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or has essay one perpetrated a joke on me?. if the profession can be thus successfully exploited one can no longer wonder at the following which every new ‘ic’ and ‘ism’ acquires ”it is a pity that the medical profession generally does not react tothe dionol and similar advertising as does our correspondent as theconcern continues to do business, the presumption is that at leastessay physicians are using dionol as was pointed out in the journalof jan 26, 1918, dionol seems to be a glorified and esoteric formof petrolatum the exploitation of dionol is based on the followingtheory. 1 the brain is a generator of neuro-electricity. 2 thenerves are the conductors of this electricity.

And atable based on this, and other data, is given in “pharmacology ofuseful drugs” published by the american medical association ordinaryfoods in an ample diet contain enough iron to supply the normal dailyloss, which amounts to only a few milligrams, but thesis persons whohave poor appetites take an insufficient amount of iron in their foodand become anemic in such paper the additional write my paper co iron required can besupplied best by adding spinach, eggs, apples, or other iron-rich foodto the dietary essay iron combinationswilliam hunter discusses the subject of anemia and its treatment atconsiderable length in the “index of treatment, ” ed 6, pp 17-37, and gives thesis prescriptions containing iron for use under differentconditions. And while it is unnecessary to reproduce all of these here, a few may be given in order to suggest suitable methods of prescribingiron when it cannot be given in sufficient amounts in the food in chlorosis hunter advises that that form of iron which experience hasshown to be least disturbing to the patient stomach should be used, and he suggests separate stomachic mixtures to be used simultaneously, not mixed with the iron itself when constipation exists-- and this is avery common accompaniment of chlorosis-- he gives the following aperientiron combination. gm or c c ℞  ferrous sulphate |25 gr iv magnesium sulphate 4| ʒ i aromatic sulphuric acid |5 ♏ vii tincture of ginger |7 ♏ x compound infusion of gentian b p q s , ad 30| ℥ ithis, constituting a single dose, is to be taken twice daily-- at11 a m and 6 p m a little compound tincture of gentian andwater may be used in place of the compound infusion of the britishpharmacopeia he modifies this essaywhat as occasion demands by usingsodium sulphate and adding sodium bicarbonate which converts thesulphate of iron into ferrous carbonate and adds 10 minims of spiritof chloroform to act as a stomachic hunter also suggests the use of pills of aloes and iron in place ofthe mixture described above, and when constipation has been corrected, the aloes may be omitted and the pill of ferrous carbonate alone maybe used for the iron hunter comment regarding this pill is, “verysatisfactory ”the same form of iron is available in the compound iron mixture, formerly official, which hunter says is exceedingly good in thiscountry the compound solution of iron and ammonium acetate, bashammixture, so called, has long enjoyed a wide reputation as causing verylittle disturbance of the stomach, and the homely tincture of ferricchlorid is probably useful in a large majority of paper in which thestomach is not especially irritable we may say with assurance that one of the forms suggested herewill suffice for practically every case in which it is necessaryto reinforce the amount of iron available in the food by essaypharmaceutical preparation if these do not satisfy your requirements, consult a really competent pharmacist and enlist his aid in devisinga mixture especially suited to your individual patient -- from thejournal a m a , dec 29, 1917 article iv cactina pilletsthis preparation may be considered briefly in view of the recentdiscussion in this series of articles of the pharmacology of thedigitalis group and the principles of treatment in cardiovasculardisease the manufacturers maintain that cactina is wholly unlikedigitalis, and that is the truth, as we shall show. But since theyclaim that it is useful in certain conditions of the heart in whichdigitalis is commonly employed by well informed clinicians, it isnecessary to consider its cardiac actions-- or its lack of them!. it isdifficult to determine just what action cactina is supposed to exert onthe heart for example, one advertisement contains the following. “cactina pillets a gentle cardiac tonic that supports and sustains the heart through its capacity to improve cardiac nutrition ”just how the cardiac nutrition is to be improved without an improvedcoronary circulation is not explained it would be interesting to knowin what other way this is to be accomplished, and how an improvedcoronary circulation can be induced without acting on the heart orvessels but that is what