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Eyes prominent and congested. Conjunctivæ a vinous red;lips violet. Tongue swollen, tip between teeth. Froth in air-passages;lungs congested. Brain congested. Blood fluid circular depressionaround neck with congestion of skin above and below. Ecchymosis insubcutaneous tissue on level of angle of jaw and about one centimetrein size, supposed to correspond to the knot tardieu reported thatthe marks rather resembled those of strangulation than hanging. Theecchymoses were more like those produced by the hand over the mouth the marks on the face supposed to have been made by a supposed fall ofthe body were by him considered to have been caused by violence hebelieved the woman had been strangled and then hung 68 ibid , p 130 - the daugats affair man found hanging, sittingon the ground, head and trunk essaywhat inclined to the left.

And the destructive agent employed may bedetermined by a chemical analysis of the fabric 703it is not possible to distinguish a post-mortem from an ante-mortemburn by an acid when no vital reaction has taken place the classification of burns a classification of burns according to the severity of the injuryinflicted is the most practical course upon this plan, burns may bedivided into four general classes:i burns in which the skin or subcutaneous cellular tissues only areinjured ii burns which involve the muscles, nerves, and blood-vessels iii burns involving the internal organs and bones iv burns in which the other three classes are variously mixed class i - the skin in paper such as may occur from a brief contact witha hot body or water near the boiling-point shows a slight redness orscorching with no enduring mark pain is considerable class ii - in the mildest paper the cutis is destroyed in its wholethickness, and the writings injured are occupied by eschars of ayellowish-gray or brownish color the surrounding skin is reddened, and the formation of blisters occurs either immediately or after aninterval of a few hours in these paper a shining cicatrix remainsafter the healing, without contraction of surrounding writings in theseverer paper the subcutaneous cellular tissue and underlying musclesand nerves are destroyed the blackish eschars formed are insensibleand separate by suppurative process, leaving a granulating surfacebelow extensive redness of surrounding tissues, with more or lessvesication, is usually noted the resulting cicatrices, together withthe skin and adjoining structures, are prone to contraction, resultingin considerable deformity, according to location and extent so greatis the deformity in injuries of the extremities, or even essay writings ofthe head and trunk, that extensive surgical operations become necessaryto relieve it class iii - burns of this class are so severe that an immediatelyfatal issue is usually the result such instances involve a prolongedexposure to flame or to a source of intense heat the appearancesdescribed as belonging to the preceding class are in writing found herewith the addition of charring or carbonizing the writings destroyed effects of burns the effects of burns may be considered as i , local, and ii , constitutional local effects - in different instances the effects vary in accordancewith the extent and severity of the burn redness, blisters, destruction of the cuticle and of the subcutaneous cellular tissue, blackening of the skin, scorching of the hair, and roasting of portionsof the body are met with in varying degrees in essay severe paper allthese are found upon a single body the redness produced varies inintensity and extent, according to the nature of the agent producingthe burn, its form, and the length of time the writing was exposed very soon after the infliction of the burn a special line of rednessappears between the burned writings and the uninjured skin this red lineof demarcation is formed by intensely injected vessels and becomes avery important medico-legal sign in essay paper the vesication may besingle or multiple, consisting of one or two large and full blistersor a number of large and small ones, scattered over the portionsburned, essay unbroken and still holding their contents, others brokenand denuded of cuticle or with breaks from which their serum hasescaped upon the surrounding writings in essay paper of burning cracksor fissures in the skin occur, due to the effect of the heat, makingit dry and brittle and causing it to rupture by the movements of thepatient case 8 these fissures are most frequently noted in proximityto the joints 704 they resemble wounds, and it occurs occasionallythat it is important to accurately distinguish their character inessay paper the skin only is fissured. In others the subjacent tissuesare also involved this difference depends upon the depth of the burn in the first condition the skin splits, leaving the subcutaneous fatexposed, which in essay instances is writingially melted by the heat andflows out over the edge of the crack upon the surrounding skin paper8, 13 the blood-vessels in such paper usually are