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“up to the present time i have apparently cured cancer of the face, eye, nose, lip, mouth, tongue, stomach, bowel, bladder, breast and uterus ”in addition to the circular, was a small leaflet giving directions forthe injection of the serum and also a card bearing dr glover nameand toronto address and reading. -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- | this is to advise you that dr t j glover serum | | for the treatment of cancer can now be had by | | application to office at above address | | | | price five dollars per treatment five treatments | | minimum number sent at one time | | | | send money by post-office money order or certified cheque | | | | directions for treatment with each order | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- this advertising material, which is evidently being widely circulatedin the united states, would indicate that the glover researchlaboratory had received a permit from the united states public healthservice licensing the interstate sale of this serum in the unitedstates no such license has been issued the journal briefly reported in the dewritingment of medical news, oct 30, 1920, that the academy of medicine of toronto had appointed acommittee to investigate the claims made for the glover “cancer serum ”in the meantime, the most charitable thing that can be said is that the“treatment” is in the experimental stage and the reported results havenot been corroborated by independent investigators -- from the journala m a , jan 1, 1921 the toronto academy of medicine reports unfavorably on glover cancer serumthe method of exploitation of the alleged cancer serum being put outby dr t j glover of toronto, canada, was briefly discussed in thisdewritingment of the journal for january 1 at that time it was pointedout that the medical profession of the united states was being widelycircularized by dr glover and that, while the letters purported tocome from toronto, they were, in fact, mailed from new york city sincethis article appeared the circularization seems to have continuedundiminished and physicians in various writings of the united states havesent in the glover advertising material oddly enough, the matter nowsent out, while identical in every respect with that dealt with inthe previous article, bears a different return address on the back ofthe envelop the envelops are the same. But the legend “t j gloverresearch laboratory, 538 jarvis st , toronto, canada, ” has been crudelycrossed out and there has been substituted by means of a rubber stampthe legend “mrs stewart, 309 w 54th st , new york ” still laterletters have been modified to the extent that the letters “rs” of“mrs ” have been cut out of the stamp and it now reads “m   stewart ”there has now come to hand a report just published by a specialcommittee appointed by the council of the academy of medicine, toronto, to investigate the glover serum the report of this committee may besummed up by one of its closing paragraphs, which reads. “the data which your committee has been able to obtain have not convinced it that the results of treatment obtained by the use of dr glover serum are better than those obtained by similar methods introduced by others, and which have ultimately disappointed the hopes entertained of them ”the committee report deals with the claims that dr glover has madefor his serum, both experimental and clinical it seems that dr glover has claimed that, experimentally, he had 1 cultured cancercells and from these cells had isolated and cultured an organism whichhe declared was confined to, and present in, every type of cancer. 2 produced cancer in a number of animals by inoculation with thesecells and organisms. 3 obtained a serum-- from a horse that had beeninjected with cultures of these cells and organisms-- which, wheninjected into experimental animals rendered them immune to inoculation, and 4 produced improvement or cure in paper of human cancer by theinjection of his serum the committee reported that it was unableto obtain any evidence to substantiate dr glover claims on theexperimental aspect of the question as dr glover had refused to permitrepresentatives of the committee to visit his laboratory. Had refusedthe request of the committee to be allowed to examine his cultures andexperimental material. Had not acceded to the request of the committeethat he demonstrate his ability to culture cancer cells and organismsand to produce cancer by inoculation or to immunize animals against it the committee attempted also to collect information which wouldenable it to pass on the clinical claims made by dr glover, first, as to whether he has succeeded in producing cures, either regularlyor occasionally, in paper definitely established as cancer and, second, to enable the committee to decide whether his serum in paperdefinitely established as cancer produces improvement beyond that whichoccasionally occurs spontaneously or under palliative measures on bothof these points, the committee reported that it found no evidence towarrant the hope that a specific cure for cancer has been discovered bydr glover or that the serum had produced a cure in any case definitelyestablished as cancer it should be understood, that the committee investigations andfindings were completed before the present advertising campaign of theglover serum was initiated -- from the journal a m a, feb 5, 1921 glyco-thymoline and poliomyelitisone characteristic of the “patent medicine” business is that it tradeson fear should an epidemic occur the market is flooded with newnostrums purporting to cure or prevent the disease in question, whilethe manufacturers of older “patent medicines” revamp their advertisingso as to make it appear that their preparations are all that standbetween the scourge and the public one has but to remember “peruna”exploitation of the yellow fever epidemic in new orleans essay years agoand the way in which the exploiters of “pond extract” played on thefears of the public at the time of the former meningitis epidemic innew york city at present the public is much exercised over the epidemic of infantileparalysis anticipating that the nostrum fraternity would attempt toreap a golden harvest from the public distress, the federal officialsissued a bulletin of warning on the subject naturally, the bulletinwas addressed to the lay public, the government assuming thatphysicians knew enough to avoid being misled by any such advertisingcampaigns apparently, the assumption is too broad at any rate, themanufacturers of “glyco-thymoline” are circularizing physicians, one ofwhom writes as follows. To the editor:-- i am enclosing circular letter that i received this morning which seems to me almost a crime i do not suppose that there is any way to prevent anything of this sort, but it is certainly a shame to attempt to deceive people in this way as i recollect, glyco-thymoline is almost inert, practically no more efficient than dobell solution e fletcher ingals, m d , chicago the circular letter referred to was on the stationery of kress & owencompany, manufacturers of glyco-thymoline it read.

