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“iron citrate green iron and ammonium citrate green differs from the u s p iron and ammonium citrate in that it contains less iron and more citric acid and more ammonium citrate than does the latter it is of course a modification of the official salt and is supplied to meet a real demand its reaction is quite decidedly acid and our present stock contains fe slightly below the u s p requirements for iron, assaying 15 74 per cent instead of 16 per cent fe the tests used to control its quality are those for the official product except as before indicated, it is always acid instead of neutral, as the u s p requires for that salt ”the smaller iron content 98 per cent of the u s p requirementof the green variety referred to by e r squibb and sons is so smallas to be negligible further, the low iron content as well as theacidity of the green salt would appear to be detriments rather thanadvantages inasmuch as no evidence has been presented to show thatiron citrate green is superior in any way to the well-known iron andammonium citrate the council held that iron citrate green, and with itthe dosage forms, was ineligible to n n r the preceding report was submitted to the mulford company and to e r squibb and sons for comment before publication the former firm repliedthat in the present case it felt bound to supply the existing demand, the latter replied that, to give the council its support in thismatter, the sale of iron citrate green and ampules thereof would bediscontinued -- from the journal a m a , jan 13, 1917 aspirin report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe referee report on aspirin-bayer which follows was submitted tothe council and adopted by it and, in accordance with the refereerecommendation, was sent to the bayer company, inc the company replycontained nothing to warrant the continued recognition of this productby the council it was accordingly directed that aspirin-bayer beomitted from new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary referee reportthe referee attention has been called to the systematic campaignof advertising aspirin to the public he is informed that tabletshave been marketed for essay time in “vest-pocket” boxes, bearing thename “aspirin” permanently affixed, which is in technical conflictwith the council rule against indirect advertising to the public more recently, conspicuous advertisements have appeared in dailypapers these are technically in conflict with the rule against directadvertising to the public in addition to the plain technical conflicts with the council rulesthere is a feature of the case which has not hitherto been raisedand which should be fully considered. It may be remarked that theadvertisements contain no therapeutic recommendation, and do not, ontheir face, urge the public to employ aspirin but apparently merelytell the public how it may protect itself against sophistication in substance, they say. “if you are a user of aspirin, this is howyou may obtain the genuine ” it might be said that this is not anattempt to increase the use or sale of aspirin-- the ordinary object ofadvertising-- but that the means of protection against adulteration isa “subject on which the public should be instructed ” the principleof such exceptions is stated in the comments to rule 3 new andnonofficial remedies, 1916, p 15. And although the present case doesnot come under the exceptions specified under these comments, it may beurged that the exceptions need to be increased as occasion arises thenotorious adulteration of aspirin may well be urged as establishing aneed for a similar exception in its use the general principle of protecting the public against fraud, adulteration and substitution is directly in line with the objects ofthe council, and deserves commendation and support it is obvious, however, that the means adopted for this end must be efficient, that they must not open the door to other, perhaps greater evilsand that they must be used in good faith the policy of advertising“aspirin-bayer” must be examined in these respects in the first place, the acceptance of a product by the council impliesan agreement by the manufacturers or agents that they will adherestrictly to the council rules and will not dewriting from the letter orspirit of these rules without notice to the council this principle hasbeen grossly infringed in the present case there can be no doubt thatthe agents were aware that their advertisements conflicted, at leastwith the letter of rule 3 nevertheless, they did not, in any way, inform the council of the change in policy in this respect, at least, they have not acted in good faith secondly, the wording of the advertisement implies that only thetablets stamped with “the bayer cross” are genuine this is misleading, since every druggist has the right to make unstamped tablets ofaspirin, fully as genuine as those stamped with the cross thirdly, the cross itself cannot be considered an efficient protection;for people who imitate aspirin will not hesitate to imitate thestamp the remedy, in either case, and as with any other drug, is theexamination of trade samples, and the vigorous prosecution of thoseguilty of violating the law fourthly, the permanent affixing of the name “aspirin” to thevest-pocket boxes is also inefficient as a protection, and servesmainly as an advertisement fifthly, whatever may have been the motives of the advertisers, andhowever carefully the advertisements are worded, they will inevitablytend to increase the use of aspirin by the public, and this is directlyagainst