Why I Want To Be An Army Officer Essay

Lancet, london 2:433, 1905 preparation -- all of the more dissociated acids liberate secretinfrom intestinal mucosa on boiling their action is dependent onthe degree of dissociation, 39 carbonic and boric acids beinginactive 40 secretin can also be prepared with strong soaps from10 to 30 per cent sodium oleate, alcohol 70 per cent , 41 0 6 percent sodium chlorid36 the acid and soap in the duodenum producesecretion. There is no necessary correspondence between the action of asubstance in the intestine and that obtained by injection after boilingmucosa with it the sodium chlorid, bile, maltose and glucose produceessay secretion by the latter method yet none by the former 36 on theother hand, ether, chloral and oil of mustard excite secretion whenin the intestine, but no secretin can be prepared from boiled mucosaby their action the irritation of the lining cell has produced thenecessary hydrolysis 38 in well-controlled experiments, wertheimerand lepage42 found that after the introduction of acid, secretion issecreted into the lumen of the intestine matuso36 confirmed theirresults, and found this a satisfactory method for the preparation ofsecretin it is said that secretin can be obtained by merely boilingthe mucosa with water, but the results are inconstant 4339 frouin and lalou. Compt rend soc de biol , 71:189, 1911 40 camus. Compt rend soc de biol , 1902, 54:442, 1902 41 fleig. Jour de physiol et de path gén 6:32, 50, 1904 42 wertheimer and lepage. Jour de physiol et de path gén 4:1061, 1070, 1902 43 stepp.

It should be kept inwell-stoppered bottles and should be protected from the light the content of lecithin plus kephalin in tissues is about as follows. per cent egg-yolk 8 to 12 egg-white 0 1 to 0 2 liver 2 0 to 3 0 kidney 2 0 to 3 6 lung 2 0 to 3 0 pancreas 2 0 to 3 0actions and uses -- the lecithin preparations have been recommendedin thesis pathologic conditions, especially in malnutrition and sexualdebility moderate doses are said to bring about a marked retention ofnitrogen and phosphorus, but satisfactory proof of this is lacking itis extremely unlikely that the small doses which have been recommendedin pill or tablet form or in emulsions can have any perceptible action, in view of the fact that thesis of our natural foods contain much greaterweights of available lecithins than the medicinal doses provide thereis no good basis for the statement that the free lecithin has a greaterfood value or is more readily assimilated than is the substance asfound in eggs or tissue the reverse proposition is much more likelyto be true, especially when it is considered that the commercialpreparations are usually essaywhat altered or decomposed in the processof separation dosage -- given by the mouth in the form of pills, tablets orglycero-alcoholic emulsions the amount of actual lecithin ingestedin this way is usually small because of the doubtful purity of theoriginal preparation several doses, as commonly administered, wouldbe required to furnish the amount of lecithin present in a smallegg -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 122 proprietary names for liquid petrolatum report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has accepted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary a former report of the council liquid petrolatum or “russian mineraloil, ” report council pharm and chem , the journal, may 30, 1914, p 1740 called attention to the large number of concerns that wereplacing on the market liquid petrolatum as a proprietary under coinednames since then the number of such products has increased thecouncil has been requested by several concerns to consider theirproducts put out under proprietary brand names the rules of the council affirm that “the application of ‘trade names’to official or established nonproprietary substances tends to confusionand fosters thesis abuses ” in accordance with this general ruling, the council has invariably refused to countenance proprietary namesapplied to liquid petrolatum the council holds that proprietary orcoined names for this substance are detrimental to medical progress, since they are sure to foster the impression that the writingicularproduct is different from liquid petrolatum manufacturers have beenadvised that there is no objection to distinguishing their productsby the addition of their firm name or the initial representing thefirm name. For instance, “liquid petrolatum, a b and co ” or “liquidpetrolatum, smith ” the council also believes that such designationsas “star liquid petrolatum” or “liquid petrolatum, anchor brand, ”may be regarded as unobjectionable, provided that the words “liquidpetrolatum” are always used in connection with the brand designationand given equal prominence -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1915, p 127 seng report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary seng sultan drug co , st louis is called by the manufacturers. “ a palatable preparation of panax ginseng in an aromatic vehicle ”regarding ginseng panax quinquefolia the united statesdispensatory, nineteenth edition, page 1603, says. “the extraordinary medicinal virtues