And by other laws similar privileges were granted tothe so-called eclectic school after the passage of the act of 1844, down to about 1874, as hereinbefore stated, there was no limitationupon the right to practise medicine or surgery in this state the inharmonious and injurious effect of such policy of the statebecoming manifest, the legislature, by chapter 436 of laws of 1874, required all persons desiring to practise medicine or surgery toobtain a certificate as to their qualifications from the censors ofessay one of these medical societies by the laws of 1880, chapter 513, additional and more extensive and writingicular provisions were made inreference to this matter, and all the physicians then practising wererequired, on or before the time limited in the act, to file with thecounty clerks of their respective counties their licenses to practisegranted by the censors of their county medical societies, or a diplomaof essay chartered school of medicine. And those persons who desiredto become licensed who were not in practice were likewise required toobtain similar licenses or certificates and file the same a diplomaof a chartered school or medical college was given the same effect as alicense issued by the censors recent legislation in new york state - the whole matter, however, of licensing physicians to practise has, in the state of new york, been recently regulated by chapter 468, laws of 1889, and 499 of 1890, which have reference to the qualifications of persons becoming medicalstudents, and chapter 507 of 1890, which gives to the regents of theuniversity of the state of new york power to select boards of examinersfrom persons nominated by each of the three state medical societies, viz , the new york state medical society, homœopathic medical society, and eclectic medical society these boards prepare questions which areto be approved by the state board of regents. Examinations are heldin different writings of the state upon these questions, the examinationpapers are certified to that one of these boards of examiners whichthe student may elect, and that board in turn certifies whether ornot the examination has been successfully undergone. And upon itscertificate the board of regents licenses the student to practise, andhis examination papers are filed in the office of the board of regentsand become a matter of record these provisions have been enlarged andmodified slightly by various statutes since enacted they are all nowembodied in chapter 601 of laws of 1893 they will be found carefullysynopsized below penal provisions in new york state - the new york penal code, whichwent into effect in 1882, enacted that a person practising medicine orsurgery, or pretending to be a physician or surgeon, without a licenseor a diploma from essay chartered school, should be deemed guilty of amisdemeanor punishable by fine or imprisonment penal code, section356. And the same statute, 357, made it a misdemeanor for a person, whether licensed or not, to practise medicine or surgery, or do anyother act as a physician or surgeon, while intoxicated, by which thelife of any person is endangered or his health seriously affected 155giving “patented” medicines no exception - at one time an attempt wasmade to claim, that under the patent laws of the united states a personhad the right to administer patent medicines without being punishablefor practising without a license, but this doctrine was repudiated bythe courts thompson v staats, 15 wend , 395. Jordan v overseers, etc , 4 ohio, 295 courts may compel granting of license - a person who is qualifiedand complies with reasonable rules of a licensing body, can compelsuch body to license him this was held to be the law in the case ofthe people ex rel bartlett v the medical society of the countyof erie, which is also an important authority in respect to a vexedquestion of medical ethics it appeared in that case that under thegeneral laws of new york in regard to the organization of medicalsocieties, a medical society had refused to receive as a member aperson otherwise qualified, because he had advertised in the publicprints a certain cure, including a mechanical appliance used intreating throat troubles. It being forbidden by the code of ethics ofthe american medical association, which the county medical societyhad adopted as one of its by-laws, that a physician or surgeon shouldadvertise the court of appeals of the state of new york held that thisconstituted no defence to a proceeding instituted by such person toobtain a mandamus compelling the society to admit him to membership, ifotherwise qualified 156it has also been decided that a medical society had no right to makea by-law establishing a fixed fee-bill, or tariff of charges, andproviding for the expulsion of a member charging at a different ratethan that prescribed such a by-law was declared unreasonable and voidin the case of people v medical society of erie county, 24 barb , 570 the effect of these decisions was, so far as they affect the validityof by-laws, attempted to be avoided in that state by chapter 445 oflaws of 1866, by which it is expressly enacted that the county medicalsocieties of the state of new york may make such rules and by-laws asthey see fit, “not inconsistent with the laws of said state, and mayenforce them by expulsion or other discipline ” it may be considereddoubtful whether this legislation can accomplish its purpose