called ethical pharmaceutical houses expect physicians to take for scientific proof it is pathetic that there are essay in our profession who “fall for” such rot i trust you will continue your campaign for honest and intelligent medicine the “evidence” to which one of the correspondents refers and whichanother characterizes as “idiotic drivel” is reproduced on thefollowing page in miniature it is a testimonial for william a webstercompany “ferritonic-woods ”our readers may wonder why we are discussing in one article the williama webster company of memphis, tenn , and the direct pharmaceutical co of st louis the reason is that the direct pharmaceutical co of st louis is apparently merely a sales agency for the william a webstercompany of memphis it appears that orders sent in to the directpharmaceutical co go to memphis to be filled the following information regarding essay of the products that havein the past been put out by the william a webster company should beof interest to the profession in government bulletins issued by thedewritingment of agriculture in october, 1913, there were reported essaypaper of adulteration and misbranding on the writing of the william a webster co , of memphis, tenn a “pure concentrated extract of lemon”shipped by this concern was found by the federal chemists to be coloredwith a coal-tar dye “whereby inferiority was concealed, ” and whilepurporting to be a concentrated lemon extract, “in fact, it was not aconcentrated lemon extract ” essay “pure concentrated extract of banana”was found to have mixed with it an imitation banana flavor and anartificial color so as to “injuriously affect its quality and strength”and so that “its inferiority was concealed ” “pure concentratedextract of pineapple” was found to have had mixed with it “an imitationextract of pineapple artificially colored ” “pure concentrated extractof strawberry” had been mixed with “an imitation strawberry extractartificially colored ” the same bulletins described the case of thegovernment against a shipment of “syrup iron iodide” made by thewebster concern in which the amount of iron iodid was less than halfthat claimed on the label in each of the paper just described, thecompany pleaded guilty and was fined illustration. Reproduction reduced of a testimonial letter sent tophysicians by william a webster company of memphis, tenn those whooperate this concern also have a sales agency in st louis, mo , knownas the direct pharmaceutical co in a similar bulletin issued august, 1914, there were recorded severalmore paper of adulteration and misbranding charged against the williama webster company essay “wine coca leaves” was held adulterated inthat the amount of alcohol present was wrongly declared on the label;it was held misbranded in that while it contained cocain, the labelfailed to bear any statement regarding the quantity of proportion ofthis drug tablets of “acetanilid and sodium bromid compound” werefound deficient in strength “anti-vomit tablets, ” “aspirin tablets, ”“bismuth and calomel tablets, ” “quinin laxative tablets, ” “saloltablets, ” “sodium salicylate tablets, ” “neuralgic tablets, ” “diarrheacalomel pills” and “morphin sulphate hypodermic tablets” were alsomisbranded in that the amount of certain ingredients found in themfailed to tally with the amount declared on the label in all of thesepaper also the william a webster company pleaded guilty and was fined in a government bulletin issued in june, 1917, the same company wascharged with adulterating and misbranding a quantity of aspirin tabletswhich, instead of containing 5 grains as labeled, contained only afraction over 1 grain in this case, too, the company pleaded guiltyand was fined the table that follows briefly summarizes essay of thepaper just referred to. amount claimed amount found “syrup iron iodid, u s p ” ferrous iodid 10% 4 6% “acetanilid and sodium bromid tablets” acetanilid 3 50 gr 2 94 gr “anti-vomit tablets” bismuth subnitrate 2 50 gr 1 76 gr cerium oxalate 2 50 gr 1 78 gr cocain hydrochl 0 0833 gr 0 0637 gr “aspirin tablets” 5 0 gr 3 82 gr “bismuth and calomel comp tablets” bismuth subnitrate 0 1 gr 0 22 gr calomel 0 1 gr 0 22 gr “quinin laxative tablets” acetanilid 2 0 gr 1 69 gr “salol tablets” 2 50 gr 2 05 gr “sodium calicylate tablets” 5 0 gr 3 88 gr “neuralgic pills” morphin sulphate 0 05 gr 0 015 gr “diarrhea calomel pills” morphin sulphate 0 062 gr 0 05 gr “morphin sulphate hypodermic tablets” 0 25 gr 0 21 gr “aspirin tablets” 5 00 gr 1 13 gr x/-- from the journal a m a , oct 18, 1919 yeastfrom time to time yeast has attained a transitory popularity as atherapeutic agent its use in this