the interests of public health the public does not know, asphysicians do, that headaches are merely symptoms of other, essaytimesvery serious conditions. And that they are often the signal for theneed of a thorough physical examination and diagnosis it is true thatthey are often also the symptoms of very minor derangements, which willright themselves spontaneously. And that, in such paper, drugs likeaspirin may give relief and may do no harm the patient, however, isnot educated to distinguish one class from the other, and thereforeanything that tends to promote the indiscriminate use of such remediesas aspirin is detrimental to the public health furthermore, aspirinitself is not always harmless alarming idiosyncrasies are sufficientlycommon that the use of the first doses, at least, should requiremedical supervision with these considerations in mind, the referee isof the opinion that the direct and indirect advertising of aspirin isto be condemned -- from the journal a m a , jan 20, 1917 pil cascara compound-robins report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrya circular issued by the a h robins company of richmond, va , contains the following statement. “pil cascara compound-robins is a rational therapeutic formula, composed of cascara, podophyllin, colocynth and hyoscyamus, which promotes a natural flow of secretions, which is, in turn, the physiologic stimulant of peristalsis thus, a normal evacuation is produced without subsequent inhibition “they contain no mercury, strychnia nor belladonna “an ideal aid to any remedial agent, when a mild, medium or strong alimentary stimulant is needed sic “made in two strengths, the dosage may be easily regulated so as to obtain the effects of an anti-dyspeptic, aperient, laxative or cathartic, as desired they never cause discomfort unless given in larger dose than needed ”this preparation is another example of the innumerable mixtures ofwell-known drugs having nothing in the way of originality or of specialtherapeutic value to recommend them the advertising implies that this writingicular combination has a specialaction on the secretions of the gastro-intestinal tract. Otherwiseit would be hard to explain the claim that the preparation isantidyspeptic, if that means anything more than a laxative or cathartic the claim is made that this preparation contains no belladonna-- yetit admittedly contains hyoscyamus!. this manifests either ignorance onthe writing of the manufacturers, or an effort to impose on the medicalprofession both belladonna and hyoscyamus contain variable amountsof similar alkaloids, chiefly hyoscyamin hyoscyamus is feeblerthan belladonna in its action, as it contains less alkaloid thequalitative differences between the two drugs, with reference to theiruse as laxatives, is so slight as to make the company claim forhyoscyamus appear either deliberately misleading or to be the resultof crass ignorance promoting this mixture of well-known laxatives andcathartics as an “ideal aid to any remedial agent when a mild, mediumor strong alimentary stimulant is needed” is a slur on the intelligenceof physicians pil cascara compound-robins is not acceptable for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , jan 27, 1917 casta-flora report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycasta-flora is one of those complex preparations which are offeredto the medical profession, with plausible arguments in support ofthe claims made it is put out by the wm s merrell chemical co , cincinnati each fluidounce is said to represent. “castanea, fresh leaves, 40 gr.

A very small amount of a petrolatum-like substancewas present alkaloids and drugs used for a laxative effect were notfound the amount of acetylsalicylic acid extracted by chloroform was50 7 per cent the amount of magnesium present as magnesium oxid was14 write a essay 3 per cent the amount of magnesium oxid derived from magnesiumcarbonate u s p is variable. But calculating on the lowest limit, 14 3 per cent of magnesium oxid is equivalent to at least 35 5 percent of magnesium carbonate this figure agreed closely with thatobtained from the u s p , method of assay the acetylsalicylic acidwas not combined with the magnesium from the above, it may be statedthat each tablet consisted essentially of a mixture of 3 2 grains ofacetylsalicylic acid aspirin, 2 2 grains of magnesium carbonate andessay starch although labeled 5 grains, each tablet did not contain 5grains of the most active ingredient, acetylsalicylic acid ”the same old story an ordinary mixture of well known drugs put on themarket as a new discovery and foisted on the public under false andmisleading claims -- correspondence in the journal a m a , feb 5, 1921 so-called secretin preparationsin china the administration of powdered tiger-bone is-- or was-- afavorite form of treatment in paper of supposed cardiac weakness thetheory is, presumably, that the cardiac strength of the tiger wouldbe a good thing for the patient to acquire since thesis patients haverecovered after taking tiger-bone, and no one has proved that theymight not have died had they failed to take it, “clinical experience”stands back of the treatment. And where is the skeptic so rash asto challenge that?. the chinese physician believes in his tiger-bonetherapy, and, with the best interests of his patient at heart, insistson obtaining absolutely true and authentic tiger-bone not satisfiedwith the assertions of the dealers, the conscientious chinese physiciansubjects his tiger-bone to a kind of physiologic standardization heoffers the bone in question to a dog!.