formerly ascribed to ginseng had no other existence than in the imagination of the chinese it is little more than a demulcent, and in this country is not employed as a medicine ”no discussion of ginseng is to be found in the more recently publishedbooks on pharmacology, materia medica and therapeutics, evidentlybecause their authors agree with this estimate on the other hand, physicians are told through the medium ofadvertisements appearing in medical journals that seng is. “an efficient remedy in all affections in which the gastro-intestinal glands need stimulating “exceptionally useful in atonic indigestion, malnutrition, convalescence from the acute diseases, and all digestive disorders characterized by deranged or depressed functions ” woman medical journal, july, 1914 according to the label, seng is indicated in “indigestion, ”“malassimilation, ” “malnutrition” and “wasting diseases ” it is alsostated-- though the preparation is admitted to contain 18 per cent ofalcohol-- that to give babies “ten to fifteen drops in water or milkduring feeding” is a proper procedure and that “for colic, flatulency, etc , the dose for an adult or child may be repeated every half houruntil relieved ”the following are essay of the exaggerated therapeutic claims made forthis preparation of a worthless drug. “as a result of its administration the gastro-intestinal secretions are augmented, the digestion of food is substantially increased, and fermentative processes are promptly overcome ” “seng will specifically encourage the secretion of the juices in the entire alimentary tract ”the formula furnished for seng is non-quantitative and thereforemeaningless the preparation is exploited in a manner to encourageits ill-advised use by the public, and exaggerated and unwarrantedtherapeutic claims are made for it the use of an inefficient orworthless drug like ginseng, moreover, is detrimental to rationaltherapeutics the council therefore voted that seng be refusedrecognition for conflict with rules 1, 4, 6 and 10 -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 129 frosst blaud capsules report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfrosst blaud capsules and frosst blaud, arsenic and strychninecapsules were submitted to the council by c e frosst & co , montreal, canada this firm claims, on the authority of the report of a firm ofanalytical chemists, that. “ of three leading blaud preparations bought by us on the open market, the iron in frosst blaud capsules showed the highest percentage of ferrous carbonate ”the chemical laboratory of the american medical association found thisclaim unjustified the laboratory reported that there was no especialdifference in the ferrous iron content of the various blaud pills foundon the market, and that among ten specimens examined, the total ironcontent was the lowest in the frosst specimen in view of this thecouncil refused recognition to frosst blaud capsules and frosstblaud, arsenic and strychnine capsules -- from reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 164 tyree elixir of buchu and hyoscyamus compound report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryeach dessertspoonful of this preparation is said to represent buchu leaves 3-1/2 grains uva ursi 1-1/8 grains pareira brava 1-1/8 grains hyoscyamus 1-1/2 grains hops 1-1/2 grains acetate potash 7-1/2 grains spirits nitre 5 grains alcohol 5 per cent by volume”the manufacturer, j s tyree, washington, d c , offers this formulato the medical profession with the following claim. “approximate composition made sic by quantitative and qualitative analysis of the finished product ”it is also claimed that “an even greater advantage of tyree buchu and hyoscyamus compound over other drugs, lies in the fact that every constituent of the former is required to conform to a fixed standard of active principle strength. Hence the results derivable from it are absolutely uniform ”these pretentious claims of scientific accuracy look rather absurd tochemists thesis of the substances present in buchu, hops, hyoscyamus, uva ursi and pareira brava are also present in other drugs. Hence itwould never occur to a pharmaceutical chemist to try to ascertain thecomposition of such a mixture as tyree elixir by “quantitative andqualitative analysis of the finished product, ” much less to determinethe “active principle strength” of each ingredient, for no methods areknown by which this can be done it is claimed that, because of the care exercised in making tyreeelixir “ the results derivable from it are absolutely uniform ”a moment reflection, however, must compel any physician to attributethis statement, on the most charitable construction, to sheerignorance of course, even a definite chemical principle, such asquinin, does not exert uniform clinical action, for clinical conditionsvary, and accordingly the patient may or may not be cured it is simplypreposterous to claim that the clinical results obtained from suchsubstances as hops, pareira brava, buchu and uva ursi are absolutelyuniform a peculiarly vicious claim is that the elixir renders the mucoussurfaces of the genito-urinary tract “hostile to the multiplication ofthe