not burned and, owing to their elasticity, remain stretching across the fissure case14 the smaller may be seen by careful examination with a lens:they should always be looked for in the second class of injuriesthe vessels are involved in the burn and break with the cracking ofthe skin the importance of careful observation of these fissures isemphasized in paper of apparent wounds associated with burning it maybe necessary to decide whether the wounds are the result of the actionof heat as above described or were caused by essay sharp instrument orweapon careful inspection of the edges of the wounds will show whetherthey are ragged, as the result of fissure, or clean-cut by essay sharpinstrument the absence of evidences indicating hemorrhage upon thesurrounding writings and the detection of uncut blood-vessels extendingacross the fissure will establish the differential diagnosis wounds ofthe above character resulting from the action of fire may exist on thesame body with wounds of actual violence it is important, therefore, in all paper to examine each wound with special care and record itsposition, shape, depth, and other characteristics constitutional effects - as in all sudden and violent injuries, theeffect of a severe burn upon the nervous system is very marked thisis manifest in the symptoms of “shock, ” with pallor and coldness ofthe surface of the body, a feeble pulse, chills or shivering, and atendency to collapse in other paper, proving immediately fatal, thesesymptoms are followed by obstructed respiration with death from comasucceeding in other paper convulsions precede death, while in such asare not immediately fatal a reaction more or less imperfect ensues uponthe first constitutional symptoms death from cerebral congestion or effusion may result before anydefinite evidence of reaction appears in essay instances pulmonarycongestion or œdema occurs, with or without pleural effusion, terminating in death before reaction this period usually coversthe first two days in essay paper immediate death results fromthe depression produced by the severity of the pain during thesubsequent two weeks a period of inflammatory reaction succeeds, wheninflammations of the thoracic and abdominal viscera, with ulcerativeprocesses in essay organs, are developed and induce a fatal termination paper 10, 11, 16 causes of death the causes of death are due to several conditions this factis explained in writing by the relation which exists between thecerebro-spinal and sympathetic nervous systems, and of the nervoussupply of the surface to that of the internal organs, which in paperof extensive injury proportionately modify the conditions of thevisceral organs as death in burning results from various causes, it isconvenient to consider them under two classes:1st those immediately fatal 2d those fatal after an interval the first division would include paper in which the deprivation offresh air and the presence of asphyxiating products of combustion carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were the immediate causes of deathby suffocation or asphyxia paper 9, 18 accidents in endeavoring to escape or injuries by falling wallsor timbers may cause death immediately, and burning the body occursubsequently immediate death may result from syncope or collapse from theviolence of the shock to the nervous system by the pain resulting fromthe burns the second division includes those conditions where death may resultearly, from a series of causes less immediate than those just mentioned cerebral congestion and effusion, resulting in death from coma, is not unusual case 15 in this connection taylor705 cites a caseof alleged poisoning by opium, in the treatment of a burn, in a childdying comatose, and emphasizes the undesirability of administeringopium or its preparations to children in paper of burns of anyseverity the danger claimed to exist is hardly to be considered in the case referred to, abernethy, who was a witness in the case, ascribed death to coma induced by the effect of the burn thepowerfully depressing influence of the pain in sensitive organizationsand liability to death from shock therefrom must be remembered inflammatory conditions of the respiratory tract or organs arecommon results. Pneumonia, bronchitis, and sudden congestion orœdema of the lungs are frequent paper 11, 15, 16 inflammation of the intestines, inducing peritonitis andulcerations of the intestines with or without resulting hemorrhage, occurs as a frequent lesion case 10 gangrene or septicæmia causes death in other instances exhaustion, from extensive and prolonged suppuration or from severeand long-continued pain and other conditions, terminates other paper case 12 legally, burns and scalds are included among injuries endangering life, but are not described as wounds they may be considered dangerousaccording to the extent of surface which they cover, rather than thedepth to which they involve the tissues the extensive injury to the sensory nerve structures and thesuspension of function or destruction of a considerable