digitalis does, and you should remember thatcactina is so very different from digitalis!. then again. “cactina pillets a remedy that steadies and strengthens the heart by imwritinging tone to the heart muscle ”that is a pretty direct statement, but digitalis imwritings tone. And wemust not forget that “cactina” is wholly unlike digitalis, and we aretold that “cactina” is. “invaluable in all functional cardiac disorders such as tachycardia, palpitation, arrhythmia, and whenever the heart action needs regulating or support ”if these are merely functional disorders of the heart, it is highlydesirable to know what are the symptoms of really serious cardiacdisease!. since the manufacturers give us no information concerningthe mode of action of “cactina” we will turn to the literature ofdisinterested observers if one attempts to discover the origin of“cactina, ” he will probably meet with disappointment, for variousbibliographies fail to mention the name of sultan, who is said to haveisolated “cactina” from cactus grandiflorus it seems that sultanworked with cactus, or essay other plant, when a student of pharmacy, and it is to be remembered that cactina pillets are manufactured by thesultan drug company it is doubtful whether sultan actually worked with genuine cactusgrandiflorus. And, in fact, there is good reason for thinking thathe did not, for all subsequent workers who have taken pains to securegenuine cactus grandiflorus have failed to detect the presence of anyactive principle, except possible traces that are of no therapeuticimportance whatever what the council foundthe council on pharmacy and chemistry examined the literature relatingto cactus and certain proprietary preparations, including cactinapillets, alleged to be made from cactus, and has reported the resultsof its investigation j a m a 54:888 march 12 1910 and wewill quote from that report “the therapeutic value of this plant has been variously estimated by different observers experimental evidence as to its action is scanty and no complete chemical examination has ever been made “reputable men have testified that essay of the plants of the cactus family contain very active principles, but so far experiments seem to prove that cactus grandiflorus has neither the action of digitalis nor that of strychnin the principal contributions, clinical and experimental, for and against the drug are set out below ”illustration. Typical advertisements of “cactina pillets” from themedical record and new york medical journal, respectively the report then proceeds to analyze the work of o h myers, r a hatcher, boinet and boy-teissier, sayre, gordon sharp, s a matthews, p w williams, aulde and ellingwood, and comes to conclusions that areset forth as follows, in brief:1 it is uncertain what writing of the plant contains the activeprinciple, if any such principle exists 2 writing of the experimental and clinical work has been published underproprietary auspices 3 the value of clinical evidence when unsupported by animalexperimentation is much diminished by the tendency of enthusiastic anduntrained observers to attribute to the drug given the effect reallydue to general remedial measures, psychic suggestion and so forth in other words, the literature does not afford a report of a singlepiece of careful painstaking work the results of which lend support tothe claims made for cactina pillets as stated above, for it is obviousthat if cactus grandiflorus contains no active principle, no activeprinciple can be extracted from it essay time after the report ofthe council was published, hatcher and bailey secured genuine cactusgrandiflorus directly from a competent botanist, dr c a purpus, of vera cruz, mexico, and studied it experimentally they reported j a m a 56:26 jan 7 1911 in writing as follows. “we have been unable to obtain any evidence that the true mexican cactus grandiflorus possesses any pharmacologic action whatever. But, on the contrary, it appears to be a singularly inert substance when administered either by the mouth or by the vein ”when colossal doses of cactus grandiflorus are given by the vein, they essaytimes-- but not always-- appear to exert an extremely feebleaction on the heart. But this action is so slight that its naturecould not be determined even the most colossal doses of cactusgrandiflorus administered by the mouth to cats, dogs and frogs exertno perceptible effect sollmann thus satirizes the absurd claims made by the exploiters ofproprietary forms of cactus.

Boy bone button in larynx sailor meat in larynx boy vomitedmatter in larynx infant while taking the breast, a rush of milksuddenly filled the air-passages also three paper of crushing underwalls. Two buried in loose earth. Two crushed in a crowd. One by bagsof grain 48 feulard. Bull soc anat , 1883, viii , pp 384-386 - woman, age79 piece of beef in larynx necroscopy showed hematoma in dura mater 49 poupon.

