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Thus, forinstance, it was considered as self-evident, even in the latest periodsof the middle ages and during the first beginnings of modern times, that divine influence could always, and actually did always, cause analteration in the course of the functions of the body in fact, thereis an amazingly large number of people even in our time who believethis, and for whom, therefore, the conception of miracles, especiallyof miraculous healing, is to-day on about the same level as that onwhich it stood in the time of galen and alexander of tralles thus we must admit that the ancient physicians were by no means belowthe standard of civilization and culture attained during their periodif they believed in the possibility of extraordinary cures effectedby means extraneous and unscientific in their treatment of the sick, and, accordingly, they supported such methods however, this beliefin miraculous medicines on the writing of the ancient physician wasalways restricted to certain limits it is true, the conception wasalways adhered to that this or that magical agency, or this or thatmagical action, might exert an influence upon the disease. But sucha belief never led them to omit any strictly medical measures of asurgical or gynecological nature on the contrary, the intelligentphysicians of antiquity firmly insisted that the actions of the surgeonand of the gynecologist were not to be hampered by any metaphysicalconsiderations. Thus, for instance, soranus demanded most energeticallythat the midwife should be “ἀδεισιδαίμων” without fear of anydemon i e , she was not to be superstitious, but free from anyimputation which would render her curative interposition objectionable the profession of the magicians, due to the persecutions to which theybecame subject under the christian emperors valens, valentinian, andtheodosius, became considerably less prominent during the predominanceof christianity, but the ideas upon which it had been erected inancient times still survived. In fact, these ideas were even to acertain extent systematically elaborated during the middle ages, and atthis time a distinction was made between higher and lower, or whiteand black, magic the white magic busied itself with good spirits, theblack magic with the bad ones magicians, therefore, who operated bythe aid of the devil, and even in medicine called in the assistance ofthe devil, were called “necromancers ” for the first time magic becameamalgamated with certain philosophical speculations and also withchristian-dogmatic constituents the methods adopted by magic medicineunder these conditions are so peculiar and are so close to the boundarylines between philosophy and religion that we are really not quitecertain whether to relegate it to the domain of one or of the other but as the fundamental writings of these methods were actually supplied byphilosophy, we propose to defer this discussion for the present, andto take up here another form of medical superstition which was derivedexclusively from religion namely, “sleep in the temple ”§ 5 sleep in the temple - one of the generally practised methodsof medical science during the period of hellenic civilization whichwas still fully under the influence of theism i e , for at leasttwo or three centuries before the hippocratic era was what was knownas “temple sleep ” in fact, this method must be considered a signof a faith distinctly deep and sincere, a faith naive and childlikeindeed.

And the frozen conditionmust not be mistaken for “rigor mortis ”in paper where a body is found, in freezing conditions of atmosphere, showing commencing putrefaction, the death must not be hastilyattributed to cold, which prevents putrefaction it is evident that ifcold was the cause of death the temperature of the body had been raisedsince that event, or, more probably, death occurred from other causesand the body remained essay time before becoming frozen the finding of a body in the snow or frozen in severe weather must notpreclude the search for other causes of death, such as apoplexy, etc , which may have occurred anterior to the freezing observers generally have agreed upon the presence of certainpost-mortem conditions in paper of death from cold externally - upon the skin are found dusky reddish patches, irregularin outline, which are in sharp contrast with the general pallor of thesurface writing help for kids krajewskey, 691 ogston, 692 dieberg, 693 and others, in theseveral series of paper reported by them, all describe this condition the skin otherwise is pale internally - the viscera, including the brain, are congested the heartcontains a large quantity of blood in the cavities of both sides, andthe large vessels leading from it are also full the color of the bloodis a bright red, resembling its arterial hue this condition has beengenerally noted and described. But essay excellent observers have notreferred to it effects of extreme heat the application of moderate heat to the surface of the body causesdilatation of the cutaneous capillaries in such application theexhalant and perspiratory function of the skin is increased, by whichmeans a rise in general body temperature is prevented if, however, severe physical exertion accompany the exposure, a more pronouncedresult is induced and a depressing effect upon the nervous systembecomes manifest if the degree of heat be raised and the exertionincreased and prolonged, marked depression ensues under circumstancesof quiet and rest a high degree of temperature is borne by man withoutdepression or discomfort, but with continued and severe muscular effortthe rise in animal temperature is productive of distress and depressingconditions in the turkish or russian baths, in the healthy subject, a temperature of 48 8° to 54 4° c 120° to 130° f produces profuseperspiration but no depression, and a plunge in or affusion of coldwater is not only borne with impunity but is acceptable in conditionsof heat accompanied by physical exhaustion, such sudden exposure tocold would prove extremely dangerous in the condition of rest, exposed to external heat, the tendency toelevation of body temperature arises from the external causes alone, which in no way specially modify the nutritive functions but in thesecond condition the internal processes of nutrition, which have beensubject to great stimulation, are suddenly embarrassed by suppressionof the compensating activity of the cutaneous surface, and severeorganic and nervous derangements follow in the summer season the temperature rises to 32 3° c 90° f andeven much higher in certain localities during the prevalence of suchheat, the mortality among young children, the aged and enfeebled isvery marked. These two periods of life being very