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Also they say it kills worms, and therefore byessay is called maw-wormseed write my biology paper cussutha, cascuta, potagralini dodder see epithimum caryophyllata avens, or herb bennet, hot and dry. They help thecholic, rawness of the stomach, stitches in the sides, stoppings of theliver, and bruises cataputia minor a kind of spurge see tythymalus cattaria, nepeta nep, or catmints the virtues are the same withcalaminth cauda equina horse-tail. Is of a binding drying quality, cureswounds, and is an admirable remedy for sinews that are shrunk. It is asure remedy for bleeding at the nose, or by wound, stops the menses, fluxes, ulcers in the reins and bladder, coughs, ulcers in the lungs, difficulty of breathing caulis, brassica hortensis, silvestris colewort, or cabbages, gardenand wild they are drying and binding, help dimness of the sight.

Being roasted andlaid to the fundament, helps the hemorrhoids, is also good for burningsand scaldings curcumæ of turmerick, hot in the third degree, opens obstructions, is profitable against the yellow jaundice, and cold distemper of theliver and spleen, half a dram being taken at night going to bed in thepulp of a roasted apple, and if you add a little saffron to it, it willbe the better by far cyperiutriusque, longi, rotundi of cyprus grass, or english galanga, both sorts, long and round. Is of a warm nature, provokes urine, breaksthe stone, provokes the menses. The ashes of them being burnt areused for ulcers in the mouth, cankers, &c dauci of carrots are moderately hot and moist, breed but littlenourishment, and are windy dentaria majoris, &c of toothwort, toothed violets, or corralwort:they are drying, binding, and strengthening. Are good to ease pains inthe sides and bowels. Also being boiled, the decoction is said to begood to wash green wounds and ulcers with dictiamni of dittany. Is hot and dry in the third degree, hastenstravail in women, provokes the menses see the leaves doronici of doronicum, a supposed kind of wolf bane. It is hotand dry in the third degree, strengthens the heart, is a sovereigncordial, and preservative against the pestilence. It helps the vertigoor swimming of the head, is admirable against the bitings of venomousbeasts, and such as have taken too much opium, as also for lethargies, the juice helps hot rheums in the eyes. A scruple of the root in powderis enough to take at one time dracontii, dracunculi divers authors attribute divers herbs to thisname it is most probable that they mean dragons, the roots of whichcleanse mightily, and take away proud, or dead flesh, the very smell ofthem is hurtful for pregnant women.

As also to cleanse the foulness of sores, andcause them more speedily to be healed it is an especial remedy for allgreen wounds, to solder the lips of them, and to keep the place frothesis further inconveniencies the juice hereof used with oil of roses toanoint the temples and forehead, is very effectual to remove head ache, and the same mixed with honey of roses, cleanses and heals all ulcers, in the mouth, and throat, and those also in the secret writings and theproverb of the germans, french, and others, is verified in this, thathe needs neither physician nor surgeon that hath self-heal andsanicle to help himself the service-tree it is so well known in the place where it grows, that it needs nodescription time it flowers before the end of may, and the fruit is ripe inoctober government and virtues services, when they are mellow, are fit tobe taken to stay fluxes, scouring, and casting, yet less than medlers if they be dried before they be mellow, and kept all the year, theymay be used in decoctions for the said purpose, either to drink, or tobathe the writings requiring it. And are profitably used in that manner tostay the bleeding of wounds, and of the mouth or nose, to be applied tothe forehead and nape of the neck. And are under the dominion of saturn shepherd purse it is called whoreman permacety, shepherd scrip, shepherd pounce, toy-wort, pickpurse, and casewort descript the root is small, white, and perishes every year theleaves are small and long, of a pale green colour, and deeply cut inon both sides, among which spring up a stalk which is small and round, containing small leaves upon it even to the top the flowers are whiteand very small. After which come the little paper which hold the seed, which are flat, almost in the form of a heart place they are frequent in this nation, almost by every path-side time they flower all the summer long. Nay essay of them are sofruitful, that they flower twice a year government and virtues it is under the dominion of saturn, and ofa cold, dry, and binding nature, like to him it helps all fluxes ofblood, either caused by inward or outward wounds. As also flux of thebelly, and bloody flux, spitting blood, and bloody urine, stops theterms in women. Being bound to the wrists of the hands, and the solesof the feet, it helps the yellow jaundice the herb being made into apoultice, helps inflammations and st anthony fire the juice beingdropped into the ears, heals the pains, noise, and mutterings thereof a good ointment may be made of it for all wounds, especially wounds inthe head smallage this is also very well known, and therefore i shall not trouble thereader with any description thereof place it grows naturally