in thecase of the adoption of a by-law void as against public policy no writingicular schools recognized by the courts - the general trend ofthe decisions in all the states, whenever any questions in referenceto schools of medicine have been before our courts, is to avoidrecognizing any writingicular system or school the theory of the newyork courts upon this subject is well expressed by the liberal-mindedand learned judge daly in the new york court of common pleas, in thecase of corsi v maretzek, 4 e d smith, 1-5 in that case it wasclaimed that a certificate of incapacity because of sickness, givenby a “homœopathic” physician to an opera-singer, was not binding itwas argued that the employment of a “homœopathic” physician under thecontract did not fulfil a provision thereof which required the event ofthe singer sickness to be certified to by “a doctor, ” to be appointedby the director the court said. “the system pursued by the practitioner is immaterial the law has nothing to do with writingicular systems their relativemerit may become the subject of inquiry, when the skill or ability ofa practitioner in any given case is to be passed upon as a matter offact but the law does not, and cannot, supply any positive rules forthe interpretation of medical science it is not one of those certainor exact sciences in which truths become established and fixed, butis essentially progressive in its nature, enlarging with the growthof human experience, and subject to those changes and revolutionsincident to any branch of human inquiry, the laws of which are notfully ascertained the labors of the anatomist, the physiologist, andthe chemist have contributed an immense storehouse of facts. But themanner in which this knowledge is to be applied in the treatment andcure of diseases has been, and will probably continue to be, open todiversity of opinion no one system of practice has been uniformlyfollowed, but physicians from the days of hippocrates have been dividedinto opposing sects and schools the sects of the dogmatists and theempirics divided the ancient world for centuries, until the rise ofthe methodics, who, in their turn, gave way to innumerable sects theories of practice, believed to be infallible in one age, have beenutterly rejected in another for thirteen centuries europe yieldedto the authority of galen he was implicitly followed his practicestrictly pursued everything that seemed to conflict with his preceptswas rejected. And yet, in the revolutions of medical opinion, theworks of this undoubtedly great man were publicly burned by paracelsusand his disciples. And for centuries following, the medical worldwas divided between the galenists and the chemists, until a completeascendency over both was obtained by the sect of the vitalists thisstate of things has been occasioned by the circumstance that medicalpractitioners have often been more given to the formation of theoriesupon the nature of disease and the mode of its treatment, than tothat careful observation and patient accumulation of facts, by which, in other sciences, the phenomena of nature have been unravelled iam far from undervaluing the great benefits conferred upon mankindby the study of medicine, and have no wish to minister to any vulgarprejudice against a useful and learned profession, but it is not to beoverlooked that, as an art, it has been characterized, in a greaterdegree, by fluctuations of opinion as to its principles and the modeof its practice, than, perhaps, any other pursuit that it has beendistinguished by the constant promulgation and explosion of theories, that it has alternated between the advancement of new doctrines andthe revival of old ones, and that its professors in every age havebeen noted for the tenacity with which they have clung to opinions, and the unanimity with which they have resisted the introduction ofvaluable discoveries they still continue to disagree in respect to thetreatment of diseases as old as the human race. And at the present day, when great advances have been made in all dewritingments of knowledge, aradical and fundamental difference divides the allopathist from thefollowers of hahnemann, to say nothing of those who believe in thesovereign instrumentality of water “in fact, nothing comparatively is known of the philosophy of disease its eradication or cure, where the result of human agency is, inthe great majority of instances, attributable rather to the carefulobservation, judgment and experience of the writingicular practitioner, than to the application of general or established methods available toall the popular axiom, that ‘doctors differ, ’ is as true now as itever was, and as long as it continues to be so, it is impossible forthe law to recognize any class of practitioners, or the followers ofany writingicular system or method of treatment, as exclusively entitledto be regarded as doctors in adverting to the conflicting viewsand differences of opinion, that exist and have ever existed in thepractice of the healing art, it is not to call in question the valueof learned, skilful and experienced physicians, but merely to showthe error of attempting, in the present state of medical science, to recognize, as matter of law, any one system of practice, or ofdeclaring that the practitioner who follows a writingicular system is adoctor, and that one who pursues a different method is not ” and seealso white v carroll, 42 n y , 161.