gonococci ” since infection with the gonococcus produces the direstresults, any claim which means in plain english that the remedy assistsin producing a cure or in preventing infection with that organismcannot be condemned too strongly uva ursi, to be sure, has essay slightantiseptic action but it is devoid of any curative action in gonorrheaand the minute amounts that are present in the tyree elixir are of nomore protective value against gonorrheal infection than a grain ofhexamethylenamin would be it is further claimed that the elixir is a “specific” for “inflammationof the bladder, bright disease, renal colic, suppurative nephritis, acute cystitis, urethritis, catarrh of the bladder it would beinteresting to know what distinction the manufacturer draws between‘inflammation of the bladder, ’ ‘cystitis’ and ‘catarrh of thebladder’, acidemia, edema, vesical catarrh of old age, lithemia” andthat ascites and anasarca “can be reduced greatly to the satisfactionof the patient, and honor of the physician” by using a mixture oftyree elixir and infusion of digitalis such claims as these do notmerit serious discussion, for they carry their own refutation it is recommended that tyree elixir of buchu and hyoscyamus compoundbe held in conflict with rules 5, 6 and 10 and that publication ofthis report be authorized -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1915, p 167 hydroleine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryhydroleine charles n crittenton company, new york is a cod liveroil emulsion said to contain 45 per cent of cod liver oil, a trace ofsalicylic acid and 18-1/2 grains of “pancreatin, etc , ” per ounce theadvertising claims are based largely on the theory that cod liver oilis “that writingicular fat which dietetic experience and physiologicalchemistry have proved to be most digestible ” as a matter of fact, while the superior digestibility of cod liver oil over other oils hasoften been asserted, neither “dietetic experience” nor “physiologicalchemistry” have “proved” this by definite observations the crittentoncompany claims that it is more readily split than other oils thisis probably not true, easy emulsification of the raw oil being oftenconfounded with easy splitting this latter claim, however, is offeredin justification of the name “hydroleine, ” which the crittenton companyinterprets as “hydrated oil ” a circular wrapped around the bottlecontains the assertion that “cod liver oil has long been held in highesteem by the medical profession for the treatment of a large number ofserious diseases ” this recommendation is likely to lead the public toplace undue reliance on hydroleine in the grave conditions mentioned the preparation is in conflict with the rules of the council inasmuchas its name does not indicate its composition, unwarranted therapeuticclaims are made for it, and the exploitation is likely to give thepublic unwarranted confidence in its value the council therefore heldhydroleine ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies -- from reportsof council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 171 curative vaccine, bruschettini report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycurative vaccine, bruschettini, manufactured by a bruschettini, genoa, italy, is claimed to have the properties “of acting directly on thetubercular bacillus, bringing directly into the field and determining ahyperproduction of antibacillar and antitoxic substances ” the use ofthe preparation is said to be indicated in “all forms of tuberculosis ”a referee reported to the council that he had examined the availableinformation and believed that the use of this product had nosatisfactory experimental basis the method of preparation appears tobe based more on theoretical considerations than on experimental basis on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines thecouncil voted that curative vaccine, bruschettini, be not acceptedbecause 1 the method used for the production of the vaccine was notsatisfactorily stated. 2 the theory on which its use is based has notbeen satisfactorily confirmed, and 3 the value of the product is notupheld by satisfactory clinical evidence the council findings, in accordance with its procedure, were sentto the manufacturers for comment his reply was considered by a newreferee who found that the matter presented did not warrant a revisionof the council conclusions accordingly the council directedpublication of its findings -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1915, p 176 stearns’ wine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfrederick stearns & co market a preparation known as “stearns’ wine, ”“stearns’ wine of cod liver ext with peptonate of iron, ” and as “vinumext morrhuae, stearns ” the constituents are said to be “concentratedextract of fresh cod livers, ” “peptonate of iron” and a “fine qualityof prime sherry wine” containing 18 per cent of alcohol this preparation was at one time marketed through the medicalprofession, but is now advertised direct to the public in typical“patent medicine” style the label on a recently purchased bottle ofstearns’ wine contains the following statements.