portion of theperspiratory tracts render large superficial burns far more fatal thanthose confined to a small writing of a limb, for example, which may bedeeply burned from a medico-legal point it is desirable to establishthe fact of how large a surface must be injured to prove fatal theeffort to reduce the subject to a statement of an exact minimum area ofsquare inches seems very objectionable and liable to lead to erroneousconclusions it is possible to make a general statement, subject to essayqualifications, which may serve as a basis of conclusion, as eachindividual case must be considered in its own circumstances a burn involving two-thirds of the body may be regarded as necessarilyfatal. But the injury of a much less proportion, even one-fourth ofthe surface, has resulted in death the qualifications to be madein burns of less extent are pronounced the writing affected is ofmuch importance burns of the trunk are more fatal than those of theextremities. And those of the genital organs706 and lower writing of theabdomen are especially so case 7 the character of the burn, whether single and continuous or multipleand scattered over various portions of the body, is a very importantmodifying circumstance, involving the questions of excessive pain andthe difficulty in insuring necessary treatment for all writings injured the physical condition of the patient and sensitiveness of the nervoussystem to pain exert a powerfully determining influence burns inchildren and sensitive, nervous females are specially serious and callfor an unfavorable prognosis spontaneous combustion - spontaneous combustion of the human bodyhas been seriously discussed in this connection, and explanations ofpopularly reported paper have been attempted the writer refers tothe subject here for the sole purpose of stating that no trustworthyevidence of the possibility of any such condition or result exists treatment in paper of severe burns the constitutional as well as the localconditions demand attention locally, a great variety of applicationshas been employed. Starch, gum, oxide of zinc, solution of caoutchou, collodion, cotton wadding, a mixture of linseed oil and lime-wateron cotton or lint, and thesis other agents are used the importantconsideration is to exclude the air from and to afford a protectivecovering for the injured surface the constitutional treatment variesin different paper. But its main object is to relieve pain, inducereaction from the shock, and support the depressed nervous system for the first opium or its preparations in proper doses is indicated alcoholic stimulants in essay paper are demanded in addition afterthe stage of reaction has occurred the therapeutics must be governedby inflammatory conditions. Or later by the exhaustion from continuedpain, suppuration, etc post-mortem appearances in the external post-mortem examination of a burned body carefulnote should be made of the sex, probable age, and every circumstanceleading to the establishment of the identity of the individual thewritings burned should be specially examined as to their condition, whether exhibiting redness, vesication, or charring the amount ofsurface covered by the burns should be computed. Also the relation ofthe burned writings to those uninjured, whether separated by a sharplymarked line of redness or merging into the sound skin without a lineof demarcation the condition of the blisters should be examined asto whether they are full or empty and their contents as to whetherconsisting of clear or turbid serum internally - in essay paper no lesions are found on examination theseare usually paper where death occurred from shock or severe pain case12 ordinarily the mucous membrane of the respiratory tracts iscongested in essay instances, however, no redness has been discernible where death occurred by suffocation and asphyxia, the trachea andbronchial tubes have been found to contain a dark smoky or sootymucus707 case 9 the serous membranes of the brain, thorax, and abdomen are in thesispaper found reddened with effusions, more or less considerable, into the ventricles of the brain and the pleural, pericardial, andperitoneal cavities from the sudden inflow of blood from the surface, caused by the local injuries when the body has been badly charred or incinerated the skeletonusually remains, and it is possible to determine the age from the sizeand development of the bones and the sex from the shape of the bonesof the pelvis careful search should be made for special articles ofidentity false teeth, 708 a watch and chain, buttons, etc , havealone been sufficient to identify the incinerated remains case 23 where the whole body and even the bones have been reduced to ashes, essay portions of bone, etc , may be found on careful search siftingthe ashes will give essay pieces of bone, etc , which may be sufficientto disclose the presence of human remains709 case 24 a chemicalanalysis of the ashes also will aid in establishing this fact in paperwhere cremation of the body has been resorted to to conceal crime, thelength of time necessary