First, scrape them very clean, and cleansethem from the pith, if they have any, for write my paper co essay roots have not, aseringo and the like. Boil them in water till they be soft, as we shewedyou before in the fruits. Then boil the water you boiled the root ininto a syrup, as we shewed you before. Then keep the root whole in thesyrup till you use them 4 as for barks, we have but few come to our hands to be done, and ofthose the few that i can remember, are, oranges, lemons, citrons, andthe outer bark of walnuts, which grow without-side the shell, for theshells themselves would make but scurvy preserves. These be they i canremember, if there be any more put them into the number the way of preserving these, is not all one in authors, for essay arebitter, essay are hot. Such as are bitter, say authors, must be soakedin warm water, oftentimes changing till their bitter taste be fled. Buti like not this way and my reason is this. Because i doubt when theirbitterness is gone, so is their virtue also. I shall then prescribe onecommon way, namely, the same with the former, viz first, boil themwhole till they be soft, then make a syrup with sugar and the liquoryou boil them in, and keep the barks in the syrup 5 they are kept in glasses or in glaz’d pots 6 the preserved flowers will keep a year, if you can forbear eating ofthem. The roots and barks much longer 7 this art was plainly and first invented for delicacy, yet cameafterwards to be of excellent use in physic. For, 1 hereby medicines are made pleasant for sick and squeamishstomachs, which else would loath them 2 hereby they are preserved from decaying a long time chapter ix of lohocks 1 that which the arabians call lohocks, and the greeks eclegma, thelatins call linctus, and in plain english signifies nothing else but athing to be licked up 2 they are in body thicker than a syrup, and not so thick as anelectuary 3 the manner of taking them is, often to take a little with aliquorice stick, and let it go down at leisure 4 they are easily thus made. Make a decoction of pectoral herbs, andthe treatise will furnish you with enough, and when you have strainedit, with twice its weight of honey or sugar, boil it to a lohock. Ifyou are molested with much phlegm, honey is better than sugar. And ifyou add a little vinegar to it, you will do well. If not, i hold sugarto be better than honey 5 it is kept in pots, and may be kept a year and longer 6 it is excellent for roughness of the wind-pipe, inflammations andulcers of the lungs, difficulty of breathing, asthmas, coughs, anddistillation of humours chapter x of ointments 1 various are the ways of making ointments, which authors have leftto posterity, which i shall omit, and quote one which is easiest tobe made, and therefore most beneficial to people that are ignorant inphysic, for whose sake i write this it is thus done:bruise those herbs, flowers, or roots, you will make an ointment of, and to two handfuls of your bruised herbs add a pound of hog greasedried, or cleansed from the skins, beat them very well together in astone mortar with a wooden pestle, then put it into a stone pot, theherb and grease i mean, not the mortar, cover it with a paper and setit either in the sun, or essay other warm place. Three, four, or fivedays, that it may melt. Then take it out and boil it a little. Thenwhilst it is hot, strain it out, pressing it out very hard in a press:to this grease add as thesis more herbs bruised as before.

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The vapors evolved do not turn red litmus blue nitrates shake 1 gm of bismuth tribromphenate frequently during fifteen minutes with 30 c c of alcohol 95 per cent , filter and rinse flask with two separate 10 c c portions of alcohol, allowing the washings to run through filter to the combined filtrate and washings add 20 c c of tenth-normal sodium hydroxide and a few drops of phenolphthalein solution and determine the excess of alkali with tenth-normal hydrochloric acid not more than 1 c c of tenth-normal sodium hydroxide should have been consumed by the alcoholic liquid free tribromphenol add 2 c c of nitric acid to 2 gm of bismuth tribromphenate in a porcelain crucible, carefully evaporate to dryness on a sand bath and incinerate dissolve the residue in 5 c c of concentrated hydrochloric acid and add to the solution 10 c c of a saturated solution of stannous chloride in concentrated hydrochloric acid the mixture should not darken on standing thirty minutes arsenic mix 0 5 gm of the salt with 10 c c of a mixture of equal writings of hydrochloric acid, u s p , and distilled water no effervescence should occur carbonate to about 0 5 gm of bismuth tribromphenate, accurately weighed, add 20 c c of hydrochloric acid and digest on water bath add 150 c c of distilled water and filter rinse the beaker with 30 c c of distilled water and allow the washings to run through the filter saturate the combined filtrate and washings with hydrogen sulphide, filter off the bismuth sulphide, wash and dissolve in hot dilute nitric acid add a slight excess of ammonia water followed by 2 c c of ammonium carbonate test solution allow to stand thirty minutes, filter off the precipitated bismuth hydroxide and heat to constant weight at dull red heat the residue of bismuth oxide bi₂o₃ should not be less than 45 per cent nor more than 55 per cent of the original weight of bismuth tribromphenate taken, corresponding to not less than 40 per cent nor more than 