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And, besides, she won by her ophthalmological activity variousornamental epithets, such, for instance, as ὀφθαλμίτις, etc it was quite natural, in view of the exclusively theistic conceptionwhich in those times preoccupied the human mind, that the priests write an essay werethe sole possessors of physico-medical knowledge. And naturally so for when we consider the theory of life that prevailed at that period, who could have been better qualified to give information to menregarding their own body as well as regarding nature in general, thanthe priest, the mortal representative of immortal gods?. and who betterqualified than the priest to invoke the aid of the heavenly powersin all bodily ailments?. thus it was the unavoidable consequence ofthe theistic theory of life that the priest was the physician as wellas the representative of physical knowledge and also the helper andadviser in all mundane exigencies whether bodily or psychic troublesafflicted individuals, whether an entire population groaned underheavy chastisements like pestilence, aid and deliverance were alwayssought in the sanctuary of the gods, from the infallible priest andthe priests were always equal to the occasion. They have always, in amasterly manner, known the art of satisfying the medico-physical needsof their suppliants for the religions of all civilized peoples andchristianity by no means occupies an exceptional position in thisrespect have always endeavored most strenuously to keep physical aswell as medical thought in strictest dependence upon their doctrinesand dogmas to attain this end various ceremonies, customs, and dogmaswere relied upon to keep the priests in a position to secure theassistance of the gods for humanity harassed by pain and affliction these sacred observances were strange, and varied with the variousreligious systems according to the primeval cult of zoroaster, allevils, consequently also all diseases, were derived from the principleof darkness which was embodied in the person of ahriman, and only thesacerdotal caste of the magicians who sprung from a special mediantribe was able to heal them but it was by no means easy to become amember of this caste and to acquire the magic powers pertaining toit alone it was necessary before gaining mastery over the powersof nature to become initiated into the mysteries of mitra however, after priestly consecration had once been bestowed, the individualthus honored bore the proud title “conqueror of evil, ” and was able topractise medicine as the most essential constituent of every medicaltreatment, the divine word was applied in the form of mysteriousexorcisms, sacred hymns, and certain words which were consideredspecially curative in effect, writingicularly the word “ormuzd, ” the nameof the highest god, in whose all-embracing power of healing greatconfidence was placed the sumerians, the precursors of babylonico-assyrian culture, ascribeda considerable and important rôle to dreams they were considered tobring direct medical advice from the gods, and it became the officeof the sacerdotal physician to interpret the dream in such a way as toalleviate the sufferings of the dreamer the ancient greek culture also conceded a conspicuous medicalsignificance to dreams, and even arranged a system of its own, that ofthe temple sleep, in order always to obtain prophesying dreams fromthe gods the patient, after the obligatory offering, was required toremain a night in the temple, and his dream during this night was themedical advice of the divinity in its most direct form but only thepriest was able to interpret a dream obtained in such a manner, and toextract medical efficacy from it but as it occasionally happened thata too prosaic and phlegmatic patient did not dream at all, the priestwas benevolent enough to intercede he was always promptly favored bythe gods with a suggestive dream the medical function of the priests had reached a peculiar developmentduring the first centuries of rome this was manifest especially inthe time of public calamities, such as pestilence, war, etc whensuch events reached dimensions which threatened the existence of therepublic, attempts were made to gain the favor of the gods by mostcurious ceremonies the celestials were simply invited to take writingin an opulent banquet the first divine feast of such a characterwas celebrated in rome in the sixth century, b c , on account of agreat epidemic apollo, latona, diana, hercules, mercury, and neptunewere most ceremoniously invited to take writing in a religious banquetwhich lasted for eight days the images of the gods were placed uponmagnificently cushioned couches, and the tables were loaded withdainties not only the gods, but the entire population, were invited;every one kept open house, and whoever wished to do so could feastat the richly prepared boards of the wealthy even the pronouncedenemies of the house were allowed to enter and to enjoy the daintieswithout fear of hostile remarks. Indeed, it was deemed advisable in theinterests of public hygiene to unchain the prisoners and to liberatethem but if the gods, in spite of the most opulent entertainments, did not have any consideration, and if pestilence, military disaster, failure of crops, or whatever was the immediate cause of popularanxiety, continued to persist with unabated fury, endeavors were madeby theatrical performances to provide as much as possible for theamusement of the gods such plays, at first, consisted only in gracefuldances, with flute accompaniments, and from these simple beginnings, according to livy, book 7, chapter ii , the drama is said to havedeveloped all those variations which characterized the scenic art ofantiquity there can be no doubt that even the stage of modern times isof religio-sanitary origin a peculiar fact which modern patrons of