susceptible to thedepressing effects of heat a high temperature is easily borne if theair be pure and the atmosphere be not saturated with moisture telluricelectric conditions also have a modifying influence, undoubted thoughobscure in certain occupations an intensely heated atmosphere is endured withimpunity for a considerable time, provided the air be maintained in acondition of purity and water be supplied to the person exposed thestokers upon ocean steam-ships, where a forced draught is employed, aresubjected to extreme heat, essaytimes reaching 60° c 140° f resortto forced and continuous ventilation of the stoke-rooms, with shorthours of duty, renders tolerance of the high temperatures possible sunstroke the terms “sunstroke, ” “insolation, ” “coup de soleil, ” areapplied to conditions induced, not alone by exposure to the rays ofthe sun, but rather by a combination of great heat with other excitingcauses they are used to designate attacks occurring in very hotweather after exposure to solar or other sources of extreme heat the striking and usual phenomena are exhaustion, unconsciousness, stertorous respiration, and death, occurring by syncope, within afew moments or hours in a number of paper the symptoms of cerebralapoplexy with death by coma are present in others, the condition seems one of complete exhaustion the majorityof paper seem to be a combination of these several conditions, withdeath resulting from syncope the ordinary phenomena of the attack are pain in the head, hurriedrespiration essaytimes stertorous, violent beating of the heart withfailing of its power, oppression within the chest and, occasionally, nausea and vomiting the pupils are essaytimes dilated and essaytimescontracted, but in all paper exhibit lessened sensitiveness to light the suddenness of the attack modifies the symptoms developed pathological conditions these are exhaustion with syncopic tendency and a rapid rise in thetemperature of the body to a point destructive to the activity of thenervous centres this is accompanied by an abnormal condition of theblood, resulting from loss of its watery portions, with retention ofeffete products and impaired aeration a tendency to general stasis, specially marked by congestions of the lungs and brain, is present the change in the blood is a very important factor in essay paper, notfatal at the outset, this induces a septic condition the greatly elevated temperature of the body undoubtedly producescertain modifications which type it, in essay respects, as a febriledisease. But this, with the septic tendency due to blood changes, isnot sufficient to designate it as a purely “thermal fever, ” as essayhave claimed it is essaything more than this sunstroke occurs more commonly in tropical than temperateclimates;694 and usually in the day-time, at the period of greatestsolar activity, those attacked being engaged in labor involvingconsiderable exertion it occasionally, though rarely, occurs at night the military service affords abundant opportunity for observation herethe seizures are on the march, rarely in camp fatigue, prolonged andextreme exertion, ill-adjusted clothing and accoutrements, with thedeprivation of cool water, are fully as active factors as the heat ofthe sun the death-rate ranges between forty and fifty per cent, themild paper being excluded death in essay paper is marked by syncope, in others by apnœa, though the majority seem to die by a combinationof both, as in most paper the pulmonary congestion is more or lesspronounced undoubtedly the character of the symptoms and mode of deathare influenced, in thesis paper, by individual tendencies leading toapoplectic conditions or to cardiac or other complications treatment this must be adjusted to the pathological conditions of the patient as already indicated, two classes of paper are met. One marked byexhaustion, with tendency to death by syncope. The other, a state ofor tendency to cerebral congestion or apoplectic conditions exactlyopposite methods of treatment are demanded in the first, frequencyand feebleness of the heart action, with faintness of the heartsounds and embarrassment of respiration, indicate the tendency todeath by nervous exhaustion, and must be met by placing the patientin a condition of absolute rest and quiet in a cool place stimulantsmust be promptly administered, though cautiously on account of thetendency to nausea and vomiting hypodermic injections of alcohol orether, or rectal enemata of turpentine, alcohol, or other stimulants, afford means of securing speedy effects when the stomach is irritable carbonate of ammonia and other cardiac stimulants are recommended depleting agents, or such as prove depressing, are to be avoided inessay paper, hypodermic injections of small doses of morphine provebeneficial individual paper must modify therapeutic procedures in the second class of paper the tendency to cerebral congestionindicates sedative and depleting procedures blood-letting has beenrecommended by essay authors, if employed with extreme judgment anddiscrimination 695 cold applied to the head and also to the wholebody by rubbing with ice696 or by effusion and the wet sheet, orother means, is indicated if the temperature is high 104° to 105° f active catharsis, by promptly acting purgative enemata, is also to beresorted to in most paper the convulsions occurring in essay paper aresuccessfully modified and controlled by inhalations of small quantitiesof chloroform post-mortem appearances these, though not clearly characteristic, are pronounced in essay paperno distinct conditions are found 697 local congestions are present innearly all paper upon the skin are found petechial and livid spots, pallor being occasionally noted ecchymoses and subserous hemorrhagesare also common these conditions have been described as resemblingthose of spotted typhus levick rigor mortis is marked and occurs early, putrefaction beginning soonafter death the lungs are highly congested and often œdematous, andeffusions of serum are frequently found in the pleural cavities 698the heart is usually changed in color and consistence, with the leftventricle contracted and the aorta empty, while the right ventricleand pulmonary arteries are dilated and engorged the blood is fluidand dark 699 the large vessels of the pia and dura are full ofdark blood congestion of the cerebral mass is not always noted theventricles contain serum. And extravasations of blood into the cervicalsympathetic ganglia and vagus are essaytimes found the kidneys areusually moist and œdematous. The liver and spleen congested and dry burns and scalds for all purposes of practice it is unnecessary to draw any distinctionbetween a burn and a scald, for in reality none exists, except asregards the nature of the causative