History

Words To End An Essay


50 c c portions were used to determine sugar accordingto the daufresne-oullivan method the weights of cupric oxid averaged210 mg , or 72 per cent ether soluble material -- 1 6998 gm of the powdered specimen wasextracted with ether and the ether extract evaporated to dryness theresidue weighed 0 0600 gm , equivalent to 3 53 per cent syphilodol ampuleswater -- the liquid from one ampule was distilled over very carefully the freezing point of the liquid was 0 1 c , and it was neutral tomethyl orange words to end an essay and phenolphthalein arsenic -- the contents of one ampule was placed in a small florenceflask, 20 c c of concentrated sulphuric acid added and heated to70 c. 0 5 gm of potassium permanganate was added in small amounts the procedure was then carried on as described by engelhardt andwinters in j am pharm assn , 1915, p 1469 to the mixturefrom 5 to 10 c c of hydrogen peroxid solution were added drop bydrop until the color had disappeared the liquid was diluted with20 c c of water, boiled fifteen minutes, diluted again and boiledfifteen minutes, then cooled and made up to exactly 100 c c a blankwas also run alongside five c c of this solution was then testedquantitatively for arsenic according to the u s p ix method, usingall precautions comparisons of stains showed less than 0 00001 gm ofarsenic as -- from the journal a m a , may 18, 1918 cerelenecerelene, a paraffin preparation for the treatment of burns, wassubmitted to the council by the holliday laboratories, with thestatement that it was composed of 84 per cent paraffin, 15 per cent myricyl palmitate, and 1 per cent purified elemi gum to which is addedoil of eucalyptus 2 per cent and betanaphthol 0 25 per cent it wasexplained. “myricyl palmitate is a purified form of beeswax, free from all impurities, acids, etc , which is solely manufactured by this company ”it was also stated that on “special order” cerelene has been madecontaining oil of eucalyptus and resorcin, oil of eucalyptus and picricacid, and picric acid alone the following report on the preparationwas presented to the council by the referee to whom cerelene had beenassigned:cerelene is another compound wax for the treatment of burns accordingto the work of sollmann j a m a 68:1799, 1917 it is highlyimprobable that compound mixtures have any advantage over simpleparaffin of low melting point cerelene must therefore be considered asan unessential modification of paraffin, and as in conflict with rule10, unless definite evidence of superiority be submitted cerelenemixtures containing medicinal ingredients also appear unscientificsince the evidence that the ingredients do not leave the wax has notbeen successfully contradicted finally, the claims made for cereleneare rather extreme, and would need essay revision before they could beaccepted the a m a chemical laboratory reports. The physical properties of cerelene are as follows. melting point by u s p method 50 0 c ductility limit 30 5 c plasticity limit 26 4 c not strong at 38 0 c adheres moderately well. Detaches with “pulling ” on heating, readily loses eucalyptol, and a small amount of resinous substance forms in the bottom of the beaker if cerelene be heated to 145 c and cooled, the resulting product no longer has the properties of the original cerelene after two years’ delay on the writing of the manufacturer, the councilauthorized publication declaring cerelene inadmissible for new andnonofficial remedies because its superiority over single paraffinshad not been demonstrated and the unwarranted claims had not beenabandoned -- abstracted from the journal a m a , feb 15, 1919 dr de sanctis’ rheumatic and gout pillsdr desanctis’ rheumatic and gout pills are sold by edward cleaver, 13clerkenwell road, london, england the american agents are e fougeraand co , inc , new york the package is a round pill box and containstwelve pills and a circular, which directs that one pill be taken everyeight hours until relieved in the package there is also a circularadvertising dr desanctis’ gout and rheumatic paint, with directionsfor its use on the cover of a box, which contained six of the retailpackages, is the statement that these pills have been in general usefor nearly 100 years, and that their sale has been built up withoutadvertising desanctis’ pills are round, uncoated, and have a light brown color there was essay variation in the color of different lots, one lot inwritingicular being gray rather than brown a little arrowroot starchwas found in each box, this evidently having been used as a dustingpowder the pills were very hard, rather brittle, but quite difficultto powder the pills were not readily disintegrated by water or dilutedacids, even when warmed, but when warmed with a dilute sodium hydroxidsolution they readily disintegrated ten pills weighed 3 213 gm , an average of 0 3213 gm , or 5 grains thearrowroot starch used as a dusting powder was removed as completely aspossible by rolling the pills in a cloth several dozen pills were thenpowdered and the powder thus obtained used for the analysis a microscopic examination of the powder showed powdered colchicum seedin abundance and also traces of arrowroot starch, no doubt from thatused as the dusting powder since colchicum seed was so abundant, the powder was assayed by theu s pharmacopeial method for colchicum seed u s p ix, p 120, slightly modified so that less of the powdered pills than directedthere could be used in one assay 3 75 gm gave 0 0204 gm of colchicinor 0 54 per cent in a duplicate, 5 gm gave 0 0234 gm of colchicin or0 47 per cent.