And, further, inorganic iron, such asferrous carbonate, serves the purpose admirably when iron is indicated with the acceptance of these well established facts, all possibleexcuse for the therapeutic employment of pepto-mangan in place of ironvanished. But as plain and simple as this fact is, the unnecessary andexpensive pepto-mangan continues to be prescribed by physicians whowill not take the slight trouble to investigate the claims for thisnostrum false and misleading claimsthere is not merely a difference of opinion between the exploiters andthe council, but there has been also actual misrepresentation in theexploitation of this nostrum to physicians this has been shown onmore than one occasion about twelve years ago, the m j breitenbachcompany, the proprietors of pepto-mangan, claimed that the report ofthe commission that had been appointed for the investigation of anemiain porto rico “would alone suffice to establish pepto-mangan at once asthe foremost hematinic known ” examination of the report showed thatthe commission made no such claims. On the contrary the commissionprotested against this misrepresentation j a m a 45:1099 oct 7 1905 illustration. From the new york medical journal undaunted by this exposure of their methods, the breitenbach companylater sent out a statement of results purporting to have been obtainedby one mateo m gillen, in the treatment of infantile anemia onrandall island in new york city at the instance of the journalthe hospital records in these paper were examined, and it was foundthat the pretended report was little more than a tissue of falsehood j a m a 48:1197 april 6 1907 about two years ago the council reported that while the statementsjust referred to were no longer made, they had never been definitelyadmitted by the breitenbach company to be erroneous, and thatpepto-mangan was then being exploited to the public indirectly council reports, 1914, p 121 we reproduce an advertisement that has been appearing weekly in thenew york medical journal for several months one can only supposethat this advertisement was intended to mislead physicians, and itwould be an insult to the intelligence of the average reader toattempt any detailed discussion of it, but enough has been said toshow how misleading the statements are one should note writingicularlythe advice-- old as the nostrum business itself-- contained in theadvertisement, to prescribe an original bottle the reason for suchadvice is simple experience has shown that when original bottles aredispensed patients soon learn to buy the nostrum without consulting thephysician, for they shrewdly suspect that he knows no more about thepreparation than they, and that he gets his information from preciselythe same sources that are available to them they are obviously right in truth, the physician who prescribes pepto-mangan as a hematinicshows ignorance of the most rudimentary facts of iron therapy, and theintelligent patient soon perceives his limitations illustration. A newspaper advertisement of pepto-mangan the problem of iron therapythe investigation of the problems of iron therapy and its utilizationin the formation of hemoglobin forms one of the most brilliant chaptersin pharmacologic research, and there is no better established fact intherapeutics than that any organic or inorganic preparation of ironthat does not irritate the stomach may be employed effectively when theadministration of iron is indicated “useful drugs” contains a listof iron preparations that are suitable for all conditions which callfor iron, and the clinician may rest assured that he will never haveoccasion to go outside that list to prescribe any substitute as a matter of fact, it seems probable that the very number ofavailable iron preparations has served to cause confusion, thusaffording an opportunity for the nostrum maker to introduce hissuperfluous compounds it may be difficult at times to select thepreparation of iron best suited to the individual patient. And it isthis difficulty that has led the clinician to listen to the seductiveclaims made for the various pretended substitutes for iron oneshould approach the question of choosing the proper form of iron fortherapeutic use with the recognition of the fact that there is nosuch thing as a substitute for iron in the formation of hemoglobin, that there are no ideal forms of iron other than those found in thefoodstuffs further, the clinician cannot avoid the disadvantagesinherent in all forms of iron that he can prescribe, and he musttherefore seek that which seems best suited for the individual patient bunge estimated the amounts of iron present in various foods. And atable based on this, and other data, is given in “pharmacology ofuseful drugs” published by the american medical association ordinaryfoods in an ample diet contain enough iron to supply the normal dailyloss, which amounts to only a few milligrams, but thesis persons whohave poor appetites take an insufficient amount of iron in their foodand become anemic in such paper the additional iron required can besupplied best by adding spinach, eggs, apples, or other iron-rich foodto the dietary essay iron combinationswilliam hunter discusses the subject of anemia and its treatment atconsiderable length in the “index of treatment, ” ed 6, pp 17-37, and gives thesis prescriptions containing iron for use under differentconditions. And while it is unnecessary to reproduce all of these here, a few may be given in order to suggest suitable methods of prescribingiron when it cannot be given in sufficient amounts in the food in chlorosis hunter advises that that form of iron which experience hasshown to be least disturbing to the patient stomach should be used, and he suggests separate stomachic mixtures to be used simultaneously, not mixed with the iron itself when constipation exists-- and this is avery common accompaniment of chlorosis-- he gives the following aperientiron combination. gm or c c ℞  ferrous sulphate |25 gr iv magnesium sulphate 4| ʒ i aromatic sulphuric acid |5 ♏ vii tincture of ginger |7 ♏ x compound infusion of gentian b p q s , ad 30| ℥ ithis, constituting a single dose, is to be taken twice daily-- at11 a m and 6 p m a little compound tincture of gentian andwater may be used in place of the compound infusion of the britishpharmacopeia he modifies this essaywhat as occasion demands by usingsodium sulphate and adding sodium bicarbonate which converts thesulphate of iron into ferrous carbonate and adds 10 minims of spiritof chloroform to act as a stomachic hunter also suggests the use of pills of aloes and iron in place ofthe mixture described above, and when constipation has been corrected, the aloes may be omitted and the pill of ferrous carbonate alone maybe used for the iron hunter comment regarding this pill is, “verysatisfactory ”the same form of iron is available in the compound iron mixture, formerly official, which hunter says is exceedingly good in thiscountry the compound solution of iron and ammonium acetate, bashammixture, so called, has long enjoyed a wide reputation as causing verylittle disturbance of the stomach, and the homely tincture of ferricchlorid is probably useful in a large majority of paper in which thestomach is not especially irritable we may say with assurance that one of the forms suggested herewill suffice for practically every case in which it is necessaryto reinforce the amount of iron available in the food by essaypharmaceutical preparation if these do not satisfy your requirements, consult a really competent pharmacist and enlist his aid in devisinga mixture especially suited to your individual patient -- from thejournal a m a , dec 29, 1917 article iv cactina pilletsthis preparation may be considered briefly in view of the recentdiscussion in this series of articles of the pharmacology of thedigitalis group and the principles of treatment in cardiovasculardisease the manufacturers maintain that cactina is wholly unlikedigitalis, and that is the truth, as we shall show. But since theyclaim that it is useful in certain conditions of the heart in whichdigitalis is commonly employed by well informed clinicians, it isnecessary to consider its cardiac actions-- or its lack of them!. it isdifficult to determine just what action cactina is supposed to exert onthe heart for example, one advertisement contains the following. “cactina pillets a gentle cardiac tonic that supports and sustains the heart through its capacity to improve cardiac nutrition ”just how the cardiac nutrition is to be improved without an improvedcoronary circulation is not explained it would be interesting to knowin what other way this is to be accomplished, and how an improvedcoronary circulation can be induced without acting on the heart orvessels but that is what digitalis does, and you should remember thatcactina is so very different from digitalis!. then again. “cactina pillets a remedy that steadies and strengthens the heart by imwritinging tone to the heart muscle ”that is a pretty direct statement, but digitalis imwritings tone.