agent in essay paper requiringinvestigation, this may prove to be a matter of much importance definition - a burn is an injury produced by the application to thebody of a heated substance, flame or radiant heat a scald is an injury produced by the application of a liquid at ornear its boiling-point appearances as indicating origin a hot body may produce a burn of any intensity, ranging betweenreddening of the skin and complete charring of the tissues, accordingas its temperature is elevated and the period of contact prolonged. Theshape of the object and its size being indicated by the form of theburn metallic substances heated to a temperature of 100° c 212° f are capable of producing redness and vesication and other injuriouseffects at this temperature the albuminous elements of the blood andother fluids undergo coagulation essay bodies require to be heated toredness, or nearly so, in order to produce a defined burn very hot and writingially-fused solids cause burns of greater severitythan where the heated body is of a character favoring prompt removal in such paper their adhesion to the skin involves the tearing awayof the superficial portions of the derma in their removal, or theyby their adherence prolong the contact of the heated body, thusintensifying their destructive action metals in a state of fusion produce burns which cannot be easilydistinguished from those caused by solid bodies such burns are classedas scalds their effects may vary in any degree between slight rednessand complete destruction of the tissues with charring burns caused bymelted solids are less regular in form and outline than those caused byheated solids they are usually of greater severity on account of thehigh temperature to which they have been raised 700boiling water - scalds by boiling water may be so slight as toproduce redness only, or they may be so severe as to cause marked andcharacteristic symptoms those noted in severe paper are an ashy hueof the skin, accompanied by a soaked or sodden appearance and theproduction of blisters occasionally these features are not easilydistinguished from those of burns from other sources blackening of theskin and charring of the tissues never result from burns by boilingwater as in all burns, a large surface involved renders an early fatalissue probable in severe paper, not necessarily fatal, gangrene of thewritings injured essaytimes occurs most of those met with are accidental, yet paper of scalding by hot water with intent to injure are notuncommon, aside from injuries and death resulting from explosionof boilers, bursting of steam-pipes, etc occasional instances arerecorded of death of children, the insane or feeble persons byinadvertent immersion in a bath of hot water case 21 severe and fatal burns of the mouth, fauces, and larynx in youngchildren occur from inhaling steam or swallowing boiling water from ateapot or kettle in an attempt to drink case 5 burns by burning oil produce effects and appearances similar to thoseby melted metals burns by flame are specially characterized by scorching of thesurface hairs upon the writing actually burned are scorched and usuallyalso those in the vicinity of the burned patches such conditionscould not result from scalds by hot water, boiling oil, or from a hotbody only burns by petroleum or its derivatives resemble the burns from flame, except that the injured portions of the body are not only scorched butblackened and are usually burned more severely than by flame alone, asthe clothing holds the burning substance in contact with the writings theodor of the agent is also very noticeable burns by acids and corrosive agents - the injury produced by amineral acid, the caustic alkalies, etc , has frequently been thesource of judicial inquiry “vitriol-throwing, ” as it has been termed, has been and occasionally is resorted to with malicious intent toinjure no case of death resulting directly and solely from this causeis recorded, but grave injuries, involving loss of sight, etc , haveresulted a case is referred to by taylor701 where sulphuric acidwas poured into the ear of a woman while asleep by her husband deathensued, after six weeks, from disease of the brain resulting indirectlyfrom the use of the acid the appearances of a burn by a mineral acid are distinguished from heatburns with little difficulty the eschar which results is not dry andleathery, as in a burn by heat, but soft and readily sloughing away there is no redness around the site of the injury, the color of theburn being uniform, and no blisters are formed there is no blackeningof the skin and the hairs are not scorched the color of the skinaround the injured portion may afford valuable evidence of the natureof the agent employed nitric acid produces a yellow stain, sulphuricacid a dark brown, and chlorohydric acid a brownish-yellow stain 702the clothing also is capable of affording characteristic evidence bythe discolorations produced. And the destructive agent employed may bedetermined by a chemical analysis of the fabric 703it is not possible to distinguish a post-mortem from an ante-mortemburn by an acid when no vital reaction has taken place the classification of burns a classification of burns according to the severity of the injuryinflicted is the most practical course upon this plan, burns may bedivided into four general classes:i burns in which the skin or subcutaneous cellular tissues only areinjured ii burns which involve the muscles, nerves, and blood-vessels iii burns involving the internal organs and bones iv burns in which the other three classes are variously mixed class i - the skin in paper such as may occur from a brief contact witha hot body or water near the boiling-point shows a slight redness orscorching with no enduring mark pain is considerable class ii - in the mildest paper the cutis is destroyed in its wholethickness, and the writings injured are occupied by eschars of ayellowish-gray or brownish color the surrounding skin is reddened, and the formation of blisters occurs either immediately or after aninterval of a few hours in these paper a shining cicatrix remainsafter the healing, without contraction of surrounding writings in theseverer paper the subcutaneous cellular tissue and underlying musclesand nerves are destroyed the blackish eschars formed are insensibleand separate by suppurative process, leaving a granulating surfacebelow extensive redness of surrounding tissues, with more or lessvesication, is usually noted the resulting cicatrices, together withthe skin and adjoining structures, are prone to contraction, resultingin considerable deformity, according to location and extent so greatis the deformity in injuries of the extremities, or even essay writings ofthe head and trunk, that extensive