Althoughthe fatal period is usually five to eight minutes at most if, however, the tissues and especially the spinal cord are injured, or the words to end an essay ligaturehas compressed below the larynx, the chance of recovery is very small, even if the body is cut down at once according to faure, animalsexperimented upon die in twelve to twenty minutes thesis paper of “incomplete” hanging have been reported. Where the feettouch the floor, or would do so if the subject should choose to have itso tardieu826 collected 261 paper, in 168 of which the feet touchedthe ground, in 42 the subject was on his knees, in 29 the body waslying, in 29 sitting and in 3 squatting hackel, 827 in 67 paper ofhanging, found it incomplete in 34 per cent illustration. Fig 22 - suicide of prince condé see page 763 in one of the experiments of faure828 a large dog was hung, his feet touching the ground for five minutes he was quiet, breathing without difficulty he then tried to release himself, but instead tightened the knot. He made still greater efforts to release himself, became comatose and fell, apparently dead, at the end of ten minutes.

When they are fully openedthey consist of seven leaves, most commonly words to end an essay of a sad green colour, dented about the edges, set on both sides the middle rib one againstanother, as the leaves of the ash tree. The stalk bears no leaves onthe lower half of it. The upper half bears essaytimes three or four, each consisting of five leaves, essaytimes of three. On the top standfour or five flowers upon short foot-stalks, with long husks. Theflowers are very like the flowers of stockgilliflowers, of a palepurplish colour, consisting of four leaves a-piece, after which comesmall pods, which contain the seed. The root is very smooth, white andshining. It does not grow downwards, but creeps along under the uppercrust of the ground, and consists of divers small round knobs settogether. Towards the top of the stalk there grows essay single leaves, by each of which comes a small cloven bulb, which when it is ripe, ifit be set in the ground, it will grow to be a root as for the other coralwort, which grows in this nation, it is morescarce than this, being a very small plant, much like crowfoot, therefore essay think it to be one of the sorts of crowfoot i know notwhere to direct you to it, therefore i shall forbear the description place the first grows in mayfield in sussex, in a wood calledhighread, and in another wood there also, called fox-holes time they flower from the latter end of april to the middle of may, and before the middle of july they are gone, and not to be found government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon itcleanses the bladder, and provokes urine, expels gravel, and the stone;it eases pains in the sides and bowels, is excellently good for inwardwounds, especially such as are made in the breast or lungs, by takinga dram of the powder of the root every morning in wine. The same isexcellently good for ruptures, as also to stop fluxes. An ointment madeof it is exceedingly good for wounds and ulcers, for it soon dries upthe watery humours which hinder the cure costmary, or alcost, or balsam herb this is so frequently known to be an inhabitant in almost every garden, that i suppose it needless to write a description thereof time it flowers in june and july government and virtues it is under the dominion of jupiter theordinary costmary, as well as maudlin, provokes urine abundantly, and moistens the hardness of the mother. It gently purges cholerand phlegm, extenuating that which is gross, and cutting that whichis tough and glutinous, cleanses that which is foul, and hindersputrefaction and corruption. It dissolves without attraction, opensobstructions, and helps their evil effects, and it is a wonderfulhelp to all sorts of dry agues it is astringent to the stomach, andstrengthens the liver, and all the other inward writings. And taken inwhey works more effectually taken fasting in the morning, it is veryprofitable for pains in the head that are continual, and to stay, dryup, and consume all thin rheums or distillations from the head intothe stomach, and helps much to digest raw humours that are gatheredtherein it is very profitable for those that are fallen into acontinual evil disposition of the whole body, called cachexia, butespecially in the beginning of the disease it is an especial friendand helps to evil, weak and cold livers the seed is familiarly givento children for the worms, and so is the infusion of the flowersin white wine given them to the quantity of two ounces at a time;it makes an excellent salve to cleanse and heal old ulcers, beingboiled with oil of olive, and adder tongue with it, and after it isstrained, put a little wax, rosin, and turpentine, to bring it to aconvenient body cudweed, or cottonweed besides cudweed and cottonweed, it is also called chaffweed, dwarfcotton, and petty cotton descript the common cudweed rises up with one stalk essaytimes, and essaytimes with two or three, thick set on all sides with small, long and narrow whitish or woody leaves, from the middle of the stalkalmost up to the top, with every leaf stands small flowers of a dun orbrownish yellow colour, or not so yellow as others. In which herbs, after the flowers are fallen, come small seed wrapped up, with thedown therein, and is carried away with the wind. The root is small andthready there are other sorts hereof, which are essaywhat less than the former, not much different, save only that the stalks and leaves are shorter, so that the flowers are paler and more open place they grow in dry, barren, sandy, and gravelly grounds, inmost places of this land time they flower about july, essay earlier, essay later, and theirseed is ripe in august government and virtues venus is lady of it the plants areall astringent, binding, or drying, and therefore profitable fordefluctions of rheum from the head, and to stay fluxes of bloodwheresoever, the decoction being made into red wine and drank, or thepowder taken therein it also helps the bloody-flux, and eases thetorments that come thereby, stays the immoderate courses of women, and is also good for inward or outward wounds, hurts, and bruises, and helps children both of bursting and the worms, and being eitherdrank or injected, for the disease called tenesmus, which is an oftenprovocation to the stool without doing any thing the green leavesbruised, and laid to any green wound, stays the bleeding, and heals itup quickly the juice of the herb taken in wine and milk, is, as plinysaith, a sovereign remedy against the mumps and quinsey.