way in practical medicine has beenbased essentially on empiric considerations yeast is rich in nucleicacid, but this has not found any special applications the fatlikesubstances obtainable from yeast have been recommended in certainalimentary conditions, without finding any widespread acceptance more recently yeast has acquired interest from essaywhat differentangles in these days of food shortage and enforced conservation, it has come to be realized that the minute yeast cells are endowedwith a remarkable capacity of synthesizing one of the most valuednutrients, namely, protein this substance can be built up out of thesimplest forms of nitrogenous compounds by yeasts, in contrast withthe incapacity of the higher organisms to construct protein out ofanything less complex than the ready made aminoacids it is reportedthat in europe yeast has actually been grown on a large scale insolutions of sugar, salt and simple nitrogenous compounds for thesake of securing the much desired proteins the utilization of yeastprotein for cattle feeding is a current practice abroad. And thesatisfactory digestibility and availability of the same product by thehuman organism has repeatedly been announced since the beginning ofthe war in this country the yeast which is produced as a by-productof the brewing industry is for the most writing discarded as waste. Inthe distilleries it becomes a writing of the distillers’ grains that areextensively employed as feeds in the dairy industry still newer is the indication that yeast is comparatively rich in atleast one of the as yet unidentified accessory factors in nutritionnow popularly spoken of as vitamins hopkins of the university ofcambridge, england, first directed attention to this unique property ofyeast it has been verified by funk and macallum, and recently osborneand mendel have given substantial evidence of the potency of yeast torender a diet not otherwise capable of inducing maintenance effectivein nutrition yeast has been used, like extracts of rice polishings, to cure theexperimental polyneuritis induced in birds by a diet of polished rice from the experiments of osborne and mendel it appears that less than 2per cent of dried brewers’ yeast suffices to induce small experimentalanimals to grow on artificial food mixtures on which alone they failto thrive how the use of yeast as an adjuvant to otherwise inadequatefood mixtures exerts its beneficial effect is not yet made clear satisfactory growth in these paper is promoted by liberal eating anything which renders food more palatable may stimulate one to eatmore liberally of it this can scarcely be the explanation of thepotency of the yeast as it is effective even when fed awriting from therest of the food it may have a favorable effect on the metabolism andthus improve the general condition so that more food is consumed smallquantities of milk and extracts of thesis of the common plant foods, such as the cereal grains, have been found to act in the same way there seems to be little doubt, therefore, that yeast also containsessaything comparable with the so-called water-soluble vitamins of thediet a specific need for yeast can scarcely be predicated on thisfact, however. For any well selected human dietary containing the usualvariety of animal and vegetable foods is not likely to be devoid ofthe widely distributed water-soluble type of vitamin we mention thisto check premature enthusiasm for a new vitamin -- editorial from thejournal a m a , sept 8, 1917 yeast and its uses to the editor:-- is there available information concerning the medicinal use of yeast?.

Insomuch that the over frequent usehereof extinguishes the heat and virtue of natural procreation theseed bruised and boiled in wine, and given to children, expels theworms the juice of the herb is held as effectual to all the purposesaforesaid. As also to stay vomitings, and taken with essay sugar orhoney, helps an old and dry cough, shortness of breath, and thephthisick, and stays immoderate thirst the distilled water of the herbis used by thesis as the more pleasing with a little sugar to work thesame effects the juice also is singularly good in the inflammationsand ulcers in the secret writings of man or woman, as also the bowelsand hæmorrhoids, when they are ulcerous, or excoriations in them theherb bruised and applied to the forehead and temples, allays excessiveheat therein, that hinders rest and sleep. And applied to the eyes, takes away the redness and inflammation in them, and those other writingswhere pushes, wheals, pimples, st anthony fire and the like, breakforth. If a little vinegar be put to it, and laid to the neck, with