Greatcare being taken that none of the intestinal contents are lost thesmall intestines should be opened in one dish and the large intestinein another a portion of the intestines where morbid appearances aremost likely to be seen in paper of poisoning are the duodenum, thelower writing of the ilium, and the rectum the comparative intensity ofthe appearances of irritation should be especially noted for example, if the stomach appears normal and the intestines are found inflamed thepossibility of poison from an irritant may be denied the intestines are opened along their detached border by theenterotome care should be taken to distinguish the post-mortemdiscolorations which are usually seen along the intestines from thoseproduced by disease the former are most marked in the dependentportions they are apt to occur in patches which can be readilyrecognized by stretching the wall of the gut the darkish brown orpurple discolorations which are essaytimes seen as the result ofdecomposition are due to the imbibition from the vessels of decomposedhæmoglobin much care and experience are necessary to tell the amountof congestion which is within normal limits and to recognize changes ofcolor produced by decomposition the pathological lesions ordinarily looked for in the examinationof the intestines are ulcers, perforation, hemorrhages, strictures, tumors, and the evidences of various inflammations to obtain anaccurate idea of the various portions of the mucous membrane of theintestines, it is essaytimes necessary to remove their contents whenvery adherent this should be done by allowing as small a portionof distilled water as possible to flow over their surface if anyabnormalities are noticed along the intestinal tract, an accuratedescription should be given of their situation and extent. As also theamount of congestion seen in different portions of the intestinal tract if possible the different portions of the intestines, as well as thestomach, should be examined immediately after being exposed to view, as under the influence of the air those writings which are pale maybecome red, and slight redness may become very pronounced in this wayonly can we estimate the degree of vascularity of the various writingsafter death however, in paper of suspected poisoning, when it isimpossible for the chemist to be present at the autopsy, the medicalexaminer should not open the stomach and intestines, but place themin sealed jars as soon as possible afterward, the chemist beingpresent, they should then be examined in the manner indicated whatmay be lost by waiting, in changes of color which have taken place, will be more than counterbalanced by the data which the chemist willobtain from observing the contents and mucous membrane of the stomachand intestines when they are first exposed the characteristic odorsof certain poisons are so evanescent that they quickly disappear afteropening of the stomach and intestines after a thorough examination of the intestines, they are to be put withtheir contents into wide-mouthed vessels, each writing by itself, andthe basins in which they were opened washed with distilled water andthe washings put into the same bottle as soon as the intestines aretransferred to the jars they should be sealed the stomach - the stomach and duodenum are removed together theyare opened by passing the enterotome into the duodenum and dividingit along its convex border, the incision being continued along thegreater curvature of the stomach as far as the œsophageal opening theyshould be opened in a large glass dish which has been carefully washedwith distilled water the chemist and medical examiner will carefullynote the quantity, odor, color, and reaction of the stomach contents;also whether luminous or not in the dark. The presence or absence ofcrystalline matter, foreign substances, undigested food or alcohol portions of the contents should be placed in a small glass bottle andsealed, so that at a future time they may be examined microscopically only in this way can an absolute knowledge of the character of thestomach contents be obtained in certain medico-legal paper the abilityto decide the character of the stomach contents is of the utmostimportance the mucous membranes of the stomach and duodenum must benext carefully examined for evidences of hemorrhages, erosions, tumors, and of acute or chronic inflammations the appearance of the rugæ andtheir interspaces, principally in the region of the greater curvature, should be noted. Because here traces of poison and its effects aremost frequently seen if the stomach is inflamed, the seat of theinflammation should be exactly specified, as also that of any unusualcoloration the condition of the blood-vessels are also noted vascularity orredness of the stomach after death should not be confounded with theeffects of poison or the marks of disease it may occur in everyvariety of degree or character and still be within normal limits vascularities which we might call normal are seen in the posterior writingof the greater end and in the lesser curvature, and may cover spacesof