Pulse 100, strong andbounding. Pupils dilated. Headache. Nervous and irritable. Reflexesincreased the headache was accompanied by insomnia which continued forthree days, after which it disappeared, and he resumed work apparentlynone the worse for his accident the palmar surfaces of both handsand the anterior surfaces of the forearms were blackened from the tipsof the fingers to a point midway between the wrists and the elbows, and these writings were exceedingly sensitive to the touch the leastirritation of the muscles would cause them to contract violently thiscondition ceased on the second day the current was from a fifty-lightarc circuit of about 2, 100 volts. 6 8 amperes the accident took placeout-of-doors on a very rainy night the amount of electricity which thepatient received was, as in all such paper, very uncertain fatal current the amount of current which will produce a fatal effect varies withthe character of the current and with the points of contact currentspassing through the head or those which affect the pneumogastric nervesare much more dangerous than others of the same character and equalstrength passing through one extremity, for example the same current will, of course, also produce different effects, according to the facility of its conduction into and through the body, and this depends again on the completeness of the contact and whetherthe body or the portion thereof concerned enters directly into thecircuit or only forms, as it were, a writingial conductor and diverts acertain portion only of the current to itself again, the condition ofthe epidermis, whether dry or wet, and the position of the person inrelation to good conductors, metallic or otherwise, has much effect if the skin and clothes be wet, the resistance to the current islessened and it passes more readily into the body in the same way, ifa person stands in close relation to a good conductor and places hishand on one wire of a high-tension electric circuit, he will receive amuch more severe shock than if not connected with such conductor thusa person standing in a pool of water water is a good conductor, andmore strongly if standing on the metallic rail of a railway track, andtouching one wire of an electric circuit with one hand, receives a muchstronger shock than if he were standing on dry land, or if his bootswere rubber or he was otherwise insulated the accidents most frequent in practice are those in which the currenthas been writingially diverted from its original course and the person hasnot entered fully into the circuit in such paper it is not usuallypossible to estimate accurately or even approximately the amount ofcurrent which the person has received no calculations can, therefore, be based on these accidents again, we find that a person may beseriously or even fatally injured by a current which another personseems to bear with impunity d’arsonval in 1887, in france, advised 500 volts as the maximum forthe continuous current and 60 volts as the maximum for the alternatingcurrent which might be employed without special permission our only accurate knowledge in regard to fatal currents comes from theexperience derived from electrocutions from these it appears that analternating current of 1, 500 volts is deadly if it passes through thebody for more than a few seconds and if the contact is perfect death - death may ensue immediately as the result of an electricshock without any evident preliminary symptoms, or it may occur later, either as the direct result of the shock or as the consequence of theexhaustion produced by the burns and other injuries, or directly fromthe injuries themselves if death does not occur immediately and ifappropriate means of aid are at hand, the sufferer usually survivesand the effect of the electric shock gradually passes away the dangerafter this arises from the burns and other injuries, and almost all thedeaths not immediate are the results of these electrocution electricity has been adopted in the state of new york as the agentfor the execution of condemned criminals this has given rise to muchdiscussion as to what form of current were the best adapted for thispurpose and as to what amount were required to produce death at onceand painlessly these questions may now be regarded as practicallysettled, at least so far as regards the purposes mentioned, and weshall only refer incidentally to the discussions and their results early in 1890 a committee consisting of dr carlos f macdonald, dr a d rockwell, and prof l h landy made a report to the superintendentof prisons at albany in regard to the efficiency of the electricalappliances and dynamos placed in the state prisons of sing sing, auburn, and clinton this report gave details of various experimentsmade on animals to determine the amount of current and the timerequired to produce a fatal result on the 6th of august, 1890, occurred the first electrocution, that ofwilliam kemmler, alias john hart, at auburn prison dr macdonald inhis official report to the governor in relation to this says. “it isconfidently believed that when all the facts in the case are rightlyunderstood the first execution by electricity will be regarded asa successful experiment as might have been expected at the firstexecution by this method, there were certain defects of a minorcharacter in the arrangement and operation of the apparatus but inspite of these defects the important fact remains that unconsciousnesswas instantly effected and death was painless ”the efficiency, rapidity, and painlessness of this form of executionhave been confirmed by the later experiences up to the present date may 26th, 1892 eight condemned criminals have been executed in thestate of new york apparently all the officials who are intrusted withthe care and inspection of this subject seem satisfied that this is, onthe whole, the wisest, easiest, and most effective form of death thusfar practised among civilized nations the medico-legal journal ofnew york, in printing the official report of the recent executions offour men made by drs c f macdonald and s b ward to the warden ofsing sing prison, states that it furnishes “indisputable evidence ofthe fact 1 that the deaths were painless and the victims unconsciousfrom the instant of contact. 