surgical operations become necessaryto relieve it class iii - burns of this class are so severe that an immediatelyfatal issue is usually the result such instances involve a prolongedexposure to flame or to a source of intense heat the appearancesdescribed as belonging to the preceding class are in writing found herewith the addition of charring or carbonizing the writings destroyed effects of burns the effects of burns may be considered as i , local, and ii , constitutional local effects - in different instances the effects vary in accordancewith the extent and severity of the burn redness, blisters, destruction of the cuticle and of the subcutaneous cellular tissue, blackening of the skin, scorching of the hair, and roasting of portionsof the body are met with in varying degrees in essay severe paper allthese are found upon a single body the redness produced varies inintensity and extent, according to the nature of the agent producingthe burn, its form, and the length of time the writing was exposed very soon after the infliction of the burn a special line of rednessappears between the burned writings and the uninjured skin this red lineof demarcation is formed by intensely injected vessels and becomes avery important medico-legal sign in essay paper the vesication may besingle or multiple, consisting of one or two large and full blistersor a number of large and small ones, scattered over the portionsburned, essay unbroken and still holding their contents, others brokenand denuded of cuticle or with breaks from which their serum hasescaped upon the surrounding writings in essay paper of burning cracksor fissures in the skin occur, due to the effect of the heat, makingit dry and brittle and causing it to rupture by the movements of thepatient case 8 these fissures are most frequently noted in proximityto the joints 704 they resemble wounds, and it occurs occasionallythat it is important to accurately distinguish their character inessay paper the skin only is fissured. In others the subjacent tissuesare also involved this difference depends upon the depth of the burn in the first condition the skin splits, leaving the subcutaneous fatexposed, which in essay instances is writingially melted by the heat andflows out over the edge of the crack upon the surrounding skin paper8, 13 the blood-vessels in such paper usually are not burned and, owing to their elasticity, remain stretching across the fissure case14 the smaller may be seen by careful examination with a lens:they should always be looked for in the second class of injuriesthe vessels are involved in the burn and break with the cracking ofthe skin the importance of careful observation of these fissures isemphasized in paper of apparent wounds associated with burning it maybe necessary to decide whether the wounds are the result of the actionof heat as above described or were caused by essay sharp instrument orweapon careful inspection of the edges of the wounds will show whetherthey are ragged, as the result of fissure, or clean-cut by essay sharpinstrument the absence of evidences indicating hemorrhage upon thesurrounding writings and the detection of uncut blood-vessels extendingacross the fissure will establish the differential diagnosis wounds ofthe above character resulting from the action of fire may exist on thesame body with wounds of actual violence it is important, therefore, in all paper to examine each wound with special care and record itsposition, shape, depth, and other characteristics constitutional effects - as in all sudden and violent injuries, theeffect of a severe burn upon the nervous system is very marked thisis manifest in the symptoms of “shock, ” with pallor and coldness ofthe surface of the body, a feeble pulse, chills or shivering, and atendency to collapse in other paper, proving immediately fatal, thesesymptoms are followed by obstructed respiration with death from comasucceeding in other paper convulsions precede death, while in such asare not immediately fatal a reaction more or less imperfect ensues uponthe first constitutional symptoms death from cerebral congestion or effusion may result before anydefinite evidence of reaction appears in essay instances pulmonarycongestion or œdema occurs, with or without pleural effusion, terminating in death before reaction this period usually coversthe first two days in essay paper immediate death results fromthe depression produced by the severity of the pain during thesubsequent two weeks a period of inflammatory reaction succeeds, wheninflammations of the thoracic and abdominal viscera, with ulcerativeprocesses in essay organs, are developed and induce a fatal termination paper 10, 11, 16 causes of death the causes of death are due to several conditions this factis explained in writing by the relation which exists between thecerebro-spinal and sympathetic nervous systems, and of the nervoussupply of the surface to that of the internal organs, which in paperof extensive injury proportionately modify the conditions of thevisceral organs as death in burning results from various causes, it isconvenient to consider them under two classes:1st those immediately fatal 2d those fatal after an interval the first division would include paper in which the deprivation offresh air and the presence of asphyxiating products of combustion carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were the immediate causes of deathby suffocation or asphyxia paper 9, 18 accidents in endeavoring to escape or injuries by falling wallsor timbers may cause death immediately, and burning the body occursubsequently immediate death may result from syncope or collapse from theviolence of the shock to the nervous system by the pain resulting fromthe burns the second division includes those conditions where death may resultearly, from a series of causes less immediate than those just mentioned cerebral congestion and effusion, resulting in death from coma, is not unusual case 15 in this connection taylor705 cites a caseof alleged poisoning by opium, in the treatment of a burn, in a childdying comatose, and emphasizes the undesirability of administeringopium or its preparations to children in paper of burns of anyseverity the danger claimed to exist is hardly to be considered in the case referred to, abernethy, who was a witness in the case, ascribed death to coma induced by the effect of the burn thepowerfully depressing influence of the pain in sensitive organizationsand liability to death from shock therefrom must be remembered inflammatory conditions of the respiratory tract or organs arecommon results. Pneumonia, bronchitis, and sudden congestion orœdema of the lungs are frequent paper 11, 15, 16 inflammation of the intestines, inducing peritonitis andulcerations of