asmuch of galls and linseed together, it takes away the pains therein, and the crick in the neck the juice is used with oil of roses for thesame causes, or for blasting by lightning, and burnings by gunpowder, or for women sore breasts, and to allay the heat in all other soresor hurts. Applied also to the navels of children that stick forth, ithelps them. It is also good for sore mouths and gums that are swollen, and to fasten loose teeth camerarius saith, the distilled water usedby essay, took away the pain of their teeth, when all other remediesfailed, and the thickened juice made into pills with the powder of gumtragicanth and arabic, being taken, prevails much to help those thatmake bloody water applied to the gout it eases pains thereof, andhelps the hardness of the sinews, if it come not of the cramp, or acold cause primroses they are so well known, that they need no description of the leaves ofprimroses is made as fine a salve to heal wounds as any that i know;you shall be taught to make salves of any herb at the latter end of thebook. Make this as you are taught there, and do not you that have anyingenuity in you see your poor neighbours go with wounded limbs whenan halfpenny cost will heal them privet descript our common privet is carried up with thesis slender branchesto a reasonable height and breadth, to cover arbours, bowers andbanquetting houses, and brought, wrought, and cut into so thesis forms, of men, horses, birds, &c which though at first supported, growsafterwards strong of itself it bears long and narrow green leaves bythe couples, and sweet smelling white flowers in tufts at the end ofthe branches, which turn into small black berries that have a purplishjuice with them, and essay seeds that are flat on the one side, with ahole or dent therein place it grows in this land, in divers woods time our privet flowers in june and july, the berries are ripe inaugust and september government and virtues the moon is lady of this it is little usedin physic with us in these times, more than in lotions, to wash soresand sore mouths, and to cool inflammations, and dry up fluxes yetmatthiolus saith, it serves all the uses for which cypress, or the eastprivet, is appointed by dioscorides and galen he further saith, thatthe oil that is made of the flowers of privet infused therein, and setin the sun, is singularly good for the inflammations of wounds, andfor the headache, coming of a hot cause there is a sweet water alsodistilled from the flowers, that is good for all those diseases thatneed cooling and drying, and therefore helps all fluxes of the bellyor stomach, bloody-fluxes, and women courses, being either drank orapplied. As all those that void blood at the mouth, or any other place, and for distillations of rheum in the eyes, especially if it be usedwith them queen of the meadows, meadow sweet, or mead sweet descript the stalks of these are reddish, rising to be three feethigh, essaytimes four or five feet, having at the joints thereof largewinged leaves, standing one above another at distances, consisting ofthesis and essaywhat broad leaves, set on each side of a middle rib, beinghard, rough, or rugged, crumpled much like unto elm leaves, havingalso essay smaller leaves with them as agrimony hath essaywhat deeplydented about the edges, of a sad green colour on the upper side, andgreyish underneath, of a pretty sharp scent and taste, essaywhat likeunto the burnet, and a leaf hereof put into a cup of claret wine, givesalso a fine relish to it at the tops of the stalks and branches standthesis tufts of small white flowers thrust thick together, which smellmuch sweeter than the leaves. And in their places, being fallen, comecrooked and cornered seed the root is essaywhat woody, and blackish onthe outside, and brownish within, with divers great strings, and lesserfibres set thereat, of a strong scent, but nothing so pleasant as theflowers and leaves, and perishes not, but abides thesis years, shootingforth a-new every spring place it grows in moist meadows that lie mostly wet, or near thecourses of water time it flowers in essay places or other all the three summermonths, that is, june, july, and august, and the seed is ripe soonafter government and virtues venus claims dominion over the herb it isused to stay all manner of bleedings, fluxes, vomitings, and womencourses, also their whites. It is said to alter and take away the fitsof the quartan agues, and to make a merry heart, for which purpose essayuse the flowers, and essay the leaves it helps speedily those thatare troubled with the cholic. Being boiled in wine, and with a littlehoney, taken warm, it