2 that they were certain and unattendedwith any of the revolting scenes so frequently witnessed at thescaffold. 3 that the method is humane so far as inflicting physicalpain or suffering, and from all sides considered infinitely preferableto the death by hanging. And that so long as capital punishment formurder exists in new york, we need not desire to change the method ofpunishment ” these claims would seem to be thus far substantiated the value of this method of execution is now beyond doubt whenproperly performed it is rapid, painless, and not repulsive thecriminal has probably no physical sensation of pain or discomfort dueto the mode of death from the moment the first shock occurs since therapidity of the transmission of the electric current through the bodyis in these paper much greater than the rapidity of the transmissionof sensation, it seems just to conclude that no sensation from theelectricity reaches the consciousness the only distress sufferedby the criminal is the unavoidable mental suffering natural to hisposition the mechanical means employed in electrocution are practically thesame at sing sing, clinton, and auburn prisons a special room isprovided for the purpose, which should be, if possible, in thebasement with a concrete floor. This room must be of sufficient sizeto admit readily the criminal with the attendant officers, the wardenand other officials in charge or on duty at the execution, and thewitnesses for whom seats are usually provided at a little distancefrom the criminal chair, and also to allow of plenty of room for themanagement of the electrical apparatus, and a good space around thechair in which the criminal is placed the electrical plant consists ofan alternating-current dynamo and its accessories, placed wherever maybe convenient, according to the arrangements of the buildings of theinstitution, but connected by means of wires with the switch-board inthe execution-room in the execution-room also should be the voltmeter, the ammeter, and such other instruments of measurement or precision asmay be required in charge of these and of the switch-board during theexecution is the electrical expert, an official paid by the state ofnew york means of communication by electric bells or otherwise are, ofcourse, arranged between the execution-room and the engineer in chargeof the dynamo, so that the current can be produced as desired the chair in which the criminal is placed is made of stout beams of oakand is securely fastened to the floor and insulated it is perfectlyplain, with broad arms and an upright back, which latter can be tiltedbackward a little by means of a special arrangement and firmly fixed inthe desired position this is accomplished by means of a bar of woodwhich is firmly attached at one end to the lower portion of the backand runs forward thence parallel to the seat of the chair and alongsideof it. To the anterior end of this is fastened a perpendicular barrunning downward, which can be raised or lowered at will, and securelyfastened at any height as this is raised or lowered, it raises orlowers the anterior end of the horizontal beam and correspondinglylowers or raises the opposite end to which the back of the chairis attached, thus moving the latter when the anterior end of thehorizontal bar is raised the posterior end is lowered and the back ofthe chair is straightened attached to the upper portion of the back ofthe chair is a head-rest, which can be raised or lowered as desired. Itmay, as in the case of kemmler, have a horizontal arm which projectsforward and from which the head-electrode may be suspended the chairis also furnished with broad leather straps firmly attached, two ofwhich pass around the body, one around each upper arm, one around eachlower arm, and one around each leg there is also a broad conjoinedor compound strap which passes over the head, encircling the foreheadand the chin and securing the head firmly to the head-rest whenthese straps are properly adjusted and fastened, any marked degree ofmovement is impossible the adjustment and fastening of these strapscan be performed very rapidly, in practiced hands taking not more thanforty seconds the electrodes used have varied slightly in different paper in thecase of kemmler they each consisted of a bell-shaped rubber cup aboutfour inches in diameter, with a wooden handle through which passedthe wires into the bell to end in a metallic disk about three inchesin diameter, faced with sponge the upper electrode was so arrangedas to rest firmly on the top of the head, where it was held closelyby means of a spiral spring. It was attached to the horizontal arm ofthe head-rest, a sliding arrangement shaped like a figure 4 the lower electrode was in this case attached to the lower writing of theback of the chair, and projected forward at a level with the hollow ofthe sacrum there was also connected with it a sliding arrangement, and a spiral spring which in connection with a broad strap around theprisoner lower abdomen rendered contact secure in the later executions these electrodes have been essaywhat modifiedand differently applied the head-electrode is now so formed as tocover the forehead and temples, and can be easily fastened in thisposition without a spring the lower electrodes have been applied tothe leg in each case, essaytimes apparently to the calf and essaytimesmore to the outer side, where they are securely strapped they aremade of such a shape as to cover a considerable portion of the surfacein this region it is not a matter of importance to which leg theindifferent electrode is attached, but they have actually been appliedin most paper to the right leg, though in essay they were attached tothe left they are