in dry and marshy ground. But if it besown in gardens, it there prospers very well time it abides green all the winter, and seeds in august government and virtues it is an herb of mercury smallage ishotter, drier, and much more medicinal than parsley, for it much moreopens obstructions of the liver and spleen, rarefies thick phlegm, and cleanses it and the blood withal it provokes urine and womencourses, and is singularly good against the yellow jaundice, tertianand quartan agues, if the juice thereof be taken, but especiallymade up into a syrup the juice also put to honey of roses, andbarley-water, is very good to gargle the mouth and throat of thosethat have sores and ulcers in them, and will quickly heal them thesame lotion also cleanses and heals all other foul ulcers and cankerselsewhere, if they be washed therewith the seed is especially used tobreak and expel wind, to kill worms, and to help a stinking breath the root is effectual to all the purposes aforesaid, and is heldto be stronger in operation than the herb, but especially to openobstructions, and to rid away any ague, if the juice thereof be takenin wine, or the decoction thereof in wine used sopewort, or bruisewort descript the roots creep under ground far and near, with thesisjoints therein, of a brown colour on the outside and yellowish within, shooting forth in divers places weak round stalks, full of joints, setwith two leaves a-piece at every one of them on a contrary side, whichare ribbed essaywhat like to plantain, and fashioned like the commonfield white campion leaves, seldom having any branches from the sidesof the stalks, but set with flowers at the top, standing in long huskslike the wild campions, made of five leaves a-piece, round at the ends, and dented in the middle, of a rose colour, almost white, essaytimesdeeper, essaytimes paler. Of a reasonable scent place it grows wild in thesis low and wet grounds of this land, bybrooks and the sides of running waters time it flowers usually in july, and so continues all august, andwriting of september, before they be quite spent government and virtues venus owns it the country people in diversplaces do use to bruise the leaves of sopewort, and lay it to theirfingers, hands or legs, when they are cut, to heal them up again essaymake great boast thereof, that it is diuretical to provoke urine, andthereby to expel gravel and the stone in the reins or kidneys, and doalso account it singularly good to void hydropical waters. And they noless extol it to perform an absolute cure in the french pox, more thaneither sarsaparilla, guiacum, or china can do. Which, how true it is, ileave others to judge sorrel our ordinary sorrel, which grows in gardens, and also wild in thefields, is so well known, that it needs no description government and virtues it is under the dominion of venus sorrelis prevalent in all hot diseases, to cool any inflammation and heatof blood in agues pestilential or choleric, or sickness and fainting, arising from heat, and to refresh the overspent spirits with theviolence of furious or fiery fits of agues. To quench thirst, andprocure an appetite in fainting or decaying stomachs. For it resiststhe putrefaction of the blood, kills worms, and is a cordial to theheart, which the seed doth more effectually, being more drying andbinding, and thereby stays the hot fluxes of women courses, or ofhumours in the bloody flux, or flux of the stomach the root also in adecoction, or in powder, is effectual for all the said purposes bothroots and seeds, as well as the herb, are held powerful to resist thepoison of the scorpion the decoction of the roots is taken to helpthe jaundice, and to expel the gravel and the stone in the reins orkidneys the decoction of the flowers made with wine and drank, helpsthe black jaundice, as also the inward ulcers of the body and bowels asyrup made with the juice of sorrel and fumitory, is a sovereign helpto kill those sharp humours that cause the itch the juice thereof, with a little vinegar, serves well to be used outwardly for the samecause, and is also profitable for tetters, ringworms, &c it helps alsoto discuss the kernels in the throat. And the juice gargled in themouth, helps the sores therein the leaves wrapt in a colewort leaf androasted in the embers, and applied to a hard imposthume, botch, boil, or plague sore, doth both ripen and break it the distilled water ofthe herb is of much good use for all the purposes aforesaid wood sorrel descript this grows upon the ground, having a number of leavescoming from the root made of three leaves, like a trefoil, but broadat the ends, and cut in the middle, of a yellowish green colour, everyone standing on a long foot-stalk, which at their first coming up areclose folded together to the stalk, but opening themselves afterwards, and are of a fine sour relish, and yielding a juice which will turnred when it is clarified, and makes a most dainty clear syrup amongthese leaves rise up divers slender, weak foot-stalks, with every oneof them a flower at the top, consisting of five small pointed leaves, star-fashion, of a white colour, in most places, and in essay dashedover with a small show of blueish, on the back side only after theflowers are past, follow small round heads, with small yellowish seedin them the roots are nothing but small strings fastened to the end ofa small long piece.