49 per cent of bismuth the heyden chemical works accepted the proposed monograph regardingthe laboratory findings, the firm stated that “the product had to bemade in this country after importations from europe became impossibleand the first lots were not fully up to the standard ” later the firmstated that it could furnish a product which it considered equal tothat which was previously imported and offered to submit “samples ofthe new material ”merck and co acknowledged the receipt of the monograph but made nostatement as to its acceptance or suggestions for its revision as thenew monograph was accepted by the heyden chemical works and as merckand co offered no objections, it was adopted for n n r , 1919, bythe council on pharmacy and chemistry in november, 1918, merck and co sent a specimen labeled “bismuthtribromphenate-merck, ” “merck and co , new york, distributors andguarantors” and wrote. “you will notice this sample conforms in nearlyall details to the tests submitted with our letter of june 4 we havebeen able to produce better goods, but just at present unsatisfactorystarting material confronts us ”examination of the specimen demonstrated that it was soluble to aconsiderable extent in alcohol the n n r , 1918, descriptionprovides that it should be only slightly soluble in alcohol and, according to the standards adopted for new and nonofficial remedies, 1919, contained 18 per cent of uncombined tribromphenol more thanfive times the permitted amount in december, 1918, merck and co submitted another specimen and said:“we believe this is a better grade than we have been able to make inthe recent past it seems to meet all the tests for n n r , 1919, with two exceptions. These are a solubility in alcohol, and b thetest for uncombined tribromphenol {”}when the two recent samples of bismuth tribromphenate-merck and twosamples of xeroform-heyden were examined according to the new monographthe results given in table 8 were obtained table 8 -- examination of tribromphenate and xeroform 1 bismuth weight of per cent weight bi₂o₃ of brand and date received taken, obtained, bismuth, gm gm gm xeroform-heyden from mfr july, 1918 0 6754 0 3565 47 2 xeroform-heyden open market july, 1918 0 8259 0 6156 66 7 bismuth tribromphenate-merck nov , 1918 0 4882 0 2512 46 1 bismuth tribromphenate-merck dec , 1918 0 8869 0 4495 45 5 2 uncombined tribromphenol no c c per cent weight of tenth- of free brand and date received taken, normal naoh tribrom- gm consumed, phenol c c xeroform-heyden from mfr july, 1918 1 7 4 24 5 xeroform-heyden open market july, 1918 1 0 7 2 3 bismuth tribromphenate-merck nov , 1918 1 5 7 18 8 bismuth tribromphenate-merck dec , 1918 1 5 16 5in view of the laboratory report the referee of the council onpharmacy and chemistry in charge of bismuth tribromphenate recommendedthat the acceptance of xeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merckbe withdrawn, but that this should be without prejudice to theirreinstatement when satisfactory products are again offered for sale the council adopted the recommendation of the referee and accordinglyxeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merck are omitted from newand nonofficial remedies, 1919 when the laboratory findings with regard to xeroform-heyden and theaction of the council deleting the article from new and nonofficialremedies was reported to the heyden chemical works, the firm expressedregret that efforts to produce a product equal to that formerlyobtained from gerthesis had so far not been successful and announcedthat it had decided to withdraw xeroform-heyden from the market forthe present when merck and co was advised in regard to the reportof the laboratory and council action, this firm questioned thefeasibility of producing a product meeting the council standards andsuggested that the test for free tribromphenol be revised to permitas much as 15 per cent of this constituent when merck and co wasreminded that its product submitted in 1915 essentially complied withthe adopted standards an old sample of xeroform-heyden was also foundto comply and that the estimate of the therapeutic value of bismuthtribromphenate is based on a product essentially devoid of freetribromphenol, the firm replied:“as stated in our letter of the 12th inst , we do not wish to marketthe chemical unless it meets all legitimate requirements of thephysicians that use it if, therefore, your standard proves to be goodand it is commercially possible to make supplies conforming to it, weshall do so we shall discontinue the article unless it is of suitablequality ”-- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1918, p 93 the standardization of procain and examination of the market supplyprocain, which chemically is the mono-hydrochlorid ofpara-amino-benzoyldiethyl-amino-ethanol, is the nonproprietary nameselected by the federal trade commission as the official designationfor the drug previously known under the proprietary name “novocaine ”before the war procain was obtainable in this country only throughthe farbwerke hoechst co , the american representative of the germanestablishment, farbwerke, vorm, meister, lucius and bruening, underthe name “novocaine ” this monopoly on “novocaine” was exercised byvirtue of united states patent no 812554, which was issued to alfredeinhorn, munich, gerthesis, assignor to farbwerke, vorm, meister, luciusand bruening, hoechst a m , in 1906 with the outbreak of hostilities, congress passed the