thoroughly moistened, usually with a solution ofsalt and water, and a drip may be arranged so as to keep them wetduring the passage of the current or other means employed to thiseffect the electromotive pressure, as shown by readings of the voltmeter byprofessor laudy, in the paper of slocum, smiler, hood, jugigo, andloppy, varied from 1, 458 to 1, 716 volts the ammeter showed a variationof from two to seven amperes the alternating current in the case of mcelvaine made roughly 150periods per second the number of contacts made in each case and the duration of eachcontact were as follows. ═══════════════════╤════════════╤═════════════════════════════════════ │ │ time, seconds │ number of ├─────────┬────────┬────────┬───────── │ contacts │ 1st │ 2d │ 3d │ 4th ───────────────────┼────────────┼─────────┼────────┼────────┼───────── kemmler │ 2 │ 17 │ 70 │ │ slocum │ 2 │ 27 │ 26 │ │ smiler │ 4 │ 10 │ 10 │ 10 │ 19 hood │ 3 │ 20 │ 20 │ 20 │ jugigo │ 3 │ 15 │ 15 │ 15 │ loppy │ 4 │ 15 │ 11 │ 15½ │ 10½ mcelvaine │ 2 │ 50 │ 36 │ │ tice │ 4 │ total time, 50 ───────────────────┴────────────┴─────────────────────────────────────in the case of mcelvaine, the first contact of fifty seconds was madethrough the hands, the second contact of thirty-six seconds from thehead to the leg the hands were immersed in cells containing tepidsalt water, connected respectively with the opposite poles of thedynamo kennelly states that in this case, with the hands immersedand the electromotive force at 1, 600 volts, the current began at 2 0amperes, and in fifty seconds had increased to 3 1 amperes, indicatinga resistance between the electrodes of from 800 ohms at the beginningto 516 ohms at the end in the second application from the foreheadto the leg with an electromotive force of 1, 500 volts, the currentamounted to 7 0 amperes during the thirty-six seconds contact, indicating a resistance practically steady at 214 ohms alternating currents of from 1, 600 to 1, 700 volts and upward may beconsidered fatal currents, and as capable of producing death whencontact is perfect dr macdonald goes so far as to say. No human beingcould survive the passage through his body of an alternating currentof more than 1, 500 volts for a period of even twenty seconds, contactbeing perfect ”the physical phenomena caused in the body by electrocution as atpresent conducted are comparatively simple, and such as we shouldlogically expect the instant the body of the patient enters into thecircuit of the current, all the voluntary muscles appear to be throwninto a condition of violent contraction which continues so long asthe current lasts, and on cessation of the current is replaced bya condition of extreme muscular relaxation all consciousness isapparently lost immediately on the application of the current thisprobably has never returned in any case, but on the removal of the bodyfrom the circuit of the current the relaxation of the muscles causesmovement, and essaytimes, as in the case of kemmler, slight spasmodicmovements of the chest have occurred the pupils in this case weredilated the condition of contraction and rigidity is renewed at eachnew application of the current, to cease immediately when the currentis removed in kemmler chest movements and possibly heart-beat occurred after thefirst contact, the former perhaps half a minute after the cessation ofthe current in slocum there were chest movements and radial pulsation after thefirst contact in smiler no movement of the chest, but radial pulsationafter the third contact in jugigo a slight fluttering of the radialpulse when final contact was broken, which rapidly ceased in hood nomovement or pulse-beat in essay of the patients superficial burns have been caused by imperfectcontact of the electrodes, either on the head or at the position of thelower electrode in kemmler case the cerebral cortex was essaywhataffected under the head-electrode the practical effect of the application of the current to the criminalfastened in the death-chair, as seen by the bystander, is thatimmediately on its reaching him the whole body is straightened andrendered rigid in extension, the extremities tend to straighten out, and the face may grow red and turgid there is reported at timesswelling and turgidity of the neck the whole body remains in thistetanic, stiffened condition until the removal of the current, when allthe muscles relax and the body sinks back into the chair in a state ofcomplete muscular collapse mental or psychical symptoms the third class of results which are found after electrical shocksfrom high-tension currents are the mental or psychical by the use ofthese terms we do not wish to imply that they are voluntary they are, however, so far as our present knowledge of pathology reaches, largelyfunctional this is precisely the class of paper which, when resultingfrom railway accidents, are placed under the head of railway-brainor railway-spine they may be considered in the present state of ourknowledge as traumatic functional neuroses, though it is probable thatwhen our means of examination and investigation are more completewe may succeed in discovering a visible or perceptible lesion thesymptoms affecting motion and sensation in these paper are frequentlyaccompanied by others of an emotional character, and in thesis paperthere seem to be writingially or wholly voluntary conditions and symptomswith the involuntary there is in thesis paper a characteristic loss ordiminution of the force and power of volition, but in others this isnot perceptible these conditions are so well known when produced by other causes thatwe do not consider it proper to enter into a full consideration of themhere, but we cannot leave this important subject without a few generalremarks no form of affection or disease has caused more discussion among themedical profession or figured more prominently in the courts than this, and even now there are thesis questions in relation to these conditionsstill under dispute our own view, confirmed