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“now that the reconstructive properties of cottonseed oil are better appreciated by the profession, the advantages that follow the administration of a palatable emulsion of this strengthening and fattening food product are being demonstrated in hundreds of paper where formerly reliance would have been placed in cod liver oil a recent writer says that pure cottonseed oil is the greatest and purest vegetable oil known to chemistry, and will do much toward revolutionizing the treatment of the great white plague if the treatment of tuberculosis could resolve itself into the administration of a fatty substance in a readily assimilated form, there would be no need for any writing of firolyptol but the cottonseed oil the toxic material constantly produced in the system by the germs of tuberculosis tend to expose it more and more to the ravages of the disease, and the physiologic functions of the body suffer a constant depression to neutralize this germ activity with a consequent production of toxins it seems most logical to employ such agents as have demonstrated their suitability for such purposes, for which reason eucalyptol and kreosote with firwein are incorporated in firolyptol ”the assertion that cottonseed oil is an especially valuable formof fat is without warrant, but even if it were true the fat isavailable in cheap and palatable forms in numerous other cottonseedoil products it is unnecessary to discuss the problematic value ofcreosote in the treatment of tuberculosis or the value of eucalyptol now generally abandoned, or even of the secret mixture firwein food and fresh air, not drugs, constitute the fundamentals of thetreatment of tuberculosis, and it is both irrational and detrimental tothe interests of the tuberculous to administer various potent agentsin fixed and unknown amounts with such simple articles of food ascottonseed oil neither of these products is acceptable for new andnonofficial remedies editorial note -- firwein110 has been advertised to physiciansfor twenty-five or thirty years and it is a sad commentary on theintelligence of our profession that a preparation sold under suchobviously false and misleading, not to say silly, claims, should stillbe in existence firwein is claimed to “prevent waste of tissue” intuberculosis if it had this power, it would have found its placelong ago among the few great agents in drug therapy as a matter offact, firwein has gained virtually no recognition outside of the“literature” of the tilden concern the claims made for firwein are apeculiar mixture of studied candor-- when the truth is not likely tohurt its sale-- and inane vaporing-- when the facts would not redound toits credit the tilden company declares that “firwein stands withouta peer in its class ” but the company adds 10 drops of eucalyptol andessay cottonseed oil to this peerless product and an improvement isborn-- “firolyptol”!. then, to perfect the already perfectly perfected, 10 drops of creosote are added to “firolyptol” and the profession isoffered “firolyptol with kreosote”!. in just what verbal pyrotechnicsthe tilden company might indulge, should it decide to add ten dropsof essaything else to “firolyptol with kreosote, ” one shudders tocontemplate 110 three other tilden products have been the subject of deservedand unfavorable comment in the j a m a. “narkine” in the issue ofoct 24, 1908, “hydrocyanate of iron-tilden” in the issue of june 19, 1909, and “febrisol, ” in the issue of june 29, 1912 the first twoarticles are reprinted in the latest 9th edition of “the propagandafor reform ”if we are accused of exhibiting undue levity in discussing atherapeutic problem, we can only answer that it is impossible toconsider seriously the charlie chaplins of the nostrum world -- fromthe journal a m a , feb 17, 1917 biniodol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryin accordance with the usages of the council, the report whichappears below along with the reports of the clinical investigationby drs cole and keidel upon which the recommendations of thereferee were based were sent to the manufacturer for comment thereply of the manufacturer contained no evidence which justified thecouncil in modifying the action already taken publication of thereport was therefore authorized w a puckner, secretary biniodol was submitted to the council by the manufacturer, charles c yarbrough, memphis, tenn the manufacturer claims the product is asolution of 1 per cent of red mercuric iodid and 2 75 per cent ofguaiacol in bland vegetable oil it is marketed with the implicationthat it is new and superior to other oil solutions of mercuric iodid for instance. “ it is a straight solution of this mercurial compound, as no alkaline iodide or other chemical is used to bring about the solution ” “ it is probably the first and only one-percent oil solution of straight mercury biniodide made in america ” the manufacturer, in a letter addressed to the secretary of the council, explains. “by straight solution, i mean that the solution of the red mercuric iodid is effected without the aid of any alkaline iodid or other chemicals biniodol was first offered early in 1912 ” “biniodol is, therefore, superior and much to be preferred to other mercurials used for like purposes it is highly active therapeutically, producing the desired effects, usually without the inevitable disadvantages of other mercurials it rarely causes salivation, diarrhea, or other symptoms of mercurial intolerance, even when pushed to full therapeutic effect and when given for a considerable period of time nor does it produce anemia ”the chemical laboratory of the american medical association found thatbiniodol contained 1 per cent of mercuric iodid and 2 5 per cent of guaiacol. Hence the composition is essentially as claimed it isnot true, however, that biniodol is the “first and only one-percentsolution of straight mercury biniodide made in america ” as shownin the journal a m a , dec 9, 1914, p 2247, formulas by lemaireand dunning for making a “straight” solution of mercuric iodid werepublished in this country in 1909 and 1910, respectively moreover, a1 per cent solution of mercuric iodid in oil is on the market and isdescribed in new and nonofficial remedies to determine whether or not biniodol is “superior and much to bepreferred to other mercurials used for like purposes, ” the councilsecured the cooperation of the dewritingment of dermatology andsyphilology of the western reserve university cooperating with thecleveland city hospital, and of the johns hopkins hospital eachreceived three samples, labeled respectively, 1, 2 and 3. 1 containedbiniodol. 2, a 1 per cent solution of mercuric iodid in oil.