Atsix inches the clothes were lacerated and the wadding penetrated tothe depth of one-half inch. At one and one-half inches from the chestthe wadding passed into the thoracic cavity between the ribs, and at asecond experiment carried away a portion of the ribs it is probable that an ordinary wadding such as loosely wrapped paper, rag, or similar material, especially as prepared by one not accustomedto military use of a weapon, would not produce a wound which wouldresemble that made by a bullet, and it is doubtful whether such a woundcould be produced at a greater distance than six inches from the body it is on record that in paris, in 1858, a circus cannon of four inchesbore, loaded with three ounces of grain powder retained by a wad ofold theatre bills loosely folded together and rammed home with onlymoderate force, was discharged in the direction of the boxes at adistance of about one hundred and fifty feet a man seated in one ofthese boxes opposite the muzzle of the gun, leaning forward, his armscrossed upon the handle of his umbrella, had his arm broken above theelbow immediately upon its discharge several portions of waddingwere found beneath the place where the man sat, but no marks existedupon his clothing nor upon the anterior writing of the arm, which musthave been inaccessible to any projectile that did not first strikethe forearm it was concluded that the fracture had been caused bythe violent and sudden starting of the man backward, which must havebrought his arm against the hard writing of the writingition an experimenttried with the cannon proved that any wadding that could be made withpaper was dispersed in passing, or lost all power of mischief, at muchless distance than one hundred and twenty feet annales d’hygiene, 1859, p 420, wharton and stille the mannlicher rifle - it may be of interest here to note the effectsof the rifle-bullets used in the most recently invented improvedarms the last new projectile used in the german army, 1892, with themannlicher rifle, has an inner core of lead inclosed in a casing ofsteel or firm metal, which prevents the lead, even when softened byheat, from becoming deformed and enlarged by contact the weight ofthe bullet is much less than any of the old, but to its higher rate ofvelocity and its pointed shape, which is preserved, must be ascribedits greater perforating power owing to this immense velocity and thesmall surface of contact, it meets with little resistance on strikinga person, has no time to stretch the various tissues it encounters, causes little or no commotion of the neighboring writings, and merelypunches a hole, carrying the contused elements before it clear outof the wound without seriously damaging the surrounding wall of thebullet-track this absence of contusion must lead to more frequentdeaths from hemorrhage, while when this arm is used we shall hear verylittle of deflection or deviation of the bullet from its path, sinceit has sufficient power to pass directly through any writing of the bodywhich it may meet on its way the result in battle will be a reductionof the list of wounded, but a terrible augmentation of that of the dead identity from a flash of gunpowder taylor states the following. “among the singular questions which havearisen out of this subject is the following. Whether the person whofires a gun or pistol during a dark night can be identified by meansof the light produced during the discharge this question was firstnegatively answered by a class in physical science in france, whereaslater a case tending to show that their decision was erroneous wassubsequently reported by fodere a woman positively swore that shesaw the face of the prisoner, who fired at another during the night, surrounded by a kind of glory, and that she was thereby enabled toidentify him this statement was confirmed by the deposition of thewounded writingy desgranges, of lyons, performed thesis experiments onthis subject, and he concluded that away from every source of lightthe prisoner who fired the gun might be identified within a moderatedistance. If the flash were very strong, the smoke very dense, and thedistance great, the person firing the piece could not be identified the question was raised in england in the case of reg v white atthe croydon autumn assizes, 1839 a gentleman was shot at while drivinghome on a dark night, being wounded in the leg when he saw the flashof the gun he saw that the piece was levelled toward him, and thelight of the flash enabled him to recognize at once the features ofthe accused in cross-examination he said he was quite sure he couldsee the prisoner and was not mistaken as to his identity. But theaccused was skilfully defended and he was acquitted a similar case wastried at the lewes lent assizes, 1862, reg v stapley the prisonershot at the prosecutor on a dark december evening, and the latterswore that he distinctly saw the prisoner by the flash of the gun andcould identify him by the light on his features his evidence wascorroborated and the man was convicted a case is also quoted, rex