the intestines with or without resulting hemorrhage, occurs as a frequent lesion case 10 gangrene or septicæmia causes death in other instances exhaustion, from extensive and prolonged suppuration or from severeand long-continued pain and other conditions, terminates other paper case 12 legally, burns and scalds are included among injuries endangering life, but are not described as wounds they may be considered dangerousaccording to the extent of surface which they cover, rather than thedepth to which they involve the tissues the extensive injury to the sensory nerve structures and thesuspension of function or destruction of a considerable portion of theperspiratory tracts render large superficial burns far more fatal thanthose confined to a small writing of a limb, for example, which may bedeeply burned from a medico-legal point it is desirable to establishthe fact of how large a surface must be injured to prove fatal theeffort to reduce the subject to a statement of an exact minimum area ofsquare inches seems very objectionable and liable to lead to erroneousconclusions it is possible to make a general statement, subject to essayqualifications, which may serve as a basis of conclusion, as eachindividual case must be considered in its own circumstances a burn involving two-thirds of the body may be regarded as necessarilyfatal. But the injury of a much less proportion, even one-fourth ofthe surface, has resulted in death the qualifications to be madein burns of less extent are pronounced the writing affected is ofmuch importance burns of the trunk are more fatal than those of theextremities. And those of the genital organs706 and lower writing of theabdomen are especially so case 7 the character of the burn, whether single and continuous or multipleand scattered over various portions of the body, is a very importantmodifying circumstance, involving the questions of excessive pain andthe difficulty in insuring necessary treatment for all writings injured the physical condition of the patient and sensitiveness of the nervoussystem to pain exert a powerfully determining influence burns inchildren and sensitive, nervous females are specially serious and callfor an unfavorable prognosis spontaneous combustion - spontaneous combustion of the human bodyhas been seriously discussed in this connection, and explanations ofpopularly reported paper have been attempted the writer refers tothe subject here for the sole purpose of stating that no trustworthyevidence of the possibility of any such condition or result exists treatment in paper of severe burns the constitutional as well as the localconditions demand attention locally, a great variety of applicationshas been employed.

Itstrengthens the nerves, opens the pores, corrects the blood, itcorrects and provokes the menses you may take a spoonful of it at atime syrupus de betonica compositus or syrup of bettony compound college take of writing help for kids bettony three handfuls, marjoram four handfuls anda half, thyme, red roses, of each a handful, violets, stœchas, sage, of each half a handful, the seeds of fennel, annis, and ammi, of eachhalf an ounce, the roots of peons, polypodium, and fennel, of each fivedrams, boil them in six pounds of river water, to three pounds, strainit, and add juice of bettony two pounds, sugar three pounds and a half, make it into a syrup culpeper it helps diseases coming of cold, both in the head andstomach, as also such as come of wind, vertigos, madness. It concoctsmelancholy, it provokes the menses, and so doth the simple syrup morethan the compound syrupus byzantinus, simple college take of the juice of the leaves of endive and smallage, of each two pounds, of hops and bugloss, of each one pound, boil themtogether and scum them, and to the clarified liquor, add four pounds ofwhite sugar, to as much of the juices, and with a gentle fire boil itto a syrup syrupus byzantinus, compound college take of the juices so ordered as in the former, fourpounds, in which boil red roses, two ounces, liquorice half an ounce, the seeds of annis, fennel, and smallage, of each three drams, spikenard two drams, strain it, and to the three pounds remaining, add two pounds of vinegar, four pounds of sugar, make it into a syrupaccording to art culpeper they both of them viz both simple and compoundopen stoppings of the stomach, liver, and spleen, help the ricketsin children, cut and bring away tough flegm, and help the yellowjaundice you may take them with a liquorice stick, or take a spoonfulin the morning fasting syrupus botryos or syrup of oak of jerusalem college take of oak of jerusalem, hedge-mustard, nettles, of eachtwo handfuls, colt-foot, one handful and a half, boil them in asufficient quantity of clear water till half be consumed. To two poundsof the decoction, add two pounds of the juice of turnips baked in anoven in a close pot, and with three pounds of white sugar, boil it intoa syrup culpeper this syrup was composed against coughs, shortness ofbreath, and other the like infirmities of the breast proceeding ofcold, for which if you can get it you may take it with a liquoricestick syrupus capillorum veneris or syrup of maiden-hair college take of liquorice two ounces, maiden-hair five ounces, steep them a natural day in four pounds of warm water, then aftergentle boiling, and strong straining, with a pound and a half of finesugar make it into a syrup culpeper it opens stoppings of the stomach, strengthens the lungs, and helps the infirmities of them this may be taken also either witha liquorice stick, or mixed with the pectoral decoction like syrup ofcoltsfoot syrupus cardiacus, vel julepum cardiacum or a cordial syrup college take of rhenish wine two pounds, rose water two ounces anda half, cloves two scruples, cinnamon half a dram, ginger two scruples, sugar three ounces and a half, boil it to the consistence of a julep, adding ambergris three grains, musk one grain culpeper if you would have this julep keep long, you may put inmore sugar, and yet if close stopped, it will not easily corruptbecause it is made up only of wine, indeed the wisest way is to orderthe quantity of sugar according to the palate of him that takes it itrestores such as are in consumptions, comforts the heart, cherishes thedrooping spirits, and is of an opening quality, thereby carrying awaythose vapours which might otherwise annoy the brain and heart. You maytake an ounce at a time, or two if you please syrupus infusionis florum cariophillorum or syrup of clove-gilliflowers college take a pound of clove-gilliflowers, the whites being cutoff, infuse them a whole night in two pounds of water, then with fourpounds of sugar melted in it, make it into a syrup without boiling culpeper this syrup is a fine temperate syrup.