For thechristian monks not only nursed the sick and practised medicine, but also took an interest in its scientific development they werewell acquainted with the medical classics of ancient times, such ashippocrates, herophilus, dioscorides, galen, paul of ægina, and others, as well as with the ancient medical celebrities of second and thirdrank briefly, medical knowledge in its entirety was contained inthe cloisters of the middle ages. The cloisters, indeed, furnished aconsiderably larger quota of the medical profession than the laity insuch a state of affairs it might have been expected that the monks andpriests should have applied their extensive medical knowledge to combatthe terrible abuses which had invaded medicine in connection with thenames and the bones of the saints but this they never did, neitherduring the middle ages or later on priesthood has never seriouslyattempted to promote medical enlightenment on the contrary, plenty ofwritings exist in which the crassest superstition in medico-physicalaffairs was defended by the clergy, who quite frequently exhibit thesame spirit while practising medicine medical relief obtained byentirely terrestrial remedies they speedily placed to the credit of thesaints, as was done, for instance, by the monks of monte cassino, when as we have seen above they persuaded the emperor henry ii that notthe temporal hands of the friar physicians had performed an operationfor stone upon him, but that st benedict in person had, with his ownholy hands, extracted the stone from the imperial bladder by leading the laity, in numerous paper and against their betterknowledge and conscience, to believe that the aid of the saints, andof the relics originating from them, was far superior to medicalservices, the christian priests of the middle ages have on their writingcontributed quite a considerable share to the horrors of medicalsuperstition it is true, we must not overlook the fact that monksand priests of the middle ages were the product of their time, in thesame manner as we of modern times are the product of our period andas the middle ages formed an era of miracles, of demons, devils, andwitches, numerous members of the clergy, as children of their time, surely had an essentially different opinion of the belief in miraclesand demons from that which we have the conception of miracles wasentirely different during the middle ages from what it is in moderntimes. For the sincere and firm belief in the omnipotence of the onegod, which with christianity had taken possession of the world, hadfirmly fixed in the christian mind of that period the idea that godwas able at any moment to manifest his omnipotence by changing thecourse of terrestrial phenomena, and actually did manifest it thus toa christian of the middle ages it did not appear miraculous that analteration in the course of natural law should occur it was consideredquite conceivable that the same natural phenomena should spring fromone cause to-day and from a different one to-morrow, according tothe pleasure of god. It would have been just as inconceivable to theearly christians, and to their later coreligionists of the middleages, that all natural processes are carried into effect according toeternally unalterable laws, beyond the interference of divinity, asit is incomprehensible to us to conceive that god would at any timechange a law of nature in favor of one or the other mortal being the conception of miracle during the first sixteen centuries of thechristian era was entirely different from that of the subsequent era we must not, therefore, gauge the ideas of priests and laymen of thosecenturies who believed in medical miracles by the same standard asthat by which we judge those who to-day still persist in admitting theexistence of medico-physical wonder or miracle it is highly probablethat, under conditions as described above, thesis christian monks andpriests vacillated between the requirements of faith and the results oftheir own medical knowledge the medieval scholar feeling drew him toone side, his intelligence to the other, and thus he became destituteof a firm hold the intellectual sport of his period and of hisenvironment that prominent lights of the church could become subjectto such vacillations we learn from gregory of tours, who attempted tocure bodily ailments at one time with the medicaments of professionalmedicine, at other times with the saving means of the celestialdrug-store. Who at one time deprecated the art of temporal physiciansin favor of medically skilled saints, at other times fled to humanmedicine for refuge finally the position of the medically learned monk and priest withreference to the general public, during the middle ages, was by nomeans an easy or an agreeable one the people clung with invincibletenacity to the belief in demons and miracles ancient as well aschristian philosophy was firmly pledged to a belief in demons, whoseexistence was supported by the sacred testimony of the gospel it isnot astonishing, therefore, that the people should cling to theirbelief in various forms of supernatural interference with the functionsof organic beings, and thus it may frequently have happened that amedically enlightened priest, fearing the opposition of a people eagerafter