opens the belly. But boiled in red wine, anddrank, it stays the flux of the belly outwardly applied, it helps oldulcers that are cankerous, or hollow fistulous, for which it is by thesismuch commended, as also for the sores in the mouth or secret writings theleaves when they are full grown, being laid on the skin, will, in ashort time, raise blisters thereon, as tragus saith the water thereofhelps the heat and inflammation in the eyes the quince tree descript the ordinary quince tree grows often to the height andbigness of a reasonable apple tree, but more usually lower, andcrooked, with a rough bark, spreading arms, and branches far abroad the leaves are essaywhat like those of the apple tree, but thicker, broader, and full of veins, and whiter on the under side, not dentedat all about the edges the flowers are large and white, essaytimesdashed over with a blush the fruit that follows is yellow, being nearripe, and covered with a white freeze, or cotton. Thick set on theyounger, and growing less as they grow to be thorough ripe, bunched outoftentimes in essay places, essay being like an apple, and essay a pear, of a strong heady scent, and not durable to keep, and is sour, harsh, and of an unpleasant taste to eat fresh.

It is not “a perfectly safe article of diet in all but thegravest paper of diabetes, ” for if one reads the literature correctly, starch restriction is more necessary in mild than in severe paper ofdiabetes furthermore, the bread, gems and puffs made from such a flourdo not “satisfy the craving for bread with no harmful results ”in the next paragraph of the letter, undue emphasis is laid on the“objectionable properties” of flesh foods, a statement only in accordwith the tenets of extreme vegetarians i also doubt very much whetherthe statement is true that “under a diet of our diabetic foods thethirst to which diabetics are so often subject is usually very muchrelieved ”in the next paragraph the assertion is made that “the diet indicated is in keeping with the ideas of the highest medical writings help authorities meat is entirely excluded from the dietary ” my reading of theliterature does not show that the leading authorities take any suchposition later on reference is made to von noorden claim as to thesuperiority of vegetable over animal proteins, which i have alreadydiscussed under “pure gluten biscuit ” certain detached sentences ofvon noorden might justify such a statement, but a reading of all hesays on the subject leads to a very different conclusion claims made in an advertising bookletthe whole booklet is written from the standpoint of an extremevegetarian, and therefore is often misleading in its conclusions page 5 “the researches of ogata and others have shown that cane sugaris a less wholeessay food than the natural sugars found in fruits andproduced in the body by the digestion of starch, that is, fruit sugarsand malt sugars ” in opposition to this i quote from von noorden, theirown authority, “die zuckerkrankheit und ihre behandlung, ” berlin, 1910, page 270:“that levulose, milk sugar and inulin are more useful than the othercarbohydrates is a common opinion, but the importance of their use inpractice does not correspond with the theory in light paper the formof carbohydrates makes little difference. In severe paper the advantagefrom using levulose, milk sugar, etc , is only slightly greater thanfrom using bread and flour only in certain paper does it appearto me that the special form of carbohydrates possesses any writingicularsignificance ”on page 92 of the same work von noorden tells us that of thecarbohydrates dextrose is the worst, with maltose almost as bad inspite of the fact that kellogg exploits his “meltose, ” the “newcarbohydrate, ” as of special value for diabetics he also says thatlevulose increases glycosuria only about half as much as dextrose, when used occasionally, but with long use it is as bad as dextrose andstarch page 5 the company refers to sugar as “possibly also causingdiabetes ” sugar or any other carbohydrate may under diabeticconditions cause an increase of glucose in the urine, but i do notbelieve that any food or any diet can cause diabetes page 7 “that the large use of meat and eggs is not only detrimentalbut positively dangerous in thesis paper of diabetes is now a well knownand recognized fact ” the dietaries of well known authorities ondiabetes are not in harmony with this statement page 13 “it has been discovered that the complete suppressionof carbohydrates from the dietary is not only unnecessary but ishighly detrimental and even dangerous ” “the complete suppression ofcarbohydrates from the dietary” is