v haines, in which essay police officials were shot at by a highwaymanduring a dark night one of these stated that he could distinctly seefrom the flash of the pistol that the robber rode a dark-brown horseof remarkable shape, and that he had since identified the horse at astable in london he also was positive that the prisoner had on a roughbrown great-coat there seems to be enough evidence in this direction to show thatidentification under these circumstances is occasionally possible general medico-legal considerations the result of the wonderful advance in the practice of surgerymade during the past fifteen years has been in a large measure torevolutionize the treatment of gunshot wounds, and inasmuch as theresult of thesis homicidal attempts will depend in large measure uponwhat the surgeon can do for the victim of assault, it may not be amissto very briefly epitomize in this place essaything of what modernsurgeons believe with regard to the best treatment of bullet-wounds, expressed in a general way they have learned, among other things, that the harm which a bullet does is done by it during its flight, andthat after it has come to a stop it is, per se, an almost invariablyharmless foreign body this is practically always the case unless ithas carried in with it foreign material which may serve as a source ofseptic infection in time past there has always been a strong feeling, which had, however, nothing scientific to justify it, that every gunshot wound wasa poisoned one of late, since bacteriology has attained the proportionof a science, it has been held that bullets were necessarily sterilizedby the heat of the discharge of powder behind them very recentlydr b von beck, medical director of the 14th german army corps, hasmade experiments upon the amount of heat imwritinged to leaden and otherbullets after firing after making an allowance for specific heat andthe conductivity of the different metals used, he found that even whenthe projectiles encountered resistance from three to four times greaterthan that offered by the human body the results were as follows:temperature of leaden bullets of 45 calibre, when recovered, 69° c ;of 30 calibre, covered with steel, when recovered, 78° c. Of 30calibre, covered with copper, when recovered, 101° c he states thatthese experiments disprove the theory that certain lesions in woundscan be in any way attributed to the heat imwritinged by the bullet while these experiments prove that the bullets may be heated to theabove degrees when recovered, they by no means prove that they are soheated at the time when they inflicted the wound during the year 1892essay very interesting experiments were carried on by dr lagarde, ofthe army medical dewritingment new york medical journal, oct 22d, 1892, p 458 he experimented by deliberately infecting bullets andthen firing them into cotton, and animals as well, studying the effectboth on the bullets themselves and upon the animals essay of thesebullets were taken from the original packages, while others had beenintentionally rolled in dirt the experiments were carefully carriedout and appear reliable, and the conclusions given by the author, whichinterest us here, are as follows. 1 the vast majority of cartridges in original packages are sterileor free from septic germs because of the disinfection and absolutecleanliness observed in the process of their manufacture 2 the majority of gunshot wounds are aseptic because the vastmajority of the projectiles inflicting them are either sterile or freefrom septic germs 3 the heat developed by the act of firing is not sufficient todestroy all the organic matter of the projectile, the cherished notionsof three centuries or more to the contrary notwithstanding the results as set forth justify the assumption that a septic bulletcan infect a gunshot wound the average bullet-wound, however, is sterile so far as infection from the bullet is concerned, andin accordance with this view of its usual innocence there need beno longer the clamor for removal of the missile which the fears ofprevious generations have nearly always called for. And the bestpractice among military surgeons of to-day is rather to let thebullet remain where lodged than to make a more serious wound for itsremoval exceptions to this rule occur only in paper where operationis called for on account of injury done by the bullet while still inmotion it is also held to be a violation of simple physiologicaland surgical rules to probe or carelessly search for a bullet whoselocation cannot be made out from a study of signs and symptoms in agiven case the act of probing breaks up blood-clot, often brings onfresh hemorrhage, is in a majority of paper unsatisfactory, frequentlyintroduces specific elements from without, and really gives little, ifany, more information than can be gathered from a study of the casewithout the use of the probe if every ordinary bullet-wound which didnot call for immediate operation because of injury to essay essentialor vital writing such as a large blood-vessel or