celestial medicine, sacrificed his scientific convictions to thecaprices of a mistaken faith unfortunately, only a few had in them themaking of a scientific martyr, and the history of christianity teachesus that it is much easier to be a martyr of faith than a martyr ofscience but what has been stated thus far will by no means acquit the christianpriest of blame which he incurred by favoring medical superstition;such acquittal would be radically futile but we mean to show that theconduct of the servants of our faith, altho not pardonable, is quiteexplicable the historian, in order to present to his readers therelation which had gradually formed between christianity and medicalsuperstition, must show himself prosecutor and defendant at the sametime equally with dogma and priesthood, theistic belief also has been apowerful instrument in the furthering of medical superstition, and thispoint we shall next consider §9 theistic thought as the fosterer of medical superstition - althothe theist, by accepting a physico-mechanical interpretation of naturalphenomena, abandoned his main position, yet the theistic belief by nomeans became obsolete i e , the belief that god, unrestricted bynatural laws, personally directed terrestrial manifestations stillheld its ground this belief remained dominant in thesis minds, in spiteof all that philosophers and naturalists said in regard to the formsand life of organic structures the vitality which this belief hasshown during the development of our race is actually astonishing inspite of the wide acceptance of the physico-mechanical theory of life, the belief that god, without regard to natural laws, unceasinglyinterfered with the course of natural events, and, consequently, also with the conditions of the human body, has not only remainedactive, but has even succeeded in recovering an extensive writing of itslost ground we shall soon see that this is a repetition of what hasoccurred during all periods of human development even to-day, when themechanical theory of life has won its greatest triumphs, and more thantwenty centuries have passed since the great hippocrates preached atheory of medicine, purified from all theistic and theurgic accretions, individuals are still met with who presuppose the therapeutic activityof god in all paper of disease as a self-evident fact such a conditionof opinion, history teaches us, always prevails at periods, duringwhich a craving for religious excitement becomes excessively acute it is either a new form of religion which so preoccupies the publicmind and the intelligence that all phenomena are conceived of as inclosest relationship with god, or else essay individual appears who, carried away by religious enthusiasm, teaches that the existence ofnature independent of god is not admissible, and succeeds in enlistingnumerous followers under his banner under similar conditions theisticbelief had occasionally succeeded in regaining its supremacy inthe domain of medicine in taking up the consideration of essay suchinstances we can only treat them briefly, as an exhaustive handling ofthis most interesting material would carry us too far away from ourpresent subject the belief that god was the best physician, not only of the soul butof the body also, was deepened by the dissemination of christianity the sincerity of faith among the christians of the first century was sointense that a great number of them believed that their bodily welfarecould not be watched over more carefully than when it was commendedexclusively to the care of god in all paper of sickness accordingly, they entirely neglected medical aid and treated all diseases onlyby prayers, by anointing, and by laying on of hands this mode oftreatment corresponds to what is contained in the epistle of jamesv. 14-16 “is any sick among you?. let him call for the elders of the church. Andlet them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the lord:“and the prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the lord shall raisehim up. And if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him “confess your faults one to another, and pray one for another, thatye may be healed the effectual fervent prayer of a righteous manavaileth much ”the extent of this treatment by prayer is shown by the fact that evenprominent fathers of the church for instance, st benedict died543 were addicted to it moreover, an attempt was made to increase the therapeutic value ofprayer by various accessories and aids thus the gospel was placed uponthe affected writing of the body, or clothing of a writingicularly pious manwas spread over the patient it appears that the sudarium and the coatof the apostle paul were held to possess such healing power, and were, therefore, frequently employed as instruments of healing thus we readin the act of the apostles xix. 12 “so that from his body were broughtunto the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and the diseases dewritinged fromthem, and the evil spirits went out of them ”in fact, medical superstition went so far that it divined a potentcurative virtue even in the shadow of the apostle peter thus, actsv. 