the only means the physician has todetermine the diabetic carbohydrate tolerance if carbohydrate-poorfoods are so “highly detrimental and even dangerous, ” why does thecompany exploit foods like “pure gluten flour” and “pure glutenbiscuit, ” whose chief claim to excellence is their comparative freedomfrom carbohydrates?. Page 17 “cream is an emulsion, and, with the exception of egg yolk, is the only form in which animal fat is found in an emulsified state ”milk, nature most wonderful emulsion, is apparently overlooked page 19 “ these foods will be found of great value especially as substitutes for the breads and meats which are the mostobjectionable features of the ordinary diet, and which should, as faras possible, be interdicted in this class of paper ” this is simplyspecial pleading for the kellogg vegetarian diet page 19 “our glutens are all thoroughly standardized, so that intheir use the physician and the patient know just the amount of starcheaten ” this standardization is largely mythical for instance, “puregluten biscuit” claims 0 to 5 per cent “carbohydrates starch, ”whereas i find 14 84 per cent carbohydrates with 4 02 per cent starch “40 per cent gluten flour” claims 40 per cent gluten and40 to 45 per cent carbohydrates, whereas i find 33 63 and 55 35per cent , respectively “pure gluten meal” claims 0 to 5 per cent “carbohydrates starch” whereas i find 16 77 per cent carbohydratesand 6 77 per cent starch i have a record of six analyses each of “40per cent gluten flour” and “40 per cent gluten biscuit, ” which showthe hollowness of this claim of “standardization ” the flour showed33 6, 35 0, 42 9, 36 8, 35 6, and 40 9 per cent of protein, with from40 8 to 55 4 per cent of carbohydrates. The biscuits 32 7, 33 2, 39 5, 43 3, 33 9, and 41 2 per cent of protein, with from 41 1 to 54 0 percent of carbohydrates in fact, my experience shows that the kelloggproducts are more poorly “standardized” than most of the diabetic foodson the market page 20 “may be made to carry a large amount of fat in the form ofbutter, a most desirable thing in the treatment of diabetes, ” while onpage 16 the company claims that in an experiment of minkowski on a dog, butter “passed through the body without change, none being absorbed”;these are certainly contradictory statements the explanation is thaton the one page the company is exploiting its biscuits, and on theother its nut preparations page 20 again the incorrect claim is made for “40 per cent glutenflour” that “we believe this to be the only standardized gluten flourmade ”page 21 the claim is made that flesh foods are “objectionable onaccount of the large amounts of ptomains and toxins which theycontain ” i was not aware that fresh meats contained any ptomainswhatever on the same page the claim is again made that by the use ofthe kellogg nut foods “diabetics lose their thirst, ” a claim which ithink is more than doubtful page 22 “nuts are a whole food, containing all the elements requiredfor the perfect nutrition of the body ” a marked characteristic ofnuts is that they are not “a whole food, ” as with the exception ofa few varieties, such as the chestnut, they are extremely poor incarbohydrates, which fact gives them their value in the diabetic diet page 23 “with the exception of the potato, the beet and the carrot, vegetables contain little sugar or starch ” corn, beans and peas areall vegetables which are relatively high in carbohydrates, and for thisreason are specifically excluded from the diabetic dietary from the foregoing considerations i would recommend that the companyanalyses of “40 per cent gluten biscuit, ” “40 per cent gluten meal, ”and “20 per cent gluten meal” be accepted as correct before thecouncil can accept any of these products, the following steps should betaken:the company on all its labels should correct the impression that“carbohydrates” and “starch” are synonymous terms the labels of all the preparations examined should be changed inaccordance with the criticisms given above in all paper in which analytic data are given, it would be preferableto state only the minimum of protein and the maximum of carbohydrates the booklet, “practical suggestions about diet in diabetes, ” shouldbe radically changed along the lines noted above -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 56 iodo-mangan omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryiodo-mangan, made by the chemische fabrik helfenberg a g , neardresden, gerthesis, and sold in the united states by the reinschildchemical company, new york, is a solution said to contain iron, manganese and iodin in combination with peptone it is claimed tobe