Used withhoney, it cleanses old and foul ulcers. And made into an oil, and theeyes anointed therewith, takes away the dimness and moistness it islikewise good for the pains in the sides and cramps the decoctionthereof taken for four days together, drives away and cures bothtertain and quartan agues it is also good against all diseases of thebrain, as continual head-ache, falling-sickness, melancholy, drowsinessand dullness of the spirits, convulsions and palsies a dram of theseed taken in powder purges by urine, and is good against the yellowjaundice the juice of the leaves dropped into the ears kills theworms in them the tops thereof, when they are in flowers, steepedtwenty-four hours in a draught of white wine, and drank, kills theworms in the belly stinking gladwin descript this is one of the kinds of flower-de-luce, havingdivers leaves arising from the roots, very like a flower-de-luce, butthat they are sharp-edged on both sides, and thicker in the middle, of a deeper green colour narrower and sharper pointed, and a strongill-scent, if they be bruised between the fingers in the middlerises up a reasonably strong stalk, a yard high at least, bearingthree or four flowers at the top, made essaywhat like the flowers ofthe flower-de-luce, with three upright leaves, of a dead purplishash-colour, with essay veins discoloured in them. The other three do notfall down, nor are the three other small ones so arched, nor cover thelower leaves as the flower-de-luce doth, but stand loose or asunderfrom them after they are past, there come up three square hard husks, opening wide into three writings when they are ripe, wherein lie reddishseed, turns black when it hath abiden long the root is like that ofthe flower-de-luce, but reddish on the outside, and whitish within, very sharp and hot in the taste, of as evil a scent as the leaves place this grows as well in upland grounds, as in moist places, woods, and shadowy places by the sea-side in thesis places of this land, and is usually nursed up in gardens time it flowers not until july, and the seed is ripe in august orseptember, yet the husks after they are ripe, opening themselves, willhold their seed with them for two or three months, and not shed them government and virtues it is supposed to be under the dominion ofsaturn it is used by thesis country people to purge corrupt phlegm andcholer, which they do by drinking the decoction of the roots. And essayto make it more gentle, do but infuse the sliced roots in ale. And essaytake the leaves, which serve well for the weaker stomach. The juicehereof put up, or snuffed up the nose, causes sneezing, and draws fromthe head much corruption. And the powder thereof doth the same thepowder thereof drank in wine, helps those that are troubled with thecramps and convulsions, or with the gout and sciatica, and gives easeto those that have griping pains in their body and belly, and helpsthose that have the stranguary it is given with much profit to thosethat have had long fluxes by the sharp and evil quality of humours, which it stays, having first cleansed and purged them by the dryingand binding property therein the root boiled in wine and drank, dotheffectually procure women courses, and used as a pessary, works thesame effect, but causes abortion in women with child half a dram ofthe seed beaten to powder, and taken in wine, doth speedily cause oneto make water abundantly the same taken with vinegar, dissolves thehardness and swellings of the spleen the root is very effectual in allwounds, especially of the head.