thetheater scarcely ever dream of an attempt was eventually made to increase the delight of the gods insuch amusements by a number of novel devices for instance, it wasstipulated that the performances instituted to ward off the invasion ofhannibal were to cost 333, 333⅓ copper asses but if, nevertheless, the gods were not sufficiently propitiated by banquets, dances, andplaying of the flute, and if they could not be prevailed upon by suchpastimes to remove the pestilence or other calamity, a dictator wasnamed who, if possible, on september 13th, drove a nail into the templeof jupiter to appease divine indignation it appears that this wasa primeval custom of the etruscans. At least, it is reported by theroman author, cincius, that such nails could be seen in the temple ofthe etruscan goddess nortia this nail therapy was resorted to by theromans, for instance, during the terrible plague which raged in thefifth century, b c , and of which the celebrated furius camillus died wonderful as all the described procedures seem to us, and closelyas they may conform to the modern conception of superstition, at thetime they originated they were considered as quite removed from thatsuperstition with which we so closely identify them to-day for theperiod which saw the above events was an era of exclusive theism, andfor that reason divine sleep, divine feasts, the sacred performances, and all the other peculiar means which were employed to secure medicalaid of the gods, were well-established features of religious worship the stigma of superstition was not set upon them as yet and this stateof things naturally persisted so long as the theistic theory of lifestood unchallenged this absolute reign of theistic theory dominating human life throughthe above-described therapeutic ideas was followed by an epoch in whichtheism was forced to divide its authority with a powerful rival namely, the physico-mechanical theory of life the struggle between both thesesystems was ushered in, for the hellenic as well as for the occidentalworld of civilization, by the appearance of ionian philosophy even inour own day this struggle is still going on in thesis minds this much, at least, is certain.

Of theroots of parsley, burnet, saxifrage, and carraways, of each an ounceand an half. Let the seeds be bruised, and the roots washed and cutsmall. Let them lie all night to steep in a bottle of white wine, andin the morning be boiled in a close earthen vessel until a third writingor more be wasted. Which being strained and cleared, take four ouncesthereof morning and evening first and last, abstaining from drink afterit for three hours this opens obstructions of the liver and spleen, and expels the dropsy and jaundice by urine parsley piert, or parsley break stone descript the root, although it be very small and thready, yet itcontinues thesis years, from which arise thesis leaves lying along on theground, each standing upon a long small foot-stalk, the leaves as broadas a man nail, very deeply dented on the edges, essaywhat like aparsley-leaf, but of a very dusky green colour the stalks are veryweak and slender, about three or four fingers in length, set so fullof leaves that they can hardly be seen, either having no foot-stalk atall, or but very short. The flowers are so small they can hardly beseen, and the seed as small as may be place it is a common herb throughout the nation, and rejoicesin barren, sandy, moist places it may be found plentifully abouthampstead heath, hyde park, and in tothill-fields time it may be found all the summer-time, even from the beginningof april to the end of october government and virtues its operation is very prevalent to provokeurine, and to break the stone it is a very good sallad herb it weregood the gentry would pickle it up as they pickle up samphire fortheir use all the winter i cannot teach them how to do it. Yet thisi can tell them, it is a very wholeessay herb they may also keep theherb dry, or in a syrup, if they please you may take a dram of thepowder of it in white wine. It would bring away gravel from the kidneysinsensibly, and without pain it also helps the stranguary parsnips the garden kind thereof is so well known the root being commonlyeaten that i shall not trouble you with any description of it but thewild kind being of more physical use, i shall in this place describe itunto you descript the wild parsnip differs little from the garden, butgrows not so fair and large, nor hath so thesis leaves, and the root isshorter, more woody, and not so fit to be eaten, and therefore moremedicinal place the name of the first shews the place of its growth theother grows wild in divers places, as in the marshes in rochester, and elsewhere, and flowers in july. The seed being ripe about thebeginning of august, the second year after its sowing. For if they doflower the first year, the country people call them madneps government and virtues the garden parsnips are under venus thegarden parsnip nourishes much, and is good and wholeessay nourishment, but a little windy, whereby it is thought to procure bodily lust. Butit fastens the body much, if much need it is conducible to the stomachand reins, and provokes urine but the wild parsnips hath a cutting, attenuating, cleansing, and opening quality therein it resists andhelps the bitings of serpents, eases the pains and stitches in thesides, and dissolves wind both in the stomach and bowels, which is thecholic, and provokes urine the root is often used, but the seed muchmore the wild being better than the tame, shews dame nature to be thebest physician cow parsnips descript this grows with three or four large, spread winged, roughleaves, lying often on the ground, or else raised a little from it, with long, round, hairy foot-stalks under them, writinged usually intofive divisions, the two couples standing each against the other.