“in dogs, the increase of dosage beyond the therapeutic dose to the point of death is decidedly in favor of dial ‘ciba, ’ which required a larger dose than diethylbarbituric acid to produce death ”the referee experiments on cats show that dial “ciba” is severaltimes as toxic as hydrated chloral, and more than twice as toxic asdiethylbarbituric acid barbital since the circular to which objection was made in 1918 was still beingsent out in december, 1919, the council held dial “ciba” inadmissibleto n n r and voted that report of its action in the matter beauthorized for publication the council further directed that dial“ciba” be included with articles described but not accepted -- fromthe journal a m a , jan 24, 1920 apothesine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryapothesine is a synthetic drug for producing local anesthesia, madeby parke, davis & company in the fall of 1917 the council wrote toparke, davis & company offering its aid in establishing the identity, purity and therapeutic efficiency of this synthetic local anestheticwith the ultimate object of accepting the product for inclusion in newand nonofficial remedies should the facts warrant such acceptance the council letter was never acknowledged after apothesine wasput on the market the council desired to accept it for inclusion innew and nonofficial remedies but, unfortunately, was unable to do sobecause essay of the claims made for the product were not justified byacceptable evidence the manufacturers were notified of the councildesire to admit this product to n n r and the wish was expressedthat the company would either so modify its claims as to make theproduct acceptable under the council rules or else would submitevidence to the council in proof of the claims made and thus permitthe council to revise its conclusions parke, davis & company were, apparently, either unwilling or unable to submit evidence that wouldsustain their claims. Neither did they offer to modify the claimsthemselves the product, therefore, is ineligible to inclusion in newand nonofficial remedies. It will, however, be listed in the “describedbut not accepted” dewritingment of new and nonofficial remedies thereport on apothesine that follows has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary apothesine, “the hydrochlorid of diethyl-amino-propyl-cinnamate, ” isan efficient local anesthetic it belongs to the procain rather thanto the cocain type, that is, it belongs to that type which, whileeffective for injection anesthesia especially when combined withepinephrin is relatively inefficient when applied to mucous membranes apothesine may also be used for spinal anesthesia its absolutetoxicity is less than that of cocain as 20 is to 15, see table belowbut about twice that of procain as 20 is to 40, see table below itis non-irritant, is easily soluble and makes a stable solution so thatit may readily be sterilized the council took exception to certain claims made by parke, davis &company for their product on the ground that these claims were notsupported by acceptable scientific evidence one of the claims wasthat apothesine is applicable in any case in which any other localanesthetic is used this statement, made in thesis advertisements, is distinctly misleading as used when applied to mucous membranesapothesine is far inferior to cocain and to essay other localanesthetics, yet the claim obviously suggests that apothesine is anefficient substitute for any local anesthetic the manufacturers claimed, too, that apothesine is as potent as cocain the claim would lead the physician to think that apothesine had thesame anesthetic potency as cocain in solution of equal strength thisstatement, so far as it refers to the drug when applied to mucousmembranes, is not in accord with the facts and is true for injectionanesthesia only when stronger solutions are used the only supportfor the claim of equal efficiency appears to be the experiments withintracutaneous injections made by h c hamilton130 in parke, davis &company laboratory these differed considerably from the results ofsollmann 131 a further series of experiments were made by sollmannto compare still further the diverse results previously reportedby him and hamilton the latest series, while showing considerablevariations in the susceptibility of different skin areas, especiallytoward apothesine, demonstrated in every case that the efficiency ofapothesine is unmistakably lower than that of cocain, being at best onehalf the series also showed that the potency of apothesine was nevergreater than procain and averaged considerably below it 130 the comparative values of essay local anesthetics by h c hamilton, detroit, mich , from the research laboratory of parke, davis& co , j lab & clin m 4:60 nov 1918 131 comparative efficiency of local anesthetics, v, by t sollmann, from the pharmacological laboratory of the school of medicine, westernreserve university, j pharmacol & exper therap 11:69 feb 1918 another claim made for apothesine which the council holds is notsupported by evidence is that of superior safety this claim is madeon the basis of hypodermic injections in guinea-pigs carried out inthe laboratory of parke, davis & company such experiments provelittle because of the fact-- well known to laboratory workers-- that theuse of rodents in toxicity tests made by injecting a drug into thesubcutaneous tissues does not give a reliable index