both by observation andexperience, is that the tendency in new england, at least, has beenon the whole to underrate the severity, the duration, and the amountof suffering caused by these conditions that because there havebeen paper of malingering, of deception, and of rapid cure afterthe receipt of damages, and because in addition to this a certainvisible emotional and at times apparently controllable element exists, the profession, and above all the laity, are led to conclude thatthis forms the essential condition and basis of the disease on thecontrary, in a very large proportion of paper the symptoms are such ascannot possibly be voluntarily assumed. They produce extreme discomfortand often much suffering for the patient, and frequently last foryears, rendering their victims incapable of carrying on their formeroccupations fortunately in the patients suffering from electric shock theseverer forms of these affections are not so common in most of thepaper reported recovery has been more or less rapid paper in whichprevious hysteria or neurasthenia have existed are more liable tothese manifestations than persons of a previously equable nervousconstitution, but these latter are by no means wholly exempt toconsider these conditions, as is essaytimes done, as the fault of thepatient seems to us both unwarrantable and unjust lightning we now come to the consideration of the action of electricity inanother form, that of natural electricity or lightning the effectsof this are practically the same as those of the forms previouslydescribed, except such differences as seem to be fairly accounted forby the vastly greater force of the currents with which we have todeal injuries and deaths from lightning stroke have been recognizedand described for thesis centuries, and we have now a large collectionof careful observations on them they occur in most temperate regionswith comparative frequency in france the number of deaths from 1835to 1852 inclusive eighteen years was 1, 308 in england, includingwales, there were in twenty years, 1865 to 1884 inclusive, 416 deaths in 1846 mr eben merriam, of brookline, wrote to mr arago that in thethree last years about 150 persons had been killed by lightning in theunited states in thirty years, from 1855 to 1884 inclusive, we find101 deaths in massachusetts from this cause exposure - injuries and deaths from lightning may occur in variousplaces and under various conditions the severe lightning strokes arepopularly supposed to occur only during thunder-storms, and in thislatitude this is undoubtedly, as a rule, true, but lightning strokesare reported to have occurred, writingicularly in the south, from a clearsky, and there seems no reason to doubt that this may happen it issaid also that dangerous discharges from the earth to the atmospheremay take place at a considerable distance from an atmospheric storm as a rule, the lightning is more likely to strike essay tall object, as a tree or a tower or steeple, and for this reason, and to avoidinjury from falling branches, the shelter of trees should not be soughtduring thunder-storms if lightning stroke be dreaded ships at sea arefrequently struck by lightning, writingly perhaps on account of the heightof the masts and writingly on account of the metal in or on them lightning obeys the same general laws as the other forms ofelectricity and naturally follows the paths of least resistance persons, therefore, who are in the neighborhood of or in contactwith good conductors are in more danger of injury by lightning thanwhen surrounded by or in contact with poor conductors the proximityor contact of a large metallic object exposed in a thunder-storm isconsequently more or less dangerous on the other hand, the absenceof tall objects or of specially good conductors of any kind does notinsure safety in thesis paper persons in fields are struck, and paperare related of persons struck on the prairies in the west in fredetcase a shepherd was found dead in the midst of the barren moors landes in southern france more accidents appear to occur directly to persons out-of-doors thanto those in houses or other buildings when inside buildings, personsstruck are usually near an open door or window through which thelightning enters, and they are more exposed to danger from this sourceif there be essay metal object or good conductor in the vicinity persons carrying or wearing metallic objects render themselves therebymore liable to be injured in this way not only does the liability to injury from lightning vary essaywhataccording to the exposure or position of the person, both in relationto the free access of the atmospheric air and to the contact with orneighborhood of metallic objects or other good conductors, but alsothe severity of the injuries may be largely dependent upon what theyare wearing or carrying and the condition of their clothing at thetime if the clothing be wet it will act as a good conductor, as willalso any metallic object about the person we have already referred tothe action of metallic objects upon the passage of the electricity toand from the body and to the condition of the skin in relation thereto the laws of conduction and resistance are precisely the same for theelectricity of lightning as for the other forms hence the greater theresistance to the electricity at the points where it enters or leavesthe body, the deeper will be the burn thus we find not infrequentlythat the lightning, in its course from the head to the feet, meets witha chain or a truss, and almost invariably at least a portion of thecurrent follows this, causing a deep burn where it again passes intothe skin all the external burns of the lightning, except the initialone, are determined by the position and conditions of the body, theclothing, and the conductors near all electricity obeys the same lawand, roughly speaking, follows the path or paths of least resistance the clothing worn by a person when struck by lightning may be actedupon in the