The presence or absence ofcrystalline matter, foreign substances, undigested food or alcohol portions of the contents should be placed in a small glass writing help for kids bottle andsealed, so that at a future time they may be examined microscopically only in this way can an absolute knowledge of the character of thestomach contents be obtained in certain medico-legal paper the abilityto decide the character of the stomach contents is of the utmostimportance the mucous membranes of the stomach and duodenum must benext carefully examined for evidences of hemorrhages, erosions, tumors, and of acute or chronic inflammations the appearance of the rugæ andtheir interspaces, principally in the region of the greater curvature, should be noted. Because here traces of poison and its effects aremost frequently seen if the stomach is inflamed, the seat of theinflammation should be exactly specified, as also that of any unusualcoloration the condition of the blood-vessels are also noted vascularity orredness of the stomach after death should not be confounded with theeffects of poison or the marks of disease it may occur in everyvariety of degree or character and still be within normal limits vascularities which we might call normal are seen in the posterior writingof the greater end and in the lesser curvature, and may cover spacesof various extent rigot and trosseau have proven by experiment thatvarious kinds of pseudo-morbid redness may be formed which cannot bedistinguished from the varieties caused by inflammation. That theseappearances are produced after death and often not until five or eighthours afterward, and that they may be made to shift their place andappear where the organ was previously healthy, merely by altering theposition of the stomach ulcers, or perforations of the stomach as theresults of disease, as also the digestion of the stomach after death, have been mistaken for the effects of irritant poisons when perforation of the stomach is the result of caustic poisons, theedges of the opening are very irregular, and are of the same thicknessas the rest of the organ the writings not perforated are more or lessinflamed, and traces of the action of the caustic are found in themouth, pharynx, and œsophagus this is the opposite condition to thatseen in spontaneous perforation in considering perforation of the stomach the following points given bytaylor are well to remember. 1 a person may have died from perforation of the stomach and not frompoisoning 2 a person laboring under disease may be the subject of poison 3 a person laboring under disease may have received blows orinjuries on the abdomen, and it will be necessary to state whether theperforation did or did not result from the violence 4 the perforation of the stomach from post-mortem changes may bemistaken for perforations from poison corrosives, if they do not produce perforation of stomach, willgenerally cause intense inflammation accompanied by softening of theinner coat, essaytimes ending in gangrene the inflammation varies as toits extent and intensity, essaytimes affecting principally the mouth andœsophagus, but generally the changes are more pronounced in the stomachand duodenum, while in rare paper the inflammatory process may extendthrough the whole alimentary canal the mucous membranes are essaytimesbright red with longitudinal or transverse patches of a blackish color, formed by extravasated blood between the coats carbolic acid oftenproduces in the stomach and œsophagus white patches when these patchesare carefully examined, an ulcerated surface beneath them is generallyseen narcotic poisons - it is a common but mistaken idea that thesepoisons produce essay mark or characteristic effect upon the stomachwalls. That they induce a rapid tendency to putrefaction. That theblood is in a fluid state. That hemorrhages are seen in variouswritings. That the stomach and intestines show sloughing without anyinflammation essay of these conditions may and probably do occur, butthey are far from being invariable in their appearance experimentsmade by orfila on animals with narcotic poisons prove the abovestatement in conclusion, i would emphasize the fact that the narcoticpoisons produce no characteristic changes in the stomach that can bedetected the liver - the liver should be removed from the body and no attemptmade to examine the organ in situ after raising first one lobe andthen the other, the diaphragm should be cut on either side and thesuspensory and lateral ligaments divided, then the organ can easilybe removed the weight of the organ is ascertained, as also themeasurements of its size recorded the normal weight is from fifty tosixty ounces the organ is normally about twelve inches in length byseven inches in depth by three and one-half inches in thickness the gall bladder is first examined to determine the character andamount of the bile and the presence or absence of gall stones, inflammatory lesions, and tumors at autopsies the surface of the liver, especially along the freeborder, is generally seen to be of a greenish or dark-brown color this discoloration is due to the action of the gases developedby decomposition on the coloring matter of the blood, and has nopathological significance the character of the surface of the liveris now noted, whether smooth or rough the organ is opened by deepincisions in various directions, and the color, consistency, and bloodsupply of the liver tissue carefully recorded the presence of newconnective tissue, amyloid degeneration, abscesses, or tumors shouldnot be overlooked it should be remembered that, of all the poisons, phosphorus alone leaves characteristic appearances in the liver the pancreas - the pancreas is now easily removed, and its size andweight recorded normally it should weigh three ounces and measureeight inches in length by one and one-half inches in breadth by oneinch in thickness the organ should be opened by a longitudinal cut andexamined for evidences of acute or chronic inflammation, fat-necrosis, tumors, calculi, and amyloid degeneration genito-urinary organs - it is very important in medico-legal paperthat all the urine should be preserved and obtained uncontaminated;therefore before the bladder is opened a catheter should be introducedand the urine drawn off into a clean bottle which has previously beenrinsed with distilled water if more convenient