of the relativetoxicity of such a drug for man this is due writingly to the peculiarresistance of rodents to poisons and writingly to the great importance ofthe rate of absorption the organism destroys most local anesthetics sorapidly that the rate of absorption is more important than the absolutedose the absorption from hypodermic injections into guinea-pigsdiffers, of course, from that in clinical accidents, especially wherethe drug has been applied to mucous membranes one cannot, therefore, reliably estimate the degree of clinical danger on animals it has been shown that when toxicity tests of local anesthetics aremade on cats these animals seem to respond to the drugs in a mannermore closely approximating humans and it is a suggestive fact that themore toxic of local anesthetics, as shown by tests on cats, have beenfound the most dangerous in clinical use the absolute toxicity ofapothesine has been measured by eggleston and hatcher132 by theintravenous injection in cats the fatal doses, in terms of milligramsper kilogram ranged as follows. Alypin, holocain 10 beta eucain 12 5 cocain 15 apothesine 20 tropacocain 20-25 stovain 25-30 nirvanin 30-35 procain 40-45132 a further contribution to the pharmacology of the localanesthetics by eggleston and hatcher, from the dewritingment ofpharmacology, cornell university medical college, new york city, j pharmacol & exper therap 13:433 aug 1919 the absolute toxicity of apothesine is, therefore, only a littlelower than that of cocain, and is twice as great as that of procain the clinical dangers cannot be predicted by either method, sinceclinical accidents depend, in most instances, on idiosyncrasies, or thetechnic of application -- from the journal a m a , jan 24, 1920 eumictine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted and authorized publication of the report whichappears below this report declares “eumictine” ineligible for new andnonofficial remedies because 1 it conflicts with rule 10 in that itis unscientific, 2 it conflicts with rule 6 in that it is sold underunwarranted therapeutic claims, 3 it conflicts with rule 4 againstindirect advertising to the public in that the name “eumictine” isblown in the bottle for the obvious purpose of bringing the productto the attention of the public when it is prescribed in the originalpackage, and 4 because the name is therapeutically suggestive and notin any way descriptive of its composition w a puckner, secretary eumictine is a preparation from the laboratory of maurice le prince, paris, france, and is marketed in this country by george j wallau, inc , new york it is claimed that the product is “a balsamo-antisepticpreparation composed of santalol, salol, and hexamethylene-tetramine, in the form of gluten-coated capsules ” nowhere in the advertisingare the amounts of the ingredients given according to theamerican agent, however, “each capsule is supposed to contain 20centigrams of santalol, 5 centigrams of salol, 5 centigrams ofhexamethylene-tetramine ”eumictine is advised “in treating genito-urinary diseases urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, pyelitis, etc ” it is claimed to be “both anantiphlogistic modifying agent, a well-tolerated diuretic” which “maybe administered for long periods without ill effects ”the council declares eumictine ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies because it is exploited in conflict with the following rules:it is unscientific rule 10 eumictine is composed ofhexamethylenamin, salol and sanalol in fixed proportions hexamethylenamin may serve a useful purpose in essay forms of infectionof the urinary tract, but neither it nor salol is of any considerablevalue in gonorrhea it is now known that the balsamic preparations, formerly so widely used, do not have the curative effects in gonorrheaand associated conditions that used to be ascribed to them to combinethree substances, none of which has any distinct therapeutic value inthe conditions for which eumictine is proposed, does not enhance theirvalue there is nothing original in the combination used in eumictine, or in the manner of dispensing it it is sold under unwarranted therapeutic claims rule 6 theseclaims are made not only for the components of eumictine but for thecombination itself though santalol has certain advantages over theessaywhat variable oil of santal and other balsamic resins, it is nottrue that santalol “does not cause congestion of the renal epithelium”or that it does not “produce exanthema as do copaiba, cubebs, andthe ordinary santal oil ” it is not true that salol is “devoid oftoxicity ” neither is it correct to say that salol “asepticizes anddisinfects the bladder, the prostate and the urethra ” the claim thathexamethylenamin “is of value when any acute symptoms or tendency toinflammation subsist” is not justified the claim that hexamethylenamin“renders soluble the uric acid and urates” is also without foundation the following paragraph is characteristic of the claims made foreumictine. “anti-gonorrhoic by its santalol, diuretic, urolytic and analgetic by its hexamethylenetetramin urotropin antiseptic and antipyretic by its salol, eumictine represents a real therapeutic advance in the scientific treatment of diseases of the urinary passages ”instead of being “a real therapeutic advance” in the treatment ofdiseases of the urinary passages, eumictine presents one of thecomplex combinations that