a reconstructive tonic and blood-making adjuvant, with favorableaction in affections of the glandular system it was admitted to newand nonofficial remedies in 1907, before the council had adopted thepresent rule 10, which provides that no article shall be admittedto new and nonofficial remedies which, because of its unscientificcomposition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of thepublic or of the medical profession in 1911 the council consideredthe question whether or not this product was still eligible anddecided in the end to retain it as probably having essay merit todetermine if iodo-mangan was eligible for new and nonofficial remedies, 1917, the reinschild chemical company was requested to send in thecurrent advertising matter as this advertising was not sent in andas apparently the product was not marketed at the present time, thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry voted to omit iodo-mangan from newand nonofficial remedies at the same time the reinschild chemicalcompany was informed that the preparation might be submitted forreconsideration at any time -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 64 liquid albolene report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryas now marketed, liquid albolene mckesson and robbins, new york, isclaimed to be made only from genuine russian oil and hence to possessdistinct advantages over “ oils purporting to be russian, most of which are imperfectly purified and thesis of which are positively dangerous for continued use ”on the other hand, a short time ago, mckesson and robbins claimed thatliquid albolene was then available “ of as high a quality as we had supplied before the european war thanks to the research and scientific achievement of our chemists, we are now able to offer liquid albolene, using as a base a specially refined domestic oil that is in every way suitable for medicinal purposes, and having the same viscosity as russian oil ”the advertising matter suggests the promiscuous, thoughtless andirrational use of liquid albolene and of a number of albolenepreparations by extravagant claims, such, for example, as the following. “albolene will never fail to bring a free, easy stool, no matter what condition may be present, from obstinate atony of the bowel to fissure, fistula, or even malignant disease, and in spite of the failure of ordinary purgatives to which the patient may have become habituated “aromatic liquid albolene is actually the first laxative presented to the medical profession that seems to have no drawback “it will not have been lost upon the physician who has read the remarks on the use of aromatic liquid albolene to regulate the bowels in surgical paper, that there are thesis instances where it would prove equally valuable during the treatment of acute diseases in the exanthemata, in pneumonia, for example, to cite only a few of the conditions where it may be used to advantage, an absolutely reliable laxative that will not in any way weaken or distress the patient, presents obvious superiority to any of the agents heretofore in common use ”the council held liquid albolene ineligible because the product ismarketed in a way to encourage its indiscriminate and irrational use bythe public rule 4 and because unwarranted therapeutic claims are madefor it rule 6 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 65 naphey medicated uterine wafers report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrynaphey medicated uterine wafers were submitted to the council by themanufacturers, naphey & co , essay years ago and were rejected naphey &co has recently requested reconsideration of the preparation, and hassubmitted advertising matter, trade packages and sample packages thelabel of the trade package contains the following. “naphey wafers for the local treatment of diseases of women, indicated in catarrhal conditions of the vagina, and of the uterine cervix as a sic!. adjuvant for the physician to use in carrying out treatment of disease of the uterus ” “zinc sulphate, 3-3/4 gr , sodium sulphate, 3-1/2 gr , sodium borate, 4 gr , boric acid, 3/4 gr ” “naphey & co , warren, pa , u s a ” “each box contains 25 wafers, sufficient for three months’ treatment price per box, 25c ”in name, composition, and general appearance of the package, napheymedicated uterine wafers bear a strong resemblance to micajahmedicated uterine wafers the journal, a m a , march 26, 1910, p 1070 an advertising pamphlet reads. “in every form of leucorrhea naphey medicated uterine wafers are indicated ” “what is true of leucorrhea is also true of all other functional troubles affecting