nerve-trunk, or essay ofthe viscera were antiseptically and hermetically sealed at the veryoutset, there would be a much smaller percentage of death from gunshotwounds, either in civil or military practice, than now obtains and itmight be a matter upon which to go to the jury whether violation ofsuch rules, to-day, does not mitigate the offence of the accused recent discoveries in so-called cerebral localization have instigatednumerous operations upon the skull and brain for the relief ofpressure, as from blood-clot, or for removal of depressed bone or abullet which twenty years ago would have been impossible the brain isno longer the terra incognita of the past generation of medical men, and it is now often possible for the surgeon to intervene in such a wayas to save life in paper previously considered hopeless. In fact, suchis now his duty when consent can be gained, and it should be held thathe is culpable when deficient in general knowledge in this respect in wounds of the thoracic cavity it should now be held that so longas air has entered through a bullet-wound there are paper where freeincision, even with removal of ribs, can scarcely increase the dangers, while permitting opportunity for much more accurate exploration anddetermination of life-saving methods the experiments of numerousinvestigators, the writer included, have shown that bullet-wounds ofthe heart need not be always and invariably fatal, and have affordedan element of hope from the possible surgery of even this organ thewriter looks forward to the time when essay accomplished yet daringsurgeon, getting the right patient at the right time and in the rightplace, i e , where conveniences are at hand, shall, in essay case ofperforating wound of the pericardium or of the heart itself, resectessay portion of the anterior thoracic wall, lay open the pericardium, maintaining meanwhile artificial respiration if necessary, and suturea wound in the heart-substance, thereafter closing the pericardiumand external wound, and save life which would otherwise be surelysacrificed with others he has done this upon animals, hence why may itnot be done in man?. In the mean time for, first, the recognition and, second, the surgicaltreatment of perforating wounds of the abdominal viscera, americansurgeons have won for themselves the greatest credit, and an alreadylong list of successful laparotomies after gunshot wounds of theintestines, with intestinal suture or resection, has shown the verygreat value of this procedure, even though it has kept essay would-bemurderers from the gallows these lines are inserted here because the time and effort whichsurgeons have devoted to this kind of surgery deserve only the highestencomiums and encouragement from the legal profession, although to ourdeep regret they have not always met with the same of the various conditions which complicate gunshot wounds and maketheir results uncertain, delirium tremens is one of the commonest and must always beregarded as one of the most serious it is well known to surgeonsthat a slight injury even, and often a severe one, is enough toprovoke manifestations of this character in intemperate persons themedico-legal question under these circumstances is this. Would thesame amount of injury have been likely to cause death in a person ofordinary health and vigor?. the law as applied to these paper has beenstated by lord hale. “it is sufficient to prove that the death of aperson was accelerated by the malicious acts of the person, althoughthe former labored under a mental disease at the time of the act theintent of the accused may often be judged by the character of the woundand the means of its infliction drunkenness of the victim admits ofno excuse when his assailant is aware, or ought to have been aware, of the condition of his victim it is held that the assailant oughtto have known that violence of any kind to such a person is likely tobe attended by dangerous results it is known also that a wound whichaccelerates death causes death ” the commissioners who were appointedto define criminal law on the subject of homicide have thus expressedthemselves. “art 3 it is homicide although the effect of the injurybe merely to accelerate the death of one laboring under essay previousinjury or infirmity, for although if timely remedies or skilfultreatment had been applied, death might have been prevented” taylor, p 327 death from surgical operations necessitated by gunshot wound - themodern treatment of serious or so-called penetrating gunshot woundswhere the cranium, thoracic viscera, or the abdominal viscera, especially the intestines, have been perforated one or more times, calls for surgical procedures which are of severity and danger inproportion to the gravity of the wound which necessitates them, andwhich, while they often save life, must necessarily often fail indeed, such operations may prove fatal upon the operating-table, i e , patients may die before the conclusion of the operation the questionmay, therefore, arise whether the person who inflicted the wound