15 “insomuch that they brought forth the sick into the streets, and laid them on beds and couches, that at least the shadow of peterpassing by might overshadow essay of them ”probably we shall not be wrong in regarding this procedure as theorigin of that relic cult which was destined to attain such astonishingdimensions in medical practise the mode of treatment by means of prayer was, perhaps, intimatelyconnected with the idea that bodily ailments were divinely ordained tomake the wrath of god distinctly perceptible by man this conception ofpathological processes was a very ancient one we meet with it amongthe egyptians, and we read in the book of exodus that god visited uponpharaoh and his people various bodily afflictions, such as pestilence, black smallpox, death, as in the case of the first-born afterwardchristianity adopted this view of sickness as providential, and thebelief assumed very peculiar forms and dimensions in the middleages in those times any disease occurring epidemically was actuallyconsidered to be an act of retribution on the writing of the divinebeing, a scourge with which god punished sinful christians thus, for instance, syphilis, which originated in naples in 1495, duringthe struggle between the reigning house of aragon and the french, was instantly declared to be the chastisement of god the emperormaximilian declares, in an edict issued august 7, 1495, at worms:“quod novus ille et gravissimus hominum morbus nostris diebus exortus, quem vulgo malum francicum vocant, post hominum memoriam inauditussæpe grassetur, quæ nos justissimæ dei iræ merita debent admonere” gregorovius vii , 386, foot-note 1 but it is very astonishing to observe the causes which aroused thewrath of god so mightily that countless numbers of men were sweptaway thus, for instance, the pious bishop of zeeland, peter paladius, assures us that miliary fever, that terrible disease which devastatedeurope five times from 1486 to 1551, was sent by god, who was angry atthe excessive passion for finery which prevailed at that time medicalscience, as founded on theism, assumed menacing forms, where, in themiddle ages, it associated itself with magic, but as we shall moreexhaustively enlarge upon this point in chapter iv we need merelyrefer here to that writing of our work it is indeed surprising that the above-mentioned manifestations alloccurred in periods in which medicine had already acknowledged thephysico-mechanical interpretation of all organic processes. But thestrangeness of this fact is enhanced by the consideration that, evenin recent times, and even at the present moment, there have been, andare, individuals who not only preach the doctrine that medicine isbound to be subordinate to christian faith, but also find adherents totheir dogmas, and find them in surprising numbers recently we havelearned from two exceedingly instructive examples to what extremes thesentiment of fanatical religion may lead men so soon as they shake offthe steadying influence of physico-mechanical ideas in their theory oflife then theocracy strives for an exclusive ascendancy in the domainof medicine, as is distinctly shown by the position taken by mrs eddy, with her “christian science, ” and rev john alexander dowie, with his“christian catholic church of zion ”if we first of all examine the system of mrs eddy, we find it anabsurd farrago of undigested philosophical odds and ends, illogicalmedical aphorisms, and shallow investigation, which reaches its pitchof folly in the belief that disease has no real foundation in thematerial tissues of the body, but should be explained as arisingexclusively from certain conditions of the mind in accordance withthis conception, which has been borrowed from a natural philosophy longsince relegated to oblivion, the services both of physician and physicare to be rejected, and the treatment of the sick is to be carried onin such a manner that the patient, under supervision of an individualexpert in such affairs, is merely to fix his mind on the spiritual, ordivine, principle inherent in himself we are by no means astonished that a person to whom the laws ofthought are entirely unfamiliar, and who is not very much burdenedwith knowledge of any other kind, should advance such confused andpreposterous theories as those of mrs eddy history teaches us thathuman beings have arisen at all periods, in all ranks of life, and incold blood have given currency to the wildest of theories but the mostinteresting point is that at this day when, as we might believe, theadvances in physical science have enlightened to essay extent even themost unintellectual, mrs eddy is able to find adherents, especiallyamong the best classes of society, and to find them in such numbersthat the authorities have been compelled to interfere in repressing thepractises of this medical superstition i purposely say interesting, and not “astonishing” or “wonderful, ” because the historian, whateverdomain he undertakes to investigate, will always discover thatstupidity has at all times been a power superior to all the influencesof culture and learning mrs eddy, with her christian science, provesto us that even in this era of scientific enlightenment, this truthremains incontrovertible rev john alexander dowie, with his christian catholic church of zion, must be judged from an entirely different view-point than mrs eddy it is true, this