most various ways essaytimes it is wholly stripped off theunfortunate sufferer, who, as in a case reported by cook and boulting, may have to be protected with sacks or other hastily improvisedcoverings in a case reported by nason, a girl of thirteen was struckwhile in the street and most of her clothes stripped off and torn toshreds, and the top of her hat, which contained steel wires, was tornfrom the brim in the case of wilks the body was stripped entirelynaked and absolutely nothing left on except a portion of the left armof the man flannel shirt the clothing is essaytimes torn to thefinest shreds, like those of a mouse nest, as described by van horn, and in another case claes, where the patient was struck while onboard ship, his woollen jacket was torn into fine bits, which stuckto the ropes, and the deck was covered with fibres of wool as fine asthose of cotton-wool in this case the woof of the trousers was said tohave been wholly destroyed, while the web was untouched the clothing is also often burnt not only are holes burnt in it as isusually the case at the point where the lightning strikes and at thepoint where it leaves the body, but it may be set on fire it may befound smoking or in flames of all portions of the clothing injured, perhaps the coverings of thefeet are the most frequently so, as the electricity is very apt toleave the body through the feet, and the resistance opposed is great hence the boot or shoe is frequently injured essaytimes it is piercedas by a bullet, or a large hole is torn in it, or it may be torn topieces or reduced almost to lint, while the foot remains uninjured itmay be torn, shrivelled, and burnt in one case the soles of the shoeshad disappeared. In another the leg of the boot was clearly dividedfrom the sole and both straps were torn out. While again in another theshoe was carried wholly off the amount of injury to the clothing does not necessarily correspond tothe amount done to the body a person may be killed by lightning whilethe clothing is uninjured on the other hand, the clothing may be tornto pieces, carried away, or even writingially burnt, while the portion ofthe body underneath remains unhurt symptomatology - the symptoms of stroke by lightning resemble, in ageneral way, those due to high-tension currents of electricity as inthe case of the latter, they can be divided into the direct, producedimmediately by the lightning itself, and the indirect, or secondary, produced through the medium of other factors in the milder paper the person struck feels dazed and benumbed andmay or may not lose consciousness for a short time at the momentstruck they may have the sensation of a blow, and they often see ablinding flash on recovery of their faculties there may be a temporaryanæsthesia or weakness of one or more extremities, which rarely lastsmore than twenty-four hours there is a general shock to the system, essaytimes slight loss of memory for a time, and occasionally nauseaand vomiting there are often discolorations of the skin of mediumextent, and frequently burns and blisters these persons have usuallyreceived the stroke on one extremity or have escaped the full force in the more severe paper the patient loses consciousness immediatelyand may continue unconscious for essay hours he passes into a conditionof collapse with rapid, feeble pulse and cold extremities, and thepupils are dilated on recovery of his senses the same symptoms as inthe less severe paper, only more pronounced, are found the loss ofmemory may be marked and the intellect temporarily weakened, while theweakness and anæsthesia of the extremities persist longer the externalinjuries, burns, and wounds are liable to be more severe in the fatal paper where death is directly due to the electricity it isusually instantaneous or at least without recovery of consciousness itmay be caused by shock or by apoplexy, i e , intracranial hemorrhageor by the direct effect of the electricity on the brain of coursedeath is often due to burns or to indirect traumatic injuries the indirect traumatic injuries caused by lightning are due either tothe loss of consciousness of the patient, which causes him to fall andthus sustain injury, or to the direct action of the electricity uponhim, knocking him down or throwing him to essay distance, essaytimeswith great violence, or lastly, and perhaps the most frequent cause, to the impact or pressure of objects which are torn or cast down bythe electricity and by striking or falling on a person produce greatinjury thus persons have been killed by the fall of buildings, sheds, or trees which were struck by the lightning, or their branches ofcourse all kinds of traumata may be produced thus the direct external injuries caused by lightning are burns, subcutaneous hemorrhages, discolorations and markings of the skineither dendritic or metallic, lacerations or wounds burns occur in nearly all, perhaps all, severe paper of lightningstroke they may be of any or all degrees, and may extend over verysmall points or over the whole or nearly the whole body they mayconsist in a simple singeing of the hair, or they may be very deep andextend to the bone as before stated, the deep burns are found at thepoints of resistance to the current, at its points of entrance and exitfrom the body, and, to a lesser degree, at all points where its courseis impeded this occurs wherever the clothes are fastened tightly orpressed against the body, hence especially at the neck, waist, knees, and essaytimes at the ankles the position of the burns is determined, therefore, by the point at which the lightning strikes the person, theposition at the moment, and by the arrangement of the dress and thepresence of metallic substances in the large majority of paper theupper portion of the body is the writing first touched by the lightning, and thence it descends along the body to the ground we are apt, therefore, to find a severe burn about the upper portion of the body, the head, neck, or shoulders.