various extent rigot and trosseau have proven by experiment thatvarious kinds of pseudo-morbid redness may be formed which cannot bedistinguished from the varieties caused by inflammation. That theseappearances are produced after death and often not until five or eighthours afterward, and that they may be made to shift their place andappear where the organ was previously healthy, merely by altering theposition of the stomach ulcers, or perforations of the stomach as theresults of disease, as also the digestion of the stomach after death, have been mistaken for the effects of irritant poisons when perforation of the stomach is the result of caustic poisons, theedges of the opening are very irregular, and are of the same thicknessas the rest of the organ the writings not perforated are more or lessinflamed, and traces of the action of the caustic are found in themouth, pharynx, and œsophagus this is the opposite condition to thatseen in spontaneous perforation in considering perforation of the stomach the following points given bytaylor are well to remember. 1 a person may have died from perforation of the stomach and not frompoisoning 2 a person laboring under disease may be the subject of poison 3 a person laboring under disease may have received blows orinjuries on the abdomen, and it will be necessary to state whether theperforation did or did not result from the violence 4 the perforation of the stomach from post-mortem changes may bemistaken for perforations from poison corrosives, if they do not produce perforation of stomach, willgenerally cause intense inflammation accompanied by softening of theinner coat, essaytimes ending in gangrene the inflammation varies as toits extent and intensity, essaytimes affecting principally the mouth andœsophagus, but generally the changes are more pronounced in the stomachand duodenum, while in rare paper the inflammatory process may extendthrough the whole alimentary canal the mucous membranes are essaytimesbright red with longitudinal or transverse patches of a blackish color, formed by extravasated blood between the coats carbolic acid oftenproduces in the stomach and œsophagus white patches when these patchesare carefully examined, an ulcerated surface beneath them is generallyseen narcotic poisons - it is a common but mistaken idea that thesepoisons produce essay mark or characteristic effect upon the stomachwalls. That they induce a rapid tendency to putrefaction. That theblood is in a fluid state. That hemorrhages are seen in variouswritings. That the stomach and intestines show sloughing without anyinflammation essay of these conditions may and probably do occur, butthey are far from being invariable in their appearance experimentsmade by orfila on animals with narcotic poisons prove the abovestatement in conclusion, i would emphasize the fact that the narcoticpoisons produce no characteristic changes in the stomach that can bedetected the liver - the liver should be removed from the body and no attemptmade to examine the organ in situ after raising first one lobe andthen the other, the diaphragm should be cut on either side and thesuspensory and lateral ligaments divided, then the organ can easilybe removed the weight of the organ is ascertained, as also themeasurements of its size recorded the normal weight is from fifty tosixty ounces the organ is normally about twelve inches in length byseven inches in depth by three and one-half inches in thickness the gall bladder is first examined to determine the character andamount of the bile and the presence or absence of gall stones, inflammatory lesions, and tumors at autopsies the surface of the liver, especially along the freeborder, is generally seen to be of a greenish or dark-brown color this discoloration is due to the action of the gases developedby decomposition on the coloring matter of the blood, and has nopathological significance the character of the surface of the liveris now noted, whether smooth or rough the organ is opened by deepincisions in various directions, and the color, consistency, and bloodsupply of the liver tissue carefully recorded the presence of newconnective tissue, amyloid degeneration, abscesses, or tumors shouldnot be overlooked it should be remembered that, of all the poisons, phosphorus alone leaves characteristic appearances in the liver the pancreas - the pancreas is now easily removed, and its size andweight recorded normally it should weigh three ounces and measureeight inches in length by one and one-half inches in breadth by oneinch in thickness the organ should be opened by a longitudinal cut andexamined for evidences of acute or chronic inflammation, fat-necrosis, tumors, calculi, and amyloid degeneration genito-urinary organs - it is very important in medico-legal paperthat all the urine should be preserved and obtained uncontaminated;therefore before the bladder is opened a catheter should be introducedand the urine drawn off into a clean bottle which has previously beenrinsed with distilled water if more convenient the bladder itself canbe punctured at its upper portion, a