latter-day saint arrives at exactly the same end asmrs eddy namely, at the absolute rejection of professional treatment, medical as well as surgical but he arrives at this theory, whichso closely concerns both his own health and that of his adherents, by an entirely different way from that taken by the eddy woman anunquestioning belief, which in its naïveté is almost touching, leadshim to hold that all utterances of the old as well as of the newtestament are direct revelations of god the further consequenceof this constancy of faith is the desire to believe and to followeverything that is contained in the bible, to the widest extent andwith the closest adherence to the wording of the book and as the bookof exodus, xv. 26, states, “i am the lord that healeth thee, ” and inthe epistle to james, v. 14-16, prayer is recommended as the bestremedy in diseases, dowie concludes that prayer must be resorted to asthe sole means of treating and curing all forms of disease prayer isdeclared by him to be much more efficacious, in surgical paper, thanthe skill of the most experienced operator dowie, therefore, occupies exactly the same standpoint as thechristians of the first centuries after christ, who also believedthat prayer would render the best assistance in all ailments of thebody twenty centuries, therefore, with all their immense advance inthe training of thought and in the recognition of nature, have notbeen able to rid humanity of the conception that the omnipotence ofgod, among thesis other manifestations, is to busy itself in the dailyregulation of the human body with all its numerous functions whereverthis conception obtains a firm foothold superstition, with its acts ofmiraculous healing, never fails to follow accordingly, all historicperiods of our cultural development, in which the theocratic belief hasbeen on the ascendant, are characterized by an excessive development ofmedical superstition iv the influence of philosophy upon the form and origin of medical superstitionthe idea that philosophy has exerted any material influence uponsuperstition in medicine may appear strange to thesis for how canit be possible that the science which teaches the laws of thought, which regulates our entire mental activity and guides it in the rightdirection, which points out to us the intricate path of medicaltheory and diagnosis how is it possible that just this science shouldeither take or have taken writing in misleading or obscuring our medicalperception?. we do not by any means intend to impute any such effect tophilosophy quite the contrary!. we are thoroughly aware of the greatinfluence which philosophy is entitled to claim in all sciences withoutexception, and for this reason we believe that modern representativesof medical science would be much better off if they were a little lessat variance with philosophy than they actually are in the wide realm of philosophy there are only certain points wherewe can detect a tendency to promote the development of medicalsuperstition this tendency appears in all endeavors which are made toexplain natural phenomena solely in a speculative manner, or to build atheory of life upon a base of pure assumptions whenever such attemptswere made manifest, and impressed philosophy into their service underthe name of natural philosophy, it resulted in the wide predominance ofmedical superstition it is well known that all prae-socratic philosophy aimed at thediscovery of a single principle as underlying and explaining all thephenomena of nature but in spite of this very apparent tendency, it can scarcely be accused of promoting medical superstition. Forprae-socratic philosophy busied itself in speculations concerningterrestrial phenomena earth and air, fire and water, cold and heat, coming into being and passing away, are the things in which itendeavored to find the elemental basis of nature with its multiformphenomena but upon the study of medicine these endeavors exercised, for the time being, a liberalizing influence they emancipated itfrom the repressive grasp of theism, and opened up the way for anexclusively natural explanation of all processes of the body, inhealth as well as in sickness unfortunately the apparatus, or organon, which philosophy furnished to science in its terrestrial phenomena wasa very questionable one, investigation of the conclusion from analogyand the deductive method being of extremely little value, either inmedical diagnosis or the pursuit of natural science for this reasonmedicine was bound to be encumbered with countless badly foundedhypotheses but other monstrous guesses at truth could not fail tobecome current let us consider, for instance, the absurd theory whichheraclitus of ephesus 500 b c has propounded as to the relationsbetween wine and the human soul as the soul, according to thisphilosopher, naturally was a fiery vapor, and the drier and the morefiery it remained the better, the excessive use of alcohol would notbe advisable, in that the abundant infusion of fluids causes the soulto become wet, which would be harmful to its fiery nature, as fire andmoisture are always incompatible who will venture to deny that it wasfrom his opinion regarding the use of wine that heraclitus acquired hissobriquet of “whining philosopher”?.