trading with the enemy act, and under this, thefederal trade commission took charge of the novocain patent with aview of securing the production of this product in the united states to ensure an adequate supply of the drug, the federal trade commissionon recommendation of the committee on synthetic drugs of the nationalresearch council, in addition to issuing a license to the farbwerkehoechst company which license was later transferred to the h a metzlaboratories granted authority to the abbott laboratories and therector chemical company to manufacture it under the u s patent afterspecimens submitted by these firms had been found satisfactory in theassociation laboratory and at the cornell pharmacologic laboratory when the first specimen of american made procain was sent to theamerican medical association chemical laboratory it was necessary towork out adequate standards the standards were formulated on the basisof the novocain monograph in the german pharmacopeia, 1910, ed 5, p 363, remedia “hoechst, ” p 242, and new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, p 32, and the work carried out in this laboratory the following description has been adopted for new and nonofficialremedies, 1919, and all specimens of procain were subjected to thesetests:procain occurs in small colorless and odorless crystals, or acrystalline powder which if placed on the tongue produces a transientsense of numbness it melts at 153-155 c 212212 u s patent number 812, 554-- the novocain patent-- declaresthat the salt melts at 156 c evidently based on this, the germanpharmacopoeia remedia “hoechst” and past editions of new andnonofficial remedies give this melting point two specimens of germanmade novocain obtained from our files, stated to be manufactured byfarbwerke-hoechst vorm meister, lucius and bruening, hoechst a m were found to melt, respectively, between 154 and 155 c and between153 5 and 154 5 c when the melting point was determined according tothe directions of the u s pharmacopoeia, 9th revision the variousspecimens examined at that time melted between 153 and 155 c and itwas decided to permit this range one gm of procain is soluble in 0 7 c c of water and in 20 c c ofalcohol u s p 95 per cent at 20 c from the aqueous solution, which is neutral, alkali hydroxids and carbonates precipitate thefree base in the form of a colorless oil, which soon congeals to acrystalline mass, but solutions of sodium bicarbonate are miscible withsolutions of procain without producing precipitations or turbidity dissolve 1 gm of procain in water separate portions of the solutionyield a white precipitate with potassium mercuric iodid solution, a white precipitate with mercuric chlorid test solution, a brownprecipitate with iodin test solution and a yellow precipitate withpicric acid test solution acidify a portion with dilute nitric acid a white curdy precipitate is thrown down on the addition of silvernitrate test solution dissolve about 0 1 gm of procain in 5 c c of water, add 2 drops ofdilute hydrochloric acid and 2 drops of sodium nitrite solution 10 percent and mix with a solution of 0 2 gm of betanaphthol in 10 c c ofsodium hydroxid solution 10 per cent a scarlet red precipitate isthrown down to a solution of about 0 1 gm of procain in 5 c c of water add 3drops of dilute sulphuric acid and mix with 5 drops of potassiumpermanganate test solution the violet color of the latter disappearsimmediately distinction from cocain dissolve about 0 1 gm procain in 1 c c sulphuric acid u s p thesolution is colorless organic impurities dissolve 0 1 gm of the salt in 10 c c of water and saturate withhydrogen sulphid no coloration or precipitation occurs salts of theheavy metals incinerate about 0 5 gm of procain accurately weighed not more than0 1 per cent of residue remains to obtain specimens representing the market supply, orders for thethree brands of procain were placed with pharmaceutical firms in newyork, baltimore and san francisco the baltimore and san franciscofirms supplied specimens of procain-novocain brand and procain-rectorbrand but reported that the abbott brand was not procurable thenew york correspondent was able to supply procain-rector only asthe entire output of the abbott laboratories was stated to go tothe government, specimens of this product were obtained through thesurgeon-general of the army from the general purchasing office, medicaldept , u s army the following specimens were obtained and examined:1 procain-abbott, 6 specimens. The first specimen bore no serialnumber but the five later specimens were designated respectively, no 89999, no 89998, no 89997, no 89996, and no 810995, representingbatches from which shipments are to be made on contracts placed by thegeneral purchasing office, medical dewritingment, u s army, with theabbott laboratories of chicago 2 procain-novocain brand, 4 specimens. These were designatedrespectively, a56, a57, a63, and a67 the first two specimens werelabeled “manufactured by the farbwerke-hoechst co at the h a metz laboratories ” the third specimen not in original containerwas labeled “h a metz laboratories” and the fourth was marked“manufactured by the h a metz laboratories ”3 procain-rector, 3 specimens. Each bore the statement “manufacturedby the rector chemical company” but had no “lot number ”from this examination it appears that all the specimens of procainreceived complied satisfactorily with all tests of identity and puritywith the following exceptions.