In a liquid medium the ingredients destroy eachother lactopeptin is manufactured by the new york pharmacal association, yonkers, n y it is sold under the write my business report claim that it contains, pepsin, diastase, pancreatin, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid this productwas among the first proprietary preparations examined by the council onpharmacy and chemistry the report of the investigation was publishedin the journal, march 16, 1907, p 959 the preparation was found to bepractically inert-- “essentially a weak saccharated pepsin, ” devoid oftryptic activity six years later it was still widely advertised with the same irrationalclaims a referee a therefore examined lactopeptine powdered forthe council in 1913, and confirmed the previous findings the refereereport was published in the journal, aug 2, 1913, p 358 nearly four months after this publication, the manufacturer protestedagainst the report, maintaining, contrary to the findings of thecouncil, that lactopeptine possesses pancreatic activity and contains“loosely combined” hydrochloric acid referee a therefore repeatedhis examination, and a second referee b, independently, examinedspecimens of lactopeptine powder purchased on the open market for thepurpose shortly before a few specimens examined by these two referees showed a slight trypticactivity. Most of them showed none the amount of hydrochloric acidpresent was insignificant the reports of the two referees were referred to the manufacturers, whoagain protested vehemently against these findings, this time on theground that the specimens were old the manufacturers also cited thework of three chemists to disprove the findings of the referees, anddemanded that the council reexamine lactopeptine, making use of freshspecimens the council refused for the following reasons:1 so long as the packages of lactopeptine are not dated, the activityof specimens known to be fresh is of no practical importance theactivity of the actual market supply is the only question of interestto the profession the only fair test is that made on specimensrepresentative of the product sold to the ultimate consumer 2 the evidence presented by the manufacturers did not warranta reexamination, since the work of two of the chemists citedsubstantially corroborates the results obtained by the councilreferees from the fresher specimens the figures for tryptic activityobtained by the third chemist cited by the manufacturers could not beaccepted by the council, since it was at variance with all other knownresults of investigations of lactopeptine 3 as stated at the outset, whatever the tryptic activity of themixture, it is therapeutically useless a demonstration of trypticactivity in a mixture containing both pepsin and pancreatin is ofmerely theoretical interest such activity, of course, cannot be expected, even on theoreticalgrounds, in liquid mixtures like elixir lactopeptine the council therefore again declared lactopeptine powder and tabletsand elixir lactopeptine ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies andauthorized publication of the following statement w a puckner, secretary the council reportlactopeptine powder new york pharmacal association, yonkers, n y was examined by the council in 1907 at that time it was claimed tocontain “ the five active agents of digestion-- pepsin, diastase veg ptyalin, pancreatin, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid-- combined in the proper proportion to insure the best results ”the examination showed that the preparation was essentially “a weaksaccharated pepsin, ” containing but small amounts of pepsin, nohydrochloric acid, or mere traces only, and no diastase or pancreatin the journal, march 16, 1907 in 1913, the product was reexamined, because the claims, as to bothcomposition and therapeutic value, were still being made sampleswere tested both of the american product, and of a british productfrom john morgan richards & sons, london the original findings wereconfirmed and the results were published in the journal, aug 2, 1913, p 358 nearly four months later november 24 the new yorkpharmacal association wrote to the council, objecting to the findingsand maintaining that lactopeptine possesses pancreatic activity andcontains “in loose chemical combination” hydrochloric acid inaccordance with the custom of the council, the work was sent back forreview to the referee a, whose conclusions were then tested by asecond referee b, a physiologic chemist, not a member of the council, selected because of his special knowledge of the subject in december, 1913, referee a made a large number of new tests todetermine proteolytic and amylolytic power his results show thatthe ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition in practical use the tests also show that the amount oflactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” or both present is too small tohave any appreciable physiologic activity and therefore to be of anytherapeutic value nine samples of lactopeptine purchased in the open market in december, 1913, and january, 1914, were examined by referee b early in 1914 hisstudies show absence of amylase in all samples. Presence of pepsin, giving weak reactions even when compared with those of old pepsinpreparations. Complete absence of trypsin in seven out of nine samples, tryptic reaction being obtained in two samples, in one of which thereaction, “slight at best and of no practical import, ” was obtainedonly after treatment for twelve hours or more the presence of tryptic activity in two out of the nine samples maybe due to the fresher condition of these specimens, as indicatedby the serial numbers the evidence shows that it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity it should be reaffirmed that mixtures combining peptic and pancreaticactivities are not feasible, because pepsin cannot act except in thepresence of acid, and pancreatin is destroyed by acid and by pepticactivity furthermore, in conditions in which pancreatin is calledfor, pepsin is