Its stalks write an essay are not flat, but round. Its leaves are not solong, but more pointed as for the place we need not determine, fortheir name shews they grow in water government and virtues they are under the dominion of the moon, andbeing made into a poultice, are excellently good for hot inflammations, swellings, cankers, sore mouths and throats, being washed with thedecoction. It cleanses and strengthens the neck and throat, and helpsthose swellings which, when people have, they say the almonds of theears are fallen down it is excellently good for the rankness of thegums, a safe and present remedy for the king evil they are excellentfor the stone and gravel, especially the nuts, being dried they alsoresist poison, and bitings of venomous beasts campion, wild descript the wild white campion has thesis long and essaywhat broaddark green leaves lying upon the ground, and divers ribs therein, essaywhat like plantain, but essaywhat hairy, broader, but not so long the hairy stalks rise up in the middle of them three or four feet high, and essaytimes more, with divers great white joints at several placesthereon, and two such like leaves thereat up to the top, sending forthbranches at several joints also. All which bear on several foot-stalkswhite flowers at the tops of them, consisting of five broad pointedleaves, every one cut in on the end unto the middle, making them seemto be two a-piece, smelling essaywhat sweet, and each of them standingin a large green striped hairy husk, large and round below next to thestalk the seed is small and greyish in the hard heads that come upafterwards the root is white and long, spreading divers fangs in theground the red wild campion grows in the same manner as the white. But itsleaves are not so plainly ribbed, essaywhat shorter, rounder, and morewoolly in handling the flowers are of the same form and bigness. Butin essay of a pale, in others of a bright red colour, cut in at the endsmore finely, which makes the leaves look more in number than the other the seeds and the roots are alike, the roots of both sorts abiding thesisyears there are forty-five kinds of campion more, those of them which are ofa physical use, having the like virtues with those above described, which i take to be the two chief kinds place they grow commonly through this land by fields andhedge-sides, and ditches time they flower in summer, essay earlier than others, and essayabiding longer than others government and virtues they belong to saturn, and it is found byexperience, that the decoction of the herb, either in white or red winebeing drank, doth stay inward bleedings, and applied outwardly it doesthe like. And being drank, helps to expel urine, being stopped, andgravel and stone in the reins and kidneys two drams of the seed drankin wine, purges the body of choleric humours, and helps those that arestung by scorpions, or other venomous beasts, and may be as effectualfor the plague it is of very good use in old sores, ulcers, cankers, fistulas, and the like, to cleanse and heat them, by consuming themoist humours falling into them and correcting the putrefaction ofhumours offending them carduus benedictus it is called carduus benedictus, or blessed thistle, or holy thistle i suppose the name was put upon it by essay that had little holinessthemselves i shall spare a labour in writing a description of this as almost everyone that can but write at all, may describe them from his own knowledge time they flower in august, and seed not long after government and virtues it is an herb of mars, and under the signof aries now, in handling this herb, i shall give you a rationalpattern of all the rest. And if you please to view them throughout thebook, you shall, to your content, find it true it helps swimming andgiddiness of the head, or the disease called vertigo, because ariesis in the house of mars it is an excellent remedy against the yellowjaundice and other infirmities of the gall, because mars governscholer it strengthens the attractive faculty in man, and clarifies theblood, because the one is ruled by mars the continual drinking thedecoction of it, helps red faces, tetters, and ring-worms, because marscauses them it helps the plague, sores, boils, and itch, the bitingsof mad dogs and venomous beasts, all which infirmities are under mars;thus you see what it doth by sympathy by antipathy to other planets it cures the french pox by antipathy tovenus, who governs it, it strengthens the memory, and cures deafness byantipathy