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did you make anycomparative experiments and keep a record of them?. if so, the refereewould like to receive an account of your trials in what directioncould d be expected to occupy a superior place in iodin therapy?. i hope that you can give the information asked by the referee and thus aid the council in arriving at a correct estimate regarding the value of d the following reply was received from the physician in response to theforegoing. Dear professor puckner:-- in reply to yours of january 19, i did not proceed far enough in the investigation of d to draw conclusions of any writingicular value for the purpose of the council on pharmacy and chemistry. And i so stated in my letter to the proprietors of that remedy answers to the questions you put in your letter require an amount of investigation of the remedy far beyond anything i undertook as a matter of fact, i returned about five sixths of the capsules sent me, because of lack of time and opportunity to carry out the extensive clinical experiments that i plainly saw would be required to give an opinion at all worth while i believe you had better not consider me in the matter at all the report was furnished by a physician for whom i have a high personalregard i introduce it here, not so much in a spirit of criticism, but as a justification of the opinion that i have formed of clinicalevidence obtained by manufacturers through their clinical adjutors when commercial firms claim to base their conclusions on clinicalreports, the profession has a right to expect that these reportsshould be submitted to competent and independent review when suchreports are kept secret, it is impossible for any one to decide whatproportion of them are trustworthy, and what proportion thoughtless, incompetent or accommodating however, if this were done it is quitepossible that such firms would find much more difficulty in obtainingthe reports those who collaborate should realize frankly that underpresent conditions they are collaborating, not so much in determiningthe scientific value, but rather in establishing the commercial valueof the article often the best type of clinical reports-- those in which theobservations are directed to the significant events and not to mereside lines, and in which the significant events are correctly andadequately reported-- generally lack one important essential, namely, anadequate control of the natural course of the disease since this cannot be controlled directly, it must be compensatedindirectly for this purpose, there are available two methods:the first is the statistical method, in which alternate patientsreceive or do not receive the treatment this method can usuallyonly be of value when a very large series of patients is available even then, its value is limited or doubtful, because it cannot takesufficient account of the individuality of paper the second method consists in the attempt to distinguish unknownpreparations by their effects-- the method that might be called the“comparative method” or the “blind test ”in this, the patient, or a series of patients, is given the preparationwhich is to be tested, and another preparation which is inactive, and the observer aims to distinguish the two preparations by theireffects on the patient surely if the drug has any actions at all itwill be possible to select correctly in a decided majority of theadministrations the same principle can be applied in distinguishing the superiorityof one preparation over another in this case, the two preparationswould be given alternately to different patients, and the observerwould try to distinguish them by their effects here again, if onedrug is really superior or otherwise different from another, to apractically important extent, the observer will surely be able to makethe distinction this method is really the only one that avoids the pitfalls of clinicalobservation. It is the only method that makes the results purelyobjective, really independent of the bias of the observer and thepatient it is the only method, therefore, which determines whether itwas really the pudding that was eaten and not essay other dessert in principle this method does not usually offer any very greatdifficulties it is, of course, necessary that the two preparationsto be compared shall resemble each other so closely or shall beflavored, etc , so that they cannot be distinguished by their physicalproperties this is usually not a very difficult matter the methoddoes not jeopardize the interests of the patient, for it is understoodthat no drug would be tested in this way unless there is essay reasonto believe that it has a value when the patient condition is suchas to demand treatment, then he would be receiving either the standarddrug or the drug which the experimenter believes may be superior to thestandard conclusionsthe final and crucial test of a remedy is on the patient. But thetest must be framed so as to make it really crucial most clinicaltherapeutic evidence falls far short of this the “blind test” is urgedto meet the deficiencies -- from the journal a m a , july 21, 1917 “vaccines in toxic conditions” commercialized propaganda in the guise of scienceunder the title “vaccines in toxic conditions, ” what purports to bea scientific contribution appears in the original dewritingment of theofficial organ of a state medical society 311 the apparent purpose ofthe article is to overcome any hesitancy on the writing of practitionersto use vaccines in toxic infectious conditions for fear that theymight thereby cause harm such a thesis is interesting and might beimportant-- if true two outstanding facts, however, give pause first, the theory promulgated is contrary to the experience of those whohave studied the subject. Second, the man who writes the article isin the business of making and selling vaccines!.