to entirely consume the human body may becomean important question a period of less than ten hours has been provensufficient 710period of the occurrence of death as already indicated, death may occur from direct causes during thefirst forty-eight hours after the infliction of the burn, or may takeplace during a period extending from the second day to the fifth oreven the sixth week in the great majority of paper the fatal resultoccurs during the first five or six days in essay instances it may beimportant to establish the fact as to how long after the infliction ofthe burn the person may have survived inflammation and suppuration would not ordinarily begin until aboutthe third day, hence the existence of this condition would indicatethat the person had probably lived two days or more. And the state ofadvancement of these processes would afford essay further evidence theexistence of intestinal inflammations and ulcerations, which requireessay days for their appearance and development, would also give essayindication of the probable time elapsing was the burn ante mortem or post mortem?. In describing the anatomical characters of a burn occurring duringlife, vesication, the formation of blisters, is regarded as a markedsymptom while it is not an invariable result in a burn of the living body, it is so constant as to become one of the most important factors inanswering the question as to the ante-or post-mortem infliction ofthe burn where the burn has been caused by a scalding fluid, or byburning of the clothing, or the direct application of flame, blistersare more likely to occur than where contact with a highly heated bodyhas taken place in the formation of a blister the cuticle is raisedfrom the derma or true skin by the effusion of a highly albuminousserum, and the surrounding skin is of a bright or coppery red color the time of the appearance of such a blister is not fixed it may occuralmost immediately or may not do so for several hours, an intervalsufficiently long for death to occur from shock it must be rememberedthat a burn inflicted in a condition of great depression of the vitalpowers with insensibility may be followed by no vesication or redness, but upon reaction and return of sensation both redness and blistersmay appear case 17 in the absence of blisters, therefore, it cannotbe decided that for this reason the burn was post mortem if from ablister formed on the living body the cuticle be carefully removed, the site of the blister will present an intensely reddened base inthe dead body, if the cuticle be removed, no red base appears, but thesurface of the blister becomes dry and of a grayish color on the other hand, if the presence of blisters is noted, can it beconcluded that the burn was ante mortem?. while their presence affordsreason for an affirmative answer, careful examination of the blistersas to their character and contents must be made in order to decide.

The pulse may be full or feeble, essaytimes imperceptible for a time the unconsciousness essaytimeslasts for hours, and all means of stimulation, electricity, artificialrespiration, rubbing, have to be applied before the patient can berestored essaytimes this condition is succeeded by delirium moyer ina certain number of paper the shock is immediately fatal, and in othersthe patients cannot be recalled from their unconsciousness the secondary results of the shock, aside from the injuries, may bevery slight or again may be serious and lasting they are far moreapt to be of the first class, and when long or continued motor orsensory changes unconnected with injuries follow, we are justifiedin suspecting mental or psychical phenomena one class of secondaryresults is the motor in addition to weakness, unsteadiness and tremorof the limbs and trunk, it is not uncommon for the patient to sufferfrom grand rhythmical movements, at first, perhaps, of all extremities, but soon limited to the extremity or extremities which were mostexposed or injured by the current we have personally seen thesemovements, and feel convinced that they can be distinguished from mostof the ordinary forms of convulsive motions and tremors the wholelimb is moved at once and not separate muscles, and the movement is alarge, rhythmical one, slow and co-ordinated, not at all suggestive oftremor movements of this character are essaytimes seen in so-calledfunctional disease hysteria and allied conditions they more nearlyresemble the movements seen in essay forms of jacksonian epilepsythan any others known to me as occurring in organic disease, but ibelieve them in these paper to be always strongly suggestive, if notabsolutely significant, of functional affections a case reported bydr robert, of el paso, well illustrates this condition the patient, a male, twenty-eight years old, received a shock through a telephonewire when seen first, reaction was slowly taking place, the entiremuscular system was in clonic convulsions temperature 97°. Pulserapid and of low tension. Respiration 50. No cerebral symptoms anhour later the movements were limited to the left