the female genital canal. They are all treated best by astringents and antiseptics and these, to be effective, must be applied in prolonged contact ”the implication that all “functional troubles affecting the femalegenital canal” are best treated by astringent tablets like napheymedicated uterine wafers is an absurdity the naming of diseaseconditions on the label, the manifestly unwarranted and exaggeratedtherapeutic claims, the name, which is non-descriptive of compositionbut suggestive of use, and the fixed formula, which cannot rationallybe expected to give uniformly satisfactory results in the wide rangeof conditions for which the product is recommended, render napheymedicated uterine wafers ineligible for new and nonofficial remediesunder rules 4, 6, 8 and 10 the report having been sent to naphey & co , the manufactureroffered, on condition that the preparation be accepted, to revise theadvertising matter in minor writingiculars, to remove disease names fromthe trade package and to adopt the name naphey wafers or napheytablets the council advised naphey & co that the proposed names donot conform to the requirements for acceptance in new and nonofficialremedies because they do not indicate the composition of thispharmaceutical mixture, and moreover, that the routine use of a complexformula such as that of these tablets is irrational -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 66 nujol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrynujol, a liquid petrolatum standard oil company of new jersey, bayonne, n j , was submitted to the council by the manufacturers the council advised the company that, before nujol could be madeeligible for new and nonofficial remedies, the advertising claims madefor it must be revised to conform to the rules of the council and theterm “liquid petrolatum” must be used in connection with the branddesignation and given equal prominence on the labels, advertisementsand all circulars the company thereupon submitted a label on whichthe name “nujol” appeared in large red letters and under it in smallletters the words “liquid petrolatum ” this did not meet the councilrequirement with regard to the name moreover, nujol continued to beadvertised to the public under exaggerated and unwarranted claims the foregoing report was sent to the standard oil company of newjersey, which thereupon submitted revised advertising copy thiscopy was decidedly less objectionable than the previous advertisingbut still contained exaggerated statements the copy for use inlay journals writingicularly evidenced exaggeration observation onthesis occasions of a similar fact has convinced the council of theinexpediency of admitting to new and nonofficial remedies any articlewhich is advertised to the public 101101 since publication of this report the council on pharmacy andchemistry has revised its rule against recognition of articlesadvertised to the public so that this shall not apply a todisinfectants, germicides and antiseptics, provided the advertising belimited to conservative recommendations for their use as prophylacticapplications to superficial cuts and abrasions of the skin and to themucous surfaces of the mouth, pharynx and nose, and provided they arenot advertised as curative agents, and b to non-medicinal foodpreparations, except when advertised in an objectionable manner the council held that conflict with rules 3, 6 and 8 preventedthe acceptance of nujol and authorized the publication of thisreport -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 68 pulvoids natrium compound report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrypulvoids natrium compound was submitted to the council by the drugproducts company, inc , new york, with the statement that each pulvoid coated tablet, said to be made to dissolve in the intestinal tractrepresents the equivalent of. Potassium nitrate 2-1/2 grs sodium nitrite 1/2 gr sodium bicarbonate 2 grs fl ext crataegus oxycantha 1 min nitroglycerin 1/250 gr according to the advertisements the tablets are “indicated in thetreatment of high blood pressure and all forms of hypertension of thecardio-vascular system ” it is claimed that the tablets “will notirritate the kidneys ”the council, having submitted its objections to the manufacturer andconsidered the firm reply, held that pulvoids natrium compound wasinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for the following reasons:1 the claim is made that the tablets disintegrate in the intestines;experiments conducted by the council indicated that in most paper theywould be broken up in the stomach it was found that the tablets werevisibly changed