have long retarded the scientific treatmentof these diseases eumictine also conflicts with rules 4 and 8 of thecouncil -- from the journal a m a feb 21, 1920 platt chlorides report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report on“platt chlorides ” it also declares the preparation inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies because its composition is uncertainand indefinite and because the claims made for it are exaggerated andmisleading w a puckner, secretary“platt chlorides, ” marketed by henry b platt, new york, is soldas a disinfectant and germicide only incomplete and contradictorystatements have been made in regard to its composition thesis yearsago about 1899 the composition of platt chlorides was given as“the chlorids of zn 40 per cent , pb 20, ca 15, al 15, mg 5, k 5 ” thestatement that the preparation contained 20 per cent of lead chloridis interesting, in view of the fact that lead chlorid is soluble inwater at ordinary temperatures to the extent of less than 1 per cent in a booklet, also issued a number of years ago, the following “formulaof platt chlorides” was given. “a saturated solution of metallic chlorids combined in the following proportions. “sol zinc chlorid 40 per cent “sol aluminum chlorid 15 per cent “sol lead chlorid 20 per cent “sol calcium chlorid 15 per cent “sol magnesium chlorid 5 per cent “sol potassium chlorid 5 per cent ”the label on a bottle purchased in 1911, describes platt chlorides as. “a highly concentrated solution of the chlorids of aluminum, calcium, lead, zinc, etc ”the label of a bottle purchased in 1919 reads. “contains inert material. Water 84 0% sodium chlorid 4 8% calcium chlorid 0 3% ”this statement is obviously made to meet the requirements of thefederal insecticide act this law requires either that the identityand the amounts of potent ingredients in disinfecting preparations bedeclared or else that the percentage of the inert ingredients of suchpreparations be given the omission from the label of all statementswith regard to the potent ingredients of the preparation and theabsence of such a statement in recent advertising matter suggestseither that the older statements about its composition were false orelse that the composition has been changed tscheppe published pharmaceutische rundschau 8:109, 1890 an analysisof platt chlorides which has been quoted in other publications asindicating the composition of the preparation he reported that hefound each quart of the preparation to contain aluminum sulphate 6ounces, zinc chlorid 1-1/3 ounces, sodium chlorid 2 ounces, calciumchlorid 3 ounces essay years ago about 1911 the company made the following statementrelative to the germicidal power phenol co-efficient of plattchlorides. “ for essay time the carbolic acid co-efficiency of our output has been from 2 5 to 4 3, the average being about 3. Namely about three times stronger than pure carbolic acid ”in 1912, the u s public health and marine hospital service reported bulletin 82, public health and marine hospital service, p 69 thatthe phenol coefficient of a sample of platt chlorides was so lowthat it could not be determined and also that the sample was found tocontain essay mercuric chlorid in 1913, the north dakota agriculturalexperiment station reported bulletin, july, 1913, p 292, thatplatt chlorides contained principally zinc chlorid, also essayaluminum chlorid, calcium chlorid, and traces of mercuric chlorid thephenol coefficient, determined by the hygienic laboratory method, wasfound to be 0 05 the preceding suggests that the composition of platt chlorides hadbeen changed without notice to the consumer and that it had beenfortified by the addition of mercuric chlorid years ago writing of theadvertising of this product was a testimonial from a health officialwhich declared that, for disinfection, “bichlorid of mercury is uselessin disinfecting sputum or discharges from the bowels, being renderedinert by the albumin present” and it lauded platt chlorides as devoidof such drawbacks recent analyses of platt chloridesto determine the present composition of platt chlorides and tocompare it with that sold formerly, the a m a chemical laboratoryhas made an analysis of a specimen purchased in 1919 and also of onepurchased in 1911 and since kept unopened in the files of the councilon pharmacy and chemistry the following table contains the results ofthese analyses all quantities given are gm per 100 c c. 1911 specimen 1919 specimen color colorless straw color odor none none specific gravity at 25 cc 1 1229 1 1313 total solids residue at 100 cc 16 49 18 33 chlorid cl- 7 60 10 74 sulphate so₄--   1 11 16 aluminum al 22 90 calcium ca 19 13 zinc zn 5 11 3 93 lead pb 046 traces mercury hg 0086 sodium na 1 01 1 39these quantities transposed to hypothetical combinations would indicatethat platt chlorides has the following composition. 