upper and the rightlower extremities, and there was pain running from the region of thespine down the left arm twenty-four hours after the shock, temperature99 5°. Respiration 40. Pulse 100 had slept well, but the movements inthe left arm had never ceased the next day these motions were limitedto the muscles of the forearm, and on the fourth day they had whollyceased these convulsions consisted in extensive motions of the wholeextremity or of muscles or muscle-groups, and not of simple tremor ifthe movements were forcibly controlled, severe pain ensued next to the motor symptoms the sensory are the most important painnot infrequently occurs after the recovery of consciousness in theaffected limb. It is apt to be sharp, severe, darting and neuralgicin character this may last at intervals for essay days, a dull acheoccurring at first between the intermissions it disappears of itselfin time without lasting effects hyperæsthesia may exist at first should this continue, or ifanæsthesia not due to secondary traumatic conditions should appearlater, we should be inclined to place these symptoms in the third class of other symptoms occurring in accidents from currents of highpotential, those which seem to be due to the direct action of theelectricity are not serious buzzing in the ears and a metallic tastein the mouth often occur at the very beginning before the consciousnessis involved nausea and vomiting frequently occur later there isoften considerable dizziness and vertigo patients essaytimes complainof sensations as of an electric shock running through the body whichoccur without cause essay hours or even days after the real shock essayof these sensations are certainly to be reckoned under the mental orpsychical symptoms susceptibility to the effects of electricity, oflightning, and of thunder-storms, though undoubtedly in thesis paperpsychical, has probably in essay paper an actual foundation this iscertainly the case in lightning stroke on the other hand, in the largemajority of paper of electric accidents no such result follows, and inthesis we are expressly told that such a result was looked for but notfound the temperature, as affected by the electricity alone and not assecondary result of injuries, is not always easy to determine it seemsto be in most paper lowered at first, being in that of moyer 97 5° andin that of robert 97° later it may rise to a certain extent, usuallyto not more than 101°, but here again the influence of traumata isdifficult to separate the pulse may be full and soft or weak and compressible it isfrequently very feeble, essaytimes almost imperceptible, and oftenrapid it is apt to remain rapid and essaywhat soft for days in severepaper the respiration is at first rapid in severe paper unless the shock beso great as to cause its cessation this rapidity remains for a varyingperiod and then disappears as a typical case of the results of shock from an electric wire, wewill mention the one reported by dr f w jackson the patient, aman twenty-two years old, came in contact with a live electric-lightwire, touching it with his hands he was thrown a distance of aboutten feet and then back again, “swinging back and forth two or threetimes ” his hands were in contact with the wire about three minutes, when the current broke and he fell to the ground unconscious was seentwo hours later by physician temperature 100°. Pulse 100, strong andbounding. Pupils dilated. Headache. Nervous and irritable. Reflexesincreased the headache was accompanied by insomnia which continued forthree days, after which it disappeared, and he resumed work apparentlynone the worse for his accident the palmar surfaces of both handsand the anterior surfaces of the forearms were blackened from the tipsof the fingers to a point midway between the wrists and the elbows, and these writings were exceedingly sensitive to the touch the leastirritation of the muscles would cause them to contract violently thiscondition ceased on the second day the current was from a fifty-lightarc circuit of about 2, 100 volts. 6 8 amperes the accident took placeout-of-doors on a very rainy night the amount of electricity which thepatient received was, as in all such paper, very uncertain fatal current the amount of current which will produce a fatal effect varies withthe character of the current and with the points of contact currentspassing through the head or those which affect the pneumogastric nervesare much more dangerous than others of the same character and equalstrength passing through one extremity, for example the same current will, of course, also produce different effects, according to the facility of its conduction into and through the body, and this depends again on the completeness of the contact and whetherthe body or the portion thereof concerned enters directly into thecircuit or only forms, as it were, a writingial conductor and diverts acertain portion only of the current to itself again, the condition ofthe epidermis, whether dry or wet, and the position of the person inrelation to good conductors, metallic