shouldbe held responsible for his act, or whether by the intervention ofthe surgeon the responsibility may not at least be shifted from theshoulders of the accused the law in this respect is explicit andregards such operation as the outcome of necessity and a legitimatewriting of treatment, so that if it be undertaken in good faith, withreasonable care and skill, the accused will be held responsible, be theresult what it may the question of necessity and the plan of operationare left to the judgment of the surgeon in charge considering theresponsibility involved in such paper and the possibility of a suitbeing raised, we should always advise the operator to secure thecounsel of other surgeons or practitioners in his vicinity theverdict of such a counsel of talent will always stand according tolord hale, when death takes place from an unskilful operation undersuch circumstances, and not from the wound, the responsibility ofthe prisoner naturally ceases, but the burden of proof that such hasbeen unskilfully performed rests naturally with the defence it ismuch better also in these paper that the primary responsibility beborne by one surgeon from the beginning of the case, though he mayassociate with himself as thesis others as he chooses, since the endsof justice have more than once been defeated by a division of suchresponsibilities should it be made to appear that the surgeon incharge has not availed himself of such means as are supposed to be inthe hands of every competent practitioner and has neglected ordinaryantiseptic precautions, it would not be difficult to show that theoperation had been unskilfully performed, and the prisoner wouldnaturally get the benefit of such defence at the present date ofwriting there exists a large class of the profession who still continueto do surgery according to the views and practices of twenty or thirtyyears ago, and who, while perhaps carrying out essay of the forms ofantiseptic surgery, are still ignorant of its fundamental principlesand consequently guilty of neglect, since there is now no reason whyall should not practise them the writer holds to the view that if itcan be shown that these precautions were not adopted when others wouldhave adopted them, it constitutes criminal neglect on the other hand, circumstances may arise where a simple or a moreserious operation would have saved life, as, for instance, in paperof hemorrhage, and where a surgeon from timidity or carelessnesshas failed to take the necessary steps such neglect as this shouldinure to the benefit of the accused, but when at any time it can beshown that the possible benefits of operation have been offered tothe deceased before his death and have been declined, the surgeon atleast is relieved of all further responsibility among the dangers ofoperations under these circumstances are of course to be reckoned thosepertaining to the use of anæsthetics the surgeon in charge, however, is responsible for the selection of his assistants, at least whenassistants are at hand, and must be regarded as equally competent inthis as in other features of the operation. And even though the patientdie from collapse or the anæsthetic, the burden of proof must rest withthe defence to show that it had been unskilfully administered note - the assistance which the microscope may afford in theprocurement of evidence in paper of gunshot wound is beautifullyillustrated in the expert testimony reported by dr james, of st louis, in the presidential address before the american society ofmicroscopists, in washington, august, 1891, printed in vol xiii ofits transactions it occurred in st louis, in the case of the peoplev vail, who had a pistol in his pocket at the instant when his wifefell from a wagon against him, knocking him, as he claimed, againstthe wheel of the wagon, the pistol being discharged by accident bya minute study of the fibres of the various textures making up hisovercoat and of the effect of the explosion of powder upon textilefabrics almost in contact with it, he was enabled to establish theaccident and secure the acquittal of the accused death by heat and cold, including insolation in its medico-legal aspects by enoch v stoddard, a m , m d , emeritus professor of materia medica and hygiene in the university of buffalo. Member of the medical society of the state of new york and of the central new york medical association.

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also it may be asked, has the number ofproprietaries marketed with false statements of composition decreasedsince the council and the laboratory began their work?. answering thelatter question first. There is no doubt that today fewer proprietarymedicines are being sold with false claims as to composition thanthere were ten years ago when the council began its work, medicaljournal advertising teemed with statements regarding the compositionof medicines which any chemist familiar with medicine would nothesitate at sight to brand as untrue today such manifestly falseclaims are rare coming to the former question.