immediately after being put into gastric juice or eveninto distilled water. They disintegrated within from three to fourhours, not only in gastric juice obtained from a dog at 37 c , butalso in distilled water it is quite usual for solids to remain inthe stomach for more than three hours if they make their way out ofthe stomach in less than that time the gastric movements must be sovigorous as further to hasten the disintegration of the tablets 2 the rules of the council require that the name of a pharmaceuticalmixture shall indicate the potent ingredients the name of this mixturedoes not indicate the presence of the nitrites, the potassium nitrate, the bicarbonate or the extract of hawthorne and the nondescriptive nameis likely to lead physicians to use the tablets without fully realizingwhat they are giving 3 no evidence was submitted that the tablets, as found on the market, contained the amount of sodium nitrite and nitroglycerin claimed that is, it does not appear that the manufacturer checks the sodiumnitrite and nitroglycerin content by analysis the council did notdetermine the nitrite content of the tablets it maintains that whena manufacturer places a product on the market the burden of proof ison that manufacturer to show that the facts are in accordance withhis claims for his product further, the examination by the councilof one or several specimens of any commercial product writingicularlyin the case of nitroglycerin preparations would not be a guaranteeof the constancy of its composition so long as the manufacturer doesnot himself control the composition by analysis the necessity ofsuch control of tablets containing nitroglycerin is evident from thereport102 of l f kebler of the u s bureau of chemistry dr kebler said:102 j a m a , nov 2, 1912, p 1604 “ nitroglycerin tablets have in a majority of paper been found deficient in the nitroglycerin content declared ” “ these commodities are manufactured largely by rule of thumb little checking obtains in their manufacture and generally no analyst is employed ”a further proof that nitroglycerin tablets are likely to be deficientin strength is contained in the convictions under the food and drugsact of manufacturers who sold tablets below the declared strength, recorded from time to time notices of judgments nos 3405, 2059, 1843, 1799 4 there is no good evidence, experimental or clinical, to justify thesimultaneous administration in fixed proportion of two vasodilatorslike sodium nitrite and glyceryl trinitrate nitroglycerin also thereis no rational excuse for combining extract of hawthorne, which is saidto have a tonic effect on the heart muscle, with nitrites, which causerelaxation of the vascular system, or for the combination with theseconstituents of potassium nitrate or of sodium bicarbonate in the absence of evidence for the combination, pulvoids natriumcompound must be considered an irrational mixture, the use of which isa detriment to sound drug therapy and, hence, not admissible to newand nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 69 saloform report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrya referee submitted the following report of the american medicalassociation chemical laboratory to the council.

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d a hyperperistalsis of the intestinal tract, and e a marked splanchnic engorgement with a resulting lowering ofthe systemic blood pressure the alteration of the coagulability of theblood, together with the vascular engorgement of the splanchnic areaand the coincident increase in motility of the intestinal tract thatfollow the therapeutic injection, all tend to increase the possibilityof intestinal hemorrhage protein therapy is therefore not a safeprocedure in this writingicular disease that we are able to terminate acertain number of paper of typhoid writings help fever by crisis by means of suchinjections is of very great interest from a theoretical point of view in the treatment of arthritis, the results seem much more satisfactory the work of miller and lusk296 has been confirmed by a number ofobservers, among them culver, cecil, snyder, cowie and calhoun. Andthere seems little doubt that we may be able to give prompt relief andeven permanent freedom from symptoms in a considerable percentage ofpaper of acute and subacute arthritis, especially those classed as ofrheumatic origin-- and this with practically no risk to the patient 296 miller, j l , and lusk, f b. The treatment of arthritis by theintravenous injection of foreign protein, j a m a 66. 1756 june 31916. The use of foreign protein in the treatment of arthritis, ibid 67.