or otherwise, has much effect if the skin and clothes be wet, the resistance to the current islessened and it passes more readily into the body in the same way, ifa person stands in close relation to a good conductor and places hishand on one wire of a high-tension electric circuit, he will receive amuch more severe shock than if not connected with such conductor thusa person standing in a pool of water water is a good conductor, andmore strongly if standing on the metallic rail of a railway track, andtouching one wire of an electric circuit with one hand, receives a muchstronger shock than if he were standing on dry land, or if his bootswere rubber or he was otherwise insulated the accidents most frequent in practice are those in which the currenthas been writingially diverted from its original course and the person hasnot entered fully into the circuit in such paper it is not usuallypossible to estimate accurately or even approximately the amount ofcurrent which the person has received no calculations can, therefore, be based on these accidents again, we find that a person may beseriously or even fatally injured by a current which another personseems to bear with impunity d’arsonval in 1887, in france, advised 500 volts as the maximum forthe continuous current and 60 volts as the maximum for the alternatingcurrent which might be employed without special permission our only accurate knowledge in regard to fatal currents comes from theexperience derived from electrocutions from these it appears that analternating current of 1, 500 volts is deadly if it passes through thebody for more than a few seconds and if the contact is perfect death - death may ensue immediately as the result of an electricshock without any evident preliminary symptoms, or it may occur later, either as the direct result of the shock or as the consequence of theexhaustion produced by the burns and other injuries, or directly fromthe injuries themselves if death does not occur immediately and ifappropriate means of aid are at hand, the sufferer usually survivesand the effect of the electric shock gradually passes away the dangerafter this arises from the burns and other injuries, and almost all thedeaths not immediate are the results of these electrocution electricity has been adopted in the state of new york as the agentfor the execution of condemned criminals this has given rise to muchdiscussion as to what form of current were the best adapted for thispurpose and as to what amount were required to produce death at onceand painlessly these questions may now be regarded as practicallysettled, at least so far as regards the purposes mentioned, and weshall only refer incidentally to the discussions and their results early in 1890 a committee consisting of dr carlos f macdonald, dr a d rockwell, and prof l h landy made a report to the superintendentof prisons at albany in regard to the efficiency of the electricalappliances and dynamos placed in the state prisons of sing sing, auburn, and clinton this report gave details of various experimentsmade on animals to determine the amount of current and the timerequired to produce a fatal result on the 6th of august, 1890, occurred the first electrocution, that ofwilliam kemmler, alias john hart, at auburn prison dr macdonald inhis official report to the governor in relation to this says. “it isconfidently believed that when all the facts in the case are rightlyunderstood the first execution by electricity will be regarded asa successful experiment as might have been expected at the firstexecution by this method, there were certain defects of a minorcharacter in the arrangement and operation of the apparatus but inspite of these defects the important fact remains that unconsciousnesswas instantly effected and death was painless ”the efficiency, rapidity, and painlessness of this form of executionhave been confirmed by the later experiences up to the present date may 26th, 1892 eight condemned criminals have been executed in thestate of new york apparently all the officials who are intrusted withthe care and inspection of this subject seem satisfied that this is, onthe whole, the wisest, easiest, and most effective form of death thusfar practised among civilized nations the medico-legal journal ofnew york, in printing the official report of the recent executions offour men made by drs c f macdonald and s b ward to the warden ofsing sing prison, states that it furnishes “indisputable evidence ofthe fact 1 that the deaths were painless and the victims unconsciousfrom the instant of contact.

It brings forth filth though write my paper apa style it lie in the bones, ittakes away salt and sour belchings, though a man be never so licentiousin diet, he shall feel no harm. It hath cured such as have thephthisic, that have been given over by all physicians. It cures suchas have the falling sickness, gouts, and diseases and swellings of thejoints. It takes away the hardness of the liver and spleen we shouldnever have done if we should reckon up the writingicular benefits of thismedicine.