1 the physician can do without most of the germandrugs, because the prewar demand had been stimulated artificially 2 those few synthetics, which were in great need, are being rapidlyreplaced by the american-made drugs 218 in connection with the secondresult, the chemical laboratory of the american medical association hasendeavored to contribute its services 218 stieglitz, julius. Synthetic drugs ii, j a m a 70. 688 march 9 1918 leech, p n. The vindication of the american chemist;synthetic drugs, chicago chem bull january, 1918, p 230 in september, 1917, it was announced219 that the a m a chemicallaboratory would make studies of american-made synthetics just priorto this announcement, the national research council established acommittee on synthetic drugs220 “to facilitate the manufacture ofsynthetic drugs in this country and thus to relieve shortage and reducethe exorbitant prices which have resulted from the war ”221 alsoduring this time congress was considering the “trading with enemy” act, first known as the adamson bill-- the purpose of which was to conferauthority on the president to license american firms to use u s patents owned by german subjects the act became law, september 28. Thefederal trade commission was designated by the president to carry outthe provisions of the law as it referred to enemy-owned patents as aresult of a conference, oct 30, 1917, 222 with various agencies, thefederal trade commission decided to consider licenses for manufacturersof synthetic drugs, after recommendations had been made by thecommittee on synthetic drugs of the national research council. Thiscommittee in turn invoked the aid of the a m a chemical laboratoryin testing the manufacturer products the essence of the laboratorywork up to july 1, 1919, is reported in this paper 219 the quality of american-made synthetics, j a m a 69. 1018 sept 22 1917 220 this committee is composed of julius stieglitz, chairman, professor of chemistry, university of chicago. W a puckner, secretaryof the council on pharmacy and chemistry, american medical association, and moses gomberg, professor of chemistry, university of michigan 221 stieglitz, julius. Shortage of synthetic remedies, j a m a 69. 400 aug 4 1917 222 foreign patents to be open to american manufacturers, j a m a 69. 1550 nov 3 1917 the naming of licensed drugs“writingly in order to help insure to licensees a market for theirproducts after the war, in larger writing inspired by the idea ofencouraging the establishment of a permanent american industry in theseimportant articles, the federal trade commission wisely decided thatamerican houses should be put on the same footing as competing foreignhouses for after-the-war competition, by imposing on all licenseesthe obligation to use new official names for the articles, nameswhich after the war will be open to all competitors, domestic andforeign ”223223 for an interesting discussion, see stieglitz, julius. Syntheticdrugs, j a m a 70. 536 feb 23. 688 march 9. 923 march 301918 bracken, l l.

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At the tops whereof grow thesis whitish flowers, with yellow threads in the middle, standing about a green head, whichbecomes the seed vessel, which will be essaywhat flat when it is ripe, wherein is contained reddish seed, tasting essaywhat hot the root ismade of thesis white strings, which stick deeply into the mud, wherein itchiefly delights, yet it will well abide in the more upland and drierground, and tastes a little brackish and salt even there, but not somuch as where it hath the salt water to feed upon place it grows all along the thames sides, both on the essex andkentish shores, from woolwich round about the sea coasts to dover, portsmouth, and even to bristol, where it is had in plenty. The otherwith round leaves grows in the marshes in holland, in lincolnshire, andother places of lincolnshire by the sea side descript there is also another sort called dutch scurvygrass, whichis most known, and frequent in gardens, which has fresh, green, andalmost round leaves rising from the root, not so thick as the former, yet in essay rich ground, very large, even twice as big as in others, not dented about the edges, or hollow in the middle, standing on a longfoot-stalk. From among these rise long, slender stalks, higher thanthe former, with more white flowers at the tops of them, which turninto small pods, and smaller brownish seed than the former the root iswhite, small and thready the taste is nothing salt at all. It hath ahot, aromatical spicy taste time it flowers in april and may, and gives seed ripe quickly after government and virtues it is an herb of jupiter the english scurvygrass is more used for the salt taste it bears, which doth essaywhatopen and cleanse. But the dutch scurvygrass is of better effect, andchiefly used if it may be had by those that have the scurvy, andis of singular good effect to cleanse the blood, liver, and spleen, taking the juice in the spring every morning fasting in a cup of drink the decoction is good for the same purpose, and opens obstructions, evacuating cold, clammy and phlegmatic humours both from the liver andthe spleen, and bringing the body to a more lively colour the juicealso helps all foul ulcers and sores in the mouth, gargled therewith;and used outwardly, cleanses the skin from spots, marks, or scars thathappen therein self-heal descript the common self-heal which is called also prunel, carpenter herb, hook-heal, and sickle-wort, is a small, low, creepingherb, having thesis small, roundish pointed leaves, like leaves of wildmints, of a dark green colour, without dents on the edges. From amongwhich rise square hairy stalks, scarce a foot high, which spreadessaytimes into branches with small leaves set thereon, up to the top, where stand brown spiked heads of small brownish leaves like scales andflowers set together, almost like the heads of cassidony, which flowersare gaping, and of a blueish purple, or more pale blue, in essay placessweet, but not so in others the root consists of thesis fibres downward, and spreading strings also whereby it increases the small stalks, withthe leaves creeping on the ground, shoot forth fibres taking hold onthe ground, whereby it is made a great tuft in a short time place it is found in woods and fields every where time it flowers in may, and essaytimes in april government and virtues here is another herb of venus, self-heal, whereby when you are hurt you may heal yourself.