pipette introduced, and the urinedrawn off in this manner the genito-urinary organs are removed together this is done in thefollowing manner the body of the penis is pushed backward within theskin and cut off just behind the glans penis. The remaining portion ofthe rectum is raised this with the prostate gland, bladder, and penisattached is removed by carrying the knife around the pelvis close tothe bone and separating the pubic attachments the organs are then laidon a clean board and the urethra is opened on a grooved director passedinto the bladder, and the incision prolonged so that the internalsurface of the bladder itself will be completely exposed examine theurethra for strictures, inflammatory lesions, and ulcers examinethe bladder for congestion, hemorrhages, inflammation, and ulcersof its mucous surface, and note the thickness of its walls open therectum and examine for ulcers, strictures, tumors, and the evidenceof hemorrhage the prostate gland is opened by a number of incisionsinto its substance examine for hypertrophies, tumors, and inflammatorylesions force the testicles through the inguinal canal, and cutthem off weigh, open, and examine them for evidence of inflammation, tuberculosis, and tumors female organs - before removing these organs, any abnormalities suchas adhesions, malpositions, and tumors should be noted dissect theorgans away from the pelvic bones by carrying the point of the knifearound the pelvis close to the bone cut through the vagina at itslower third, and the rectum just above the anus the organs can nowreadily be removed examine the vulva for ulcers, hypertrophies, andtumors open and examine the bladder open the vagina along itsanterior border and carefully examine its mucous surface for evidencesof inflammation the uterus - before opening the uterus, its size and shape should berecorded the average normal weight of the organ is about one andone-quarter ounces. Its length three inches, breadth two inches, andthickness one inch open the organ along its anterior surface by ablunt-pointed scissors passed through the cervix, and the incisioncarried as far as the fundus note the thickness of its walls and anyabnormalities of its mucous membrane during menstruation, the mucousmembrane of the body is thickened, softened, and covered with bloodand detritus retention cysts are found in the mucous membrane of thecervix and are not generally of pathological significance remove, measure, and weigh the ovaries their normal weight is aboutone drachm each. Their size, one and one-half, by three-quarters, byone-half inch open the organs by a single incision and examine forthe evidences of acute and chronic inflammations, tumors, and cysts the corpora lutea in various stages can be easily recognized in thesubstance of the organ open the fallopian tubes and examine theircontents and the condition of their membranes see disputed pregnancyand delivery, vol ii the spinal cord to remove the cord, the body should be placed on its face with a blockbeneath the thorax an incision is made through the skin and musclesalong the entire length of the vertebral column and the soft writingsdissected away so as to expose the transverse process of the vertebræ the lamina are divided with a saw through the articulate process adouble-bladed saw specially adapted for this work can be obtained after the lamina have been completely severed, these together with thespinous process can now be readily torn away with a stout hook and thecord exposed a long chisel with a wooden mallet will often greatlyfacilitate this work great care should be exercised not to injurethe cord the roots of the spinal nerves are now severed, and thecord removed within its membrane it should be remembered that serousfluid within the membranes of the cord, as also intense congestion, especially along its posterior aspect, is often seen as the result ofpost-mortem change the cord is laid on a clean board and the duramater opened with a blunt-pointed scissors along its anterior aspect, and an examination made for the presence of hemorrhage, inflammatorylesions, and tumors softening of the cord can generally be detected bythe finger passed along it this, however, is not a perfectly accuratetest, especially if the body has been dead essay time the cord isnow cut by transverse incisions about half an inch awriting throughoutits entire length, and the cut surface examined for the evidences ofdisease such as hemorrhages, softening, and inflammatory lesions after the cord has been removed, examine the vertebral column for theevidences of fractures and displacements late autopsies late autopsies are those performed after writingial or completedestruction of the soft writings of the body, through the naturalprocesses of decomposition, or the examination of bones exhumed longafter interment the term may be employed also to mean the inspectionof an embalmed body, dead for essay time the object of late autopsies is to determine identity, or to establishthe guilt or innocence of suspected persons an examination of theskeleton even thesis years after death