not, and vice versa. Therefore the administration ofmixtures of pepsin and pancreatin would be unjustified, even if bothconstituents could be expected to exert activity the foregoing observations apply to lactopeptine in powder and tabletform while mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are unscientific andunjustified, theoretically the two substances may coexist in a solidpreparation, and the activity of such a preparation is consequently aproper subject of investigation theoretically as well as practically, however, pepsin and pancreatin cannot exist together in solution theclaims made for elixir lactopeptine and all other liquid preparationssold as mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therefore impossible the council has previously taken action the journal, feb 2, 1907, p 434 refusing to approve for inclusion with new and nonofficialremedies such preparations, calling the attention of the medicalprofession and of manufacturers to their worthlessness, and requestingthe american pharmaceutical association to instruct its committee onthe national formulary to omit from the next edition of that work aliquid preparation of pepsin and pancreatin recognized under the titleof “elixir digestivum compositum ”it is recommended that the council reaffirm this previous action, and that lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine be declared ineligiblefor new and nonofficial remedies because of conflict with rule 10 “no article will be admitted which, because of its unscientificcomposition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of the publicor of the medical profession” manufacturers’ protest and council answerthe foregoing was submitted, together with the findings of the tworeferees, to the manufacturers they protested again, alleging that. Age of specimensfirst -- the specimens of lactopeptine examined by the second refereewere old the dates of manufacture corresponding to the several batchnumbers are supplied by the manufacturers as follows. 2275 powder september, 1908 2301 powder june, 1909 2312 powder december, 1909 2348 powder october, 1911 2352 powder december, 1911 2364 powder july, 1912 2374 powder march, 1913 2383 powder october, 1913 1638 tablets october, 1911the manufacturers assert that they do not understand how specimens ofthese ages could have been purchased on the open market in 1913 and1914, inasmuch as their agents are and long have been instructed totake up from the druggist all lots of lactopeptine which, as indicatedby the batch numbers, have attained “any appreciable age ” the age ofthe specimens, the manufacturers declare, deprives the table in thesecond referee report of “all significance or interest ”as previously stated, however, the specimens of lactopeptine examinedwere purchased on the open market in various localities in unbrokenpackages, in december, 1913, and january, 1914 they thus representstock used in filling physicians’ prescriptions or sold to thepublic neither the referees nor any one connected with the councilhad any means of knowing the age of the specimens until the dates ofmanufacture were furnished by the new york pharmacal association thefirst tests of the second referee were made in february, 1914, onspecimens 2374 and 2383, which were then, it would appear, about oneyear old and four months old, respectively the council has repeatedlyurged that pharmaceutical substances which are subject to deteriorationshould be dated by the manufacturer, and a similar suggestion hasbeen made by the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingment ofagriculture concerning mixtures containing enzymes notwithstandingthe instructions which the new york pharmacal association claims tohave given its agents, the market supply of lactopeptine in december, 1913, and january, 1914, was not composed of new stock, and untilthe manufacturers adopt the practice of dating packages, there canbe no assurance that it will be fresh in this connection, it is ofinterest to note that the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingmentof agriculture has issued a warning that it will judge such products bythe degree of their activity when they reach the consumer, i e , asthey are found on the market reports of other chemistssecond -- the new york pharmacal association cites the work of severalchemists, who have examined lactopeptine and report the presence oftryptic activity dr s r benedict in december, 1913, reported tothe council “distinct” tryptic activity digestion in twelve hours bylactopeptine of 4 2 times its weight of fibrin containing 50 per cent moisture in specimens examined by him these specimens were numbered2382, and were therefore probably manufactured in october, 1913;compare the dates furnished by the manufacturer for the specimens usedby the second referee no tests against other preparations possessingtryptic activity are reported, and dr benedict expressly disclaimsany opinion as to the therapeutic value of the preparation 27 dr p b hawk, whose report was submitted by the manufacturers, found inlactopeptine by fermi method one-fifth tryptic activity of that ofmerck pancreatin, and by grützner method an activity of 18 percent of the pancreatin a test for the production of tryptophan wasreported positive the new york pharmacal association also submitteda report from dr a w balch, who found pepsin, rennin, trypsin, steapsin, amylopsin and lactic acid present in lactopeptine. Alsoan amount of combined hydrochloric acid in 1 gm the equivalent of1 05 c c tenth normal solution or 0 00383 gm hydrochloric acid hereports digestion in twenty-four hours by lactopeptine of 25 times itsown weight of fibrin “an active extract of pancreas reacted exactlylike the lactopeptine solution ” the serial numbers of the specimenstested by hawk and balch are not given, but no doubt they were fresh 27 dr benedict personal communication to a member of the councilis as follows:“in the report of the council upon lactopeptine which you sent to me, i find the following statement.