the bladder itself canbe punctured at its upper portion, a pipette introduced, and the urinedrawn off in this manner the genito-urinary organs are removed together this is done in thefollowing manner the body of the penis is pushed backward within theskin and cut off just behind the glans penis. The remaining portion ofthe rectum is raised this with the prostate gland, bladder, and penisattached is removed by carrying the knife around the pelvis close tothe bone and separating the pubic attachments the organs are then laidon a clean board and the urethra is opened on a grooved director passedinto the bladder, and the incision prolonged so that the internalsurface of the bladder itself will be completely exposed examine theurethra for strictures, inflammatory lesions, and ulcers examinethe bladder for congestion, hemorrhages, inflammation, and ulcersof its mucous surface, and note the thickness of its walls open therectum and examine for ulcers, strictures, tumors, and the evidenceof hemorrhage the prostate gland is opened by a number of incisionsinto its substance examine for hypertrophies, tumors, and inflammatorylesions force the testicles through the inguinal canal, and cutthem off weigh, open, and examine them for evidence of inflammation, tuberculosis, and tumors female organs - before removing these organs, any abnormalities suchas adhesions, malpositions, and tumors should be noted dissect theorgans away from the pelvic bones by carrying the point of the knifearound the pelvis close to the bone cut through the vagina at itslower third, and the rectum just above the anus the organs can nowreadily be removed examine the vulva for ulcers, hypertrophies, andtumors open and examine the bladder open the vagina along itsanterior border and carefully examine its mucous surface for evidencesof inflammation the uterus - before opening the uterus, its size and shape should berecorded the average normal weight of the organ is about one andone-quarter ounces. Its length three inches, breadth two inches, andthickness one inch open the organ along its anterior surface by ablunt-pointed scissors passed through the cervix, and the incisioncarried as far as the fundus note the thickness of its walls and anyabnormalities of its mucous membrane during menstruation, the mucousmembrane of the body is thickened, softened, and covered with bloodand detritus retention cysts are found in the mucous membrane of thecervix and are not generally of pathological significance remove, measure, and weigh the ovaries their normal weight is aboutone drachm each. Their size, one and one-half, by three-quarters, byone-half inch open the organs by a single incision and examine forthe evidences of acute and chronic inflammations, tumors, and cysts the corpora lutea in various stages can be easily recognized in thesubstance of the organ open the fallopian tubes and examine theircontents and the condition of their membranes see disputed pregnancyand delivery, vol ii the spinal cord to remove the cord, the body should be placed on its face with a blockbeneath the thorax an incision is made through the skin and musclesalong the entire length of the vertebral column and the soft writingsdissected away so as to expose the transverse process of the vertebræ the lamina are divided with a saw through the articulate process adouble-bladed saw specially adapted for this work can be obtained after the lamina have been completely severed, these together with thespinous process can now be readily torn away with a stout hook and thecord exposed a long chisel with a wooden mallet will often greatlyfacilitate this work great care should be exercised not to injurethe cord the roots of the spinal nerves are now severed, and thecord removed within its membrane it should be remembered that serousfluid within the membranes of the cord, as also intense congestion, especially along its posterior aspect, is often seen as the result ofpost-mortem change the cord is laid on a clean board and the duramater opened with a blunt-pointed scissors along its anterior aspect, and an examination made for the presence of hemorrhage, inflammatorylesions, and tumors softening of the cord can generally be detected bythe finger passed along it this, however, is not a perfectly accuratetest, especially if the body has been dead essay time the cord isnow cut by transverse incisions about half an inch awriting throughoutits entire length, and the cut surface examined for the evidences ofdisease such as hemorrhages, softening, and inflammatory lesions after the cord has been removed, examine the vertebral column for theevidences of fractures and displacements late autopsies late autopsies are those performed after writingial or completedestruction of the soft writings of the body, through the naturalprocesses of decomposition, or the examination of bones exhumed longafter interment the term may be employed also to mean the inspectionof an embalmed body, dead for essay time the object of late autopsies is to determine identity, or to establishthe guilt or innocence of suspected persons an examination of theskeleton even thesis years after death may give important information asto the manner in which the deceased came to his end this cannot betterbe illustrated than by the citation of one or two paper in the celebrated case of “eugene aram, ” the bones of his victim werediscovered thirteen years after the crime had been committed a man whoafterward proved to be aram accomplice was arrested on suspicion heconfessed the crime, and the opinion formed by the medical witnesseswas confirmed by his statements the skull presented evidence offracture and indentation of a temporal bone aram argued the case inhis own behalf, but the testimony was too strong against him. He wasconvicted and executed taylor records the case of a man, guerin, who was convicted of themurder of his brother from evidence obtained from an examination of theskeleton three years after interment here, again, blows upon the headwere the cause of death, and the fractures were plainly perceptibleupon the exhumed skull an autopsy upon a body before the soft writings have been entirelydestroyed, or upon an embalmed body, should be conducted in muchthe same manner as ordinary autopsies in these paper the method ofburial should be noted if it be a case of murder, and the body hasbeen hurriedly put into the ground, it is not likely that the customof christian nations has been observed that of laying the body fulllength, with the head to the west in the case of writingially destroyed bodies, the remaining soft writingswill give little evidence of the mode of death unless the violence hasbeen very extensive, and even then it may be impossible to determinewhether a wound was inflicted prior to or after death recourse mustbe had to the skeleton, and the only evidence it can furnish is offractures, unless, as happened in one case, a rope be found about thecervical vertebræ when the skeleton only is found, taylor lays stress upon the followingpoints. 