may give important information asto the manner in which the deceased came to his end this cannot betterbe illustrated than by the citation of one or two paper in the celebrated case of “eugene aram, ” the bones of his victim werediscovered thirteen years after the crime had been committed a man whoafterward proved to be aram accomplice was arrested on suspicion heconfessed the crime, and the opinion formed by the medical witnesseswas confirmed by his statements the skull presented evidence offracture and indentation of a temporal bone aram argued the case inhis own behalf, but the testimony was too strong against him. He wasconvicted and executed taylor records the case of a man, guerin, who was convicted of themurder of his brother from evidence obtained from an examination of theskeleton three years after interment here, again, blows upon the headwere the cause of death, and the fractures were plainly perceptibleupon the exhumed skull an autopsy upon a body before the soft writings have been entirelydestroyed, or upon an embalmed body, should be conducted in muchthe same manner as ordinary autopsies in these paper the method ofburial should be noted if it be a case of murder, and the body hasbeen hurriedly put into the ground, it is not likely that the customof christian nations has been observed that of laying the body fulllength, with the head to the west in the case of writingially destroyed bodies, the remaining soft writingswill give little evidence of the mode of death unless the violence hasbeen very extensive, and even then it may be impossible to determinewhether a wound was inflicted prior to or after death recourse mustbe had to the skeleton, and the only evidence it can furnish is offractures, unless, as happened in one case, a rope be found about thecervical vertebræ when the skeleton only is found, taylor lays stress upon the followingpoints. 1 whether the bones belong to a human being or one of the loweranimals 2 if a human being, whether male or female 3 the length of time they have probably remained in the ground 4 the probable age of the individual to whom they belonged if themaxillary bones be found, much information may be obtained from anexamination of the teeth 5 the probable stature of the individual during life 6 the race to which he belonged the conformation of the skull andthickness of the bones will give important information on this point 7 it should be determined whether solitary bones belong to the rightor left side, and whether they form writings of one or more than oneskeleton 8 whether they have been fractured, and if so, whether it occurredduring life, or by accident at the time of the exhumation if itoccurred during life, whether it be recent or of long standing 9 the presence or absence of personal deformities, of supernumeraryfingers or toes, of curvature of the spine, of ankylosis of one or morejoints 10 whether they have been calcined, as murderers essaytimes try tomake away with the bodies of their victims by burning especially isthis the case in infanticides see identity, vol i , p 408 et seq ;time of death, vol i , p 452 et seq autopsies of fragments these paper are usually paper of murder in the perpetration of whichthe criminal has mutilated the body with a view to destroying alltraces of identity the importance which attaches to autopsies of fragments rests uponthe fact that writings of a body may be found widely separated, and thatone portion may be found before the others in such paper it will benecessary to determine if they belong to one and the same body theexamination is conducted chiefly with a view to establishing this the examiner must note the manner in which the fragment has beenseparated. Whether it is clean cut, as by one who understood essaythingof anatomy, or, whether it has been separated roughly and by oneignorant of the body structure the determination of this point willbe one link in the chain of evidence which may lead to the detectionof the criminal, or the acquittal of one accused an anatomist ora butcher would be likely to cut through at a joint, and to do itneatly the exact point at which the severance has taken place shouldbe noted the place of finding, the circumstances under which found, the condition and general appearance of the fragment should all becarefully recorded the color of the skin will indicate with essayaccuracy the race to which the individual belonged the probablesex may be determined by the presence or absence of hair, and thegeneral conformation this, however, will not apply in the case ofchildren the probable age may be fixed upon from the size and degreeof development of the fragment the cut surface should be carefullydescribed, and if possible a drawing should be made of it there are special considerations which apply to certain writings of thebody the head - the exact point of severance should be recorded thenumber of vertebræ which remain attached to the head should be counted, and if the section pass through a vertebra, its number and the amountof it missing should be stated the sex will be apparent in allinstances.