to saturn, who has his fall in aries, which rules the head it cures quartan agues, and other diseases of melancholy, and adustcholer, by sympathy to saturn, mars being exalted in capricorn alsoprovokes urine, the stopping of which is usually caused by mars or themoon carrots garden carrots are so well known, that they need no description. Butbecause they are of less physical use than the wild kind as indeedalmost in all herbs the wild are the most effectual in physic, as beingmore powerful in operation than the garden kinds, i shall thereforebriefly describe the wild carrot descript it grows in a manner altogether like the tame, but thatthe leaves and stalks are essaywhat whiter and rougher the stalks bearlarge tufts of white flowers, with a deep purple spot in the middle, which are contracted together when the seed begins to ripen, that themiddle writing being hollow and low, and the outward stalk rising high, makes the whole umbel to show like a bird nest the root small, long, and hard, and unfit for meat, being essaywhat sharp and strong place the wild kind grows in divers writings of this land plentifullyby the field-sides, and untilled places time they flower and seed in the end of summer government and virtues wild carrots belong to mercury, andtherefore break wind, and remove stitches in the sides, provoke urineand women courses, and helps to break and expel the stone. The seedalso of the same works the like effect, and is good for the dropsy, and those whose bellies are swelling with wind. Helps the cholic, thestone in the kidneys, and rising of the mother. Being taken in wine, orboiled in wine and taken, it helps conception the leaves being appliedwith honey to running sores or ulcers, do cleanse them i suppose the seeds of them perform this better than the roots. Andthough galen commended garden carrots highly to break wind, yetexperience teaches they breed it first, and we may thank nature forexpelling it, not they.

Hemorrhage in connective tissue or muscle the direction of the mark is usually oblique, following the line ofthe lower jaw upward and backward behind the mastoid processes. Itmay, however, be horizontal if the ligature encircles the neck morethan once, one mark may be circular, the other oblique if a runningnoose is used the mark may be circular, and be seen all the way aroundthe neck, looking like the mark of a strangulation taylor836 statesthat if the noose should be in front, the mark may be circular, thejaw preventing the ligature from rising upward in front as much as itdoes behind if it encircles the neck but once, its continuity is aptto be broken by the prominence of the hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, sterno-mastoid muscles, etc in four-fifths of the paper 117 out of 143, tardieu the mark is foundbetween the chin and larynx. In nearly all the remaining fifth, overthe larynx. In a very few below the larynx. The last position is dueto the protection of the neck by a handkerchief or beard, or wherethere is essay anatomical or pathological peculiarity which prevents theligature from going higher hofmann837 had seen two paper of tumor of neck.

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And the plant grows not so big in essay places asin others where it is found place it is frequent in almost every county of this land, and ischerished in gardens with us, where it grows greater than that which iswild, and grows in shadowy sides of fields and woods time it flowers about july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues the moon owns the herb, and he that knowsbut her exaltaration, knows what i say is true orpine is seldom usedin inward medicines with us, although tragus saith from experience ingerthesis, that the distilled water thereof is profitable for gnawingsor excoriations in the write an essay stomach or bowels, or for ulcers in the lungs, liver, or other inward writings, as also in the matrix, and helps allthose diseases, being drank for certain days together it stays thesharpness of humours in the bloody-flux, and other fluxes in the body, or in wounds the root thereof also performs the like effect it isused outwardly to cool any heat or inflammation upon any hurt or wound, and eases the pains of them. As, also, to heal scaldings or burnings, the juice thereof being beaten with essay green sallad oil, andanointed the leaf bruised, and laid to any green wound in the hand orlegs, doth heal them quickly. And being bound to the throat, much helpsthe quinsy.