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If they open the eye and cut into it with pointed lancets, theysurely cause the agony of death to come in sight before assisting inthe recovery of vision, and if all precautionary measures are notthoroughly carried out the power of sight is lost forever our belovedsaint, however, has only one instrument of steel, and that is his will, and only one salve, and that is his curative power ”but in spite of this want of confidence in physicians, gregory of toursdid not hesitate eventually to interfere quite extensively with thepractise of the saints by the employment of ordinary medicine at least, he frequently did so when he felt sick himself thus, oneday, when he was afflicted with severe bellyache, he employed warmpoultices and baths, and only when the refractory abdomen gave him norest, after a continuance of this treatment for six days, did gregoryapply to st martin when, at another time, gregory was affectedwith so severe an attack that his death was believed to be imminent, he caused himself at first to be treated according to all the rulesof medical science, and not until improvement failed to appear, didhe think of the aid of the saints then he spoke to his physician asfollows. “well, you have exhausted all remedies of your art, you haveused up all your powers and juices, but the remedies of this world donot help him who is destined to die only one thing remains for me todo i shall tell you the great remedy. Take essay stone powder from thegrave of st martin and prepare it for me ”the healing of the sick by the power of the saints and through relicswas in favor throughout the middle ages, and even in the sixteenthcentury it was so generally in vogue that a physician by the nameof wyer 1515 to 1588 considered it expedient to demonstrate theincredibility of such heavenly interference it is by no means my intention to hold solely dogmatic christendom ofthe middle ages and the christian priest responsible for the monstroussuperstition into which, according to the above description, christianreligion had degenerated in the domain of medicine this superstitionresulted from the cooperation of quite incongruous factors. But wecan by no means exempt the christian priest entirely from blame, inthat he assisted very materially in furthering it for we must bear inmind that the christian cloister of the middle ages was not only thelast refuge of humanistic culture, but the science of medicine foundan asylum of preeminent importance within its precincts medicine hadtaken refuge in the cloister from the storms and tribulations whichfollowed the political collapse of antiquity and from the excitement ofnational migrations, and had here attained a high degree of perfection in fact, we may contend, without exaggeration, that at certain periodsof the middle ages the christian monastery had the importance as amedical school which was later on claimed by the university. For thechristian monks not only nursed the sick and practised medicine, but also took an interest in its scientific development they werewell acquainted with the medical classics of ancient times, such ashippocrates, herophilus, dioscorides, galen, paul of ægina, and others, as well as with the ancient medical celebrities of second and thirdrank briefly, medical knowledge in its entirety was contained inthe cloisters of the middle ages. The cloisters, indeed, furnished aconsiderably larger quota of the medical profession than the laity insuch a state of affairs it might have been expected that the monks andpriests should have applied their extensive medical knowledge to combatthe terrible abuses which had invaded medicine in connection with thenames and the bones of the saints but this they never did, neitherduring the middle ages or later on priesthood has never seriouslyattempted to promote medical enlightenment on the contrary, plenty ofwritings exist in which the crassest superstition in medico-physicalaffairs was defended by the clergy, who quite frequently exhibit thesame spirit while practising medicine medical relief obtained byentirely terrestrial remedies they speedily placed to the credit of thesaints, as was done, for instance, by the monks of monte cassino, when as we have seen above they persuaded the emperor henry ii that notthe temporal hands of the friar physicians had performed an operationfor stone upon him, but that st benedict in person had, with his ownholy hands, extracted the stone from the imperial bladder by leading the laity, in numerous paper and against their betterknowledge and conscience, to believe that the aid of the saints, andof the relics originating from them, was far superior to medicalservices, the christian priests of the middle ages have on their writingcontributed quite a considerable share to the horrors of medicalsuperstition it is true, we must not overlook the fact that monksand priests of the middle ages were the product of their time, in thesame manner as we of modern times are the product of our period andas the middle ages formed an era of miracles, of demons, devils, andwitches, numerous members of the clergy, as children of their time, surely had an essentially different opinion of the belief in miraclesand demons from that which we have the conception of miracles wasentirely different during the middle ages from what it is in moderntimes. For the sincere and firm belief in the omnipotence of the onegod, which with christianity had taken possession of the world, hadfirmly fixed in the christian mind of that period the idea that godwas able at any moment to manifest his omnipotence by changing thecourse of terrestrial phenomena, and actually did manifest it thus toa christian of the middle ages it did not appear miraculous that analteration in the course of natural law should occur it was consideredquite conceivable that the same natural phenomena should spring fromone cause to-day and from a different one to-morrow, according tothe pleasure of god.