A weighed quantity ofthe iodin solution was transferred to a bottle or flask by means ofseveral small amounts of chloroform, about 50 c c in all to thiswas added about 25 c c of potassium iodid solution the mixture wasthen titrated with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate until on thoroughshaking no iodin passed into the aqueous layer to 2 1248 gm of iodin was added 199 3 gm of liquid petrolatum the mixture was shaken frequently each day and after forty daysthere seemed to be still a few writingicles of iodin undissolved thesupernatant solution was assayed, however, and found to contain 1 038per cent of iodin the iodin added was 1 055 per cent six monthslater 1 025 per cent of iodin was found to 5 1832 gm of iodin was added 199 5 gm of liquid petrolatum themixture was heated to 100 c for four hours with frequent shaking the iodin was in perfect solution the per cent of iodin would thenbe 4 95 upon cooling, iodin in abundance crystallized out afterstanding a few hours, with frequent shaking, the iodin in solution wasdetermined this was found to be 1 425 per cent these two experiments indicate. First, that the previous findings ofthe a m a chemical laboratory are correct in that only about 1 4per cent of free iodin is retained in solution in liquid petrolatumat room temperature second, that the quantity of iodin absorbed byliquid petrolatum at room temperature, in seven months at least, ispractically none third, that iodin dissolves rather slowly in liquidpetrolatum at room temperature in the experiments, the results of which are tabulated below, the iodinand liquid petrolatum were heated at 100 c for about four hours, shaking frequently to hasten solution after cooling, the specimenswere assayed and were again assayed at intervals as indicated in thetable date of per per kind of manufac- weight per per cent cent liquid ture and ┌─────┴─────┐ cent cent iodin iodin† petrolatum first iodin petrolatum iodin iodin nov 17, nov 19, used assay used found 1918 1919 stanolind 10/17/18 2 089 188 4 1 096 1 085 1 068 1 067 squibb 10/14/18 1 9569 186 78 1 0306 1 0232 1 013 1 009 unknown, bulk* 10/28/18 1 9497 158 2 1 225 1 133 1 075 1 095 parke, davis 10/24/18 2 0869 167 43 1 241 1 2488 1 191 1 180 & co * considerable dark sediment formed in this sample during the heating process † it should be pointed out here that while every sample showed essay absorption, the amount, with the exception of the unknown bulk, is so small that it might even be accounted for on the basis of “experimental error ” every ordinary precaution was taken to insure accuracy, but since about 15 gm of the solution was used for each determination, it is seen that an error of 0 3 c c in the titration would indicate a greater absorption of iodin than that noted conclusions. These experiments show. A solution of iodin in liquidpetrolatum is saturated when it contains about 1 4 per cent of iodin the amount of iodin absorbed disappearing as free iodin by liquidpetrolatum, when in contact at room temperature for as long as sevenmonths, or in contact at 100 c for four hours, or both, is relativelyinsignificant also all the absorption seems to take place during theheating and in the first month of contact -- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1919, p 21 american-made synthetic drugs-- ii examination of procain novocain, barbital veronal, phenetidyl- acetphenetidin holocain, cinchophen or phenylcinchoninic acid atophan, manufactured under federal trade commission licensesg paul nicholas leech, ph d. William rabak, ph g , sc b , and a h clark, ph g , sc b g from the chemical laboratory of the american medical association g the first article of this series dealt with the purity ofacetylsalicylic acid leech, p n.

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It is cultivated for domestic uses descript it is so commonly known to every housewife, it were labourlost to describe it time it flowers and seeds from june to the end of august government and write my business report virtues it is under the government of the moon. Inquality cold and moist like unto her it softens and loosens the bodyof man being eaten, and fortifies the expulsive faculty in him theherb, whether it be bruised and applied to the throat, or boiled, andin like manner applied, it matters not much, it is excellently goodfor swellings in the throat. The best way, i suppose, is to boil it, apply the herb outwardly. The decoction of it, besides, is an excellentremedy for the yellow jaundice arrach, wild and stinking called also vulvaria, from that writing of the body upon which theoperation is most. Also dog arrach, goat arrach, and stinkingmotherwort descript this has small and almost round leaves, yet a littlepointed and without dent or cut, of a dusky mealy colour, growing onthe slender stalks and branches that spread on the ground, with smallflowers set with the leaves, and small seeds succeeding like the rest, perishing yearly, and rising again with its own sowing it smells likerotten fish, or essaything worse place it grows usually upon dunghills time they flower in june and july, and their seed is ripe quicklyafter government and virtues stinking arrach is used as a remedy towomen pained, and almost strangled with the mother, by smelling toit. But inwardly taken there is no better remedy under the moon forthat disease i would be large in commendation of this herb, were ibut eloquent it is an herb under the dominion of venus, and under thesign scorpio. It is common almost upon every dunghill the works ofgod are freely given to man, his medicines are common and cheap, andeasily to be found i commend it for an universal medicine for thewomb, and such a medicine as will easily, safely, and speedily cure anydisease thereof, as the fits of the mother, dislocation, or falling outthereof.