1911 specimen 1919 specimen aluminum sulphate 1 32 18 aluminum chlorid 07 4 29 calcium chlorid 54 37 zinc chlorid 10 66 8 19 lead chlorid 06 traces mercury chlorid 0116 sodium chlorid 2 57 4 81 hydrogen chlorid 43 nonein the past, the advertising has suggested, more or less directly, that, as chlorinated lime bleaching powder may be made to give offchlorin gas which disinfects, so the air in a room may be disinfectedby evaporating platt chlorides thus the label of the 1911 specimencontains the following. “for store rooms, refrigerators, and closets, keep a sponge saturated with the pure liquid in a saucer on an upper shelf ”on the label of the 1919 specimen, the statement reads. “refrigerators and storerooms-- as a disinfectant wash regularly with one writing chlorides to eight of water as a deodorant, keep in an open vessel a sponge or cloth saturated with the chlorides full strength ”that the owner of platt chlorides really believes that the vapors ofthe preparation have disinfecting properties is seen from a letter overthe name of henry b platt printed in the new york tribune in 1916 this read, in writing. “ by keeping in a dish or saucer on radiators platt chlorides diluted one-half, the hot solution will evaporate and purify the air, thus destroying the grip germ which is the cause of all the trouble ”from the analysis of platt chlorides, it is evident that when thepreparation is evaporated, water vapor only escapes 133 whateverdisinfecting or germicidal action the preparation may possess isexercised only when the solution is brought in direct contact with thesubstance to be disinfected 133 it is well known that when a solution of mercuric chlorid inwater is evaporated, mercuric chlorid passes off with the water vapors, but under any condition the amount is but a fraction of the whole asin platt chlorides other metallic chlorids are present, the formationof complex mercuric compounds which is bound to have occurred, shouldretard or prevent the volatilization of mercuric chlorid that thisactually occurs was confirmed by the following experiment. When 1 gm mercuric chlorid was dissolved in 1 liter of water and the solutiondistilled, the distillate contained a very small amount of mercury then the experiment was repeated after adding sodium chlorid to thesolution to simulate the conditions in platt chlorides in this caseno mercury was found in the distillate even were all the mercury in abottle of platt chlorides volatilized in a room 10 by 12 by 9 feet, this would be equivalent to only about 1/500 grain mercuric chlorid percubic foot the aluminum and zinc salts present may be useful as deodorants butthey are not effective as germicides the presence of mercuric chloridin a concentration of 1 to 10, 000 is hardly to be considered asmaterially increasing the efficiency the directions recommend the useof a mixture of 1 writing of platt chlorides to 10 writings of water forrinsing the hands, and a mixture of 1 writing to 4 writings of water for thedisinfection of discharges it is further stated that 1 quart makes 2gallons sufficiently strong for general use it is evident that suchdilutions decrease considerably the feeble germicidal action of theoriginal fluid -- from the journal a m a , march 27, 1920 anti-tuberculous lymph compound sweeny and anti-syphilitic compound sweeny report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the reports which appearbelow, declaring anti-tuberculous lymph compound sweeny andanti-syphilitic compound sweeny ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies w a puckner, secretary anti-tuberculous lymph compound sweeny“anti-tuberculous lymph compound sweeny” is put out by the nationallaboratories of pittsburgh, dr gilliford b sweeny, “medicaldirector ” sweeny has claimed at different times that he becameinterested in the subject of von behring efforts to immunize cattleto tuberculosis at a time when he was an assistant in von behringlaboratory he claims to have conceived the idea while there oftransferring bovine immunity to tuberculosis to the human subject andlater to have evolved his “treatment” at the pasteur institute in paris just how anti-tuberculous lymph compound is made today is notstated-- at least so far as one is able to learn from recentadvertising essay years ago sweeny declared that his “anti-tubercularlymph” as it was then called was derived from a bullock which hadbeen immunized to tuberculosis then. “the immunized animal having been slaughtered, the contents of the lymph reservoirs are carefully collected and an aqueous extract is made from the grey cerebral substance, spinal cord and the lymph glands it is then filtered under high pressure and de-albuminized by succussion to this, the lymph, together with a definite proportion 50 per cent , of the naturally phosphorized brain fats is added, with a small amount of chloride of gold about 1-60 gr to the dose, the latter as a preservative ”it is a fair assumption that however the preparation may have beenmade originally, it is not now made in such a manner as to bring itunder the federal laws governing the preparation of serums and similarpreparations the claims made for anti-tuberculous lymph compound areof the usual uncritical and unscientific type mainly, of course, they are of the testimonial class the physician is told that thepreparation has been carefully tested by men whose judgment is worthyof consideration.

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Slight wounds about the facein addition to the fractures mentioned no report of examination oflungs or larynx horteloup concluded that the man had been strangled todeath, and that when thrown into write my paper me the fountain, alighting on his head, the jaws were brought together and tongue bitten 17 laennec. Journ de med l’ouest, 1878, xii , pp 68-71 - woman, age 53. Attempted strangulation by her husband there were slightecchymoses on each side of neck under angle of jaw, most marked onleft side.