1 whether the bones belong to a human being or one of the loweranimals 2 if a human being, whether male or female 3 the length of time they have probably remained in the ground 4 the probable age of the individual to whom they belonged if themaxillary bones be found, much information may be obtained from anexamination of the teeth 5 the probable stature of the individual during life 6 the race to which he belonged the conformation of the skull andthickness of the bones will give important information on this point 7 it should be determined whether solitary bones belong to the rightor left side, and whether they form writings of one or more than oneskeleton 8 whether they have been fractured, and if so, whether it occurredduring life, or by accident at the time of the exhumation if itoccurred during life, whether it be recent or of long standing 9 the presence or absence of personal deformities, of supernumeraryfingers or toes, of curvature of the spine, of ankylosis of one or morejoints 10 whether they have been calcined, as murderers essaytimes try tomake away with the bodies of their victims by burning especially isthis the case in infanticides see identity, vol i , p 408 et seq ;time of death, vol i , p 452 et seq autopsies of fragments these paper are usually paper of murder in the perpetration of whichthe criminal has mutilated the body with a view to destroying alltraces of identity the importance which attaches to autopsies of fragments rests uponthe fact that writings of a body may be found widely separated, and thatone portion may be found before the others in such paper it will benecessary to determine if they belong to one and the same body theexamination is conducted chiefly with a view to establishing this the examiner must note the manner in which the fragment has beenseparated.

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But thetest must be framed so as to make it really crucial most clinicaltherapeutic evidence falls far short of this the “blind test” is urgedto meet the deficiencies -- from the journal a m a , july 21, 1917 “vaccines in toxic conditions” commercialized propaganda in the guise of scienceunder the title “vaccines in toxic conditions, ” what purports to bea scientific contribution appears in the original dewritingment of theofficial organ of a state medical society 311 the apparent purpose ofthe article is to overcome any hesitancy on the writing of practitionersto use vaccines in toxic infectious conditions for fear that theymight thereby cause harm such a thesis is interesting and might beimportant-- if true two outstanding facts, however, give pause first, the theory promulgated is contrary to the experience of those whohave studied the subject. Second, the man who writes the article isin the business of making and selling vaccines!. the former fact is amatter of fairly general knowledge among the better informed membersof the medical profession. The latter fact is nowhere made evident inthe article, which the reader might infer came from a disinterestedinvestigator in the realms of immunology 311 sherman, g h. Vaccines in toxic conditions, illinois m j 38:314 oct 1920 the article purports to prove that the special investigations carriedon by its author show that there is no basis for the well-groundedfear that vaccines might be harmful to a patient suffering from toxicinfectious conditions thus. From a closer study of these infective processes we find that this toxic condition is due to the rapid multiplication of the infecting organisms with the incidental production of ferments which the germs secrete to digest the food on which they live these toxic ferments have a distinct destructive tendency on tissue cells, without any marked influence in stimulating tissue cells for antibody production the crying need, however, in these extensive acute infections is rapid antibody formation to neutralize these germ-produced poisons and to eliminate the germs now vaccines, we are informed, are not toxic and so stimulate theproduction of antibodies in other words, the same organism that inthe body is toxic and without marked antigenic properties becomesnontoxic and actively antigenic when converted into a vaccine thedetails of the experiments of the “closer study” made by the author ofthis paper and the manufacturer of vaccines which give such definiteand convincing results are not published possibly the article is apreliminary contribution, and future issues of the same publicationwill carry further articles on the same subject the follow-up systemis well recognized in the advertising world at all events, this“closer study” has convinced the author of the article that. even in extreme toxic conditions, in acute infections, bacterial vaccines may be employed without the least fear of doing any harm in fact, we find that in extreme acute infections, bacterial vaccines not only give the best clinical results, but they may also be given in larger doses at shorter intervals with less reactions than in minor or chronic infections and the earlier they are given the better the results here again no details are given. There are no comparative results ofthe careful study of a series of paper the sum and substance of thisremarkable contribution to a scientific publication is to the effect 1 that the organism that in the body is toxic becomes nontoxic whenintroduced in vaccine form. 2 that the organism that in the body isbut little antigenic becomes when introduced in vaccine form activelyantigenic, and 3 that “in extreme acute infections” when the bodyis affected profoundly by the infectious agent and its product, theoftener and the more one injects of these very materials, the betterthe results!.