Which is to take away the films bycorroding or gnawing medicine that i absolutely protest against 1 because the tunicles of the eyes are very thin, and therefore sooneaten asunder 2 the callus or film that they would eat away, is seldom of an equalthickness in every place, and then the tunicle may be eaten asunder inone place, before the film be consumed in another, and so be a readierway to extinguish the sight than to restore it it is called chelidonium, from the greek word chelidon, whichsignifies a swallow. Because they say, that if you put out the eyes ofyoung swallows when they are in the nest, the old ones will recovertheir eyes again with this herb this i am confident, for i have triedit, that if we mar the very apple of their eyes with a needle, she willrecover them again. But whether with this herb or not, i know not also i have read and it seems to be essaywhat probable that the herb, being gathered as i shewed before, and the elements draw awriting from itby art of the alchymist, and after they are drawn awriting rectified, theearthly quality, still in rectifying them, added to the terra damnata as alchymists call it or terra sacratisima as essay philosopherscall it the elements so rectified are sufficient for the cure of alldiseases, the humours offending being known and the contrary elementgiven. It is an experiment worth the trying, and can do no harm the lesser celandine, usually known by the name of pilewort and fogwort i wonder what ailed the ancients to give this the name celandine, which resembles it neather in nature nor form. It acquired the name ofpilewort from its virtues, and it being no great matter where i set itdown, so i set it down at all, i humoured dr tradition so much, as toset him down here descript this celandine or pilewort which you please doth spreadthesis round pale green leaves, set on weak and trailing branches whichlie upon the ground, and are flat, smooth, and essaywhat shining, and inessay places though seldom marked with black spots, each standing on along foot-stalk, among which rise small yellow flowers, consisting ofnine or ten small narrow leaves, upon slender foot-stalks, very likeunto crowsfoot, whereunto the seed also is not unlike being thesis smallkernels like a grain of corn essaytimes twice as long as others, of awhitish colour, with fibres at the end of them place it grows for the most writing in moist corners of fields andplaces that are near water sides, yet will abide in drier ground ifthey be a little shady time it flowers betimes, about march or april, is quite gone bymay. So it cannot be found till it spring again government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars, and beholdhere another verification of the learning of the ancients, viz thatthe virtue of an herb may be known by its signature, as plainly appearsin this. For if you dig up the root of it, you shall perceive theperfect image of the disease which they commonly call the piles it iscertain by good experience, that the decoction of the leaves and rootswonderfully helps piles and hæmorrhoids, also kernels by the ears andthroat, called the king evil, or any other hard wens or tumours here another secret for my countrymen and women, a couple of themtogether. Pilewort made into an oil, ointment, or plaister, readilycures both the piles, or hæmorrhoids, and the king evil.

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Simultaneous œdema of both lungs all of these may causesuffocation paper 18 and 49 for paper of enlarged thymus gland, seehofmann, op cit , pp 587, 588 paralysis of the muscles of swallowing, from diphtheria or othercause, predisposes to suffocation progressive asthenia in whichthe muscles are exhausted. Injury of spinal cord or pneumogastrics;paralysis of muscles of respiration from the use of curare. Thespasms of tetanus and strychnia poisoning. The entrance of air intothe pleural cavities with collapse of the lungs all tend to causemechanical suffocation either by pressure or by paralysis for deathsin epileptics, see paper 1, 10, 11, 33, and 40 it is not necessary that the air-passages should be absolutely closedto cause suffocation the cause of death is more likely to be pure asphyxia, because of theabsence of the complicating pressure of the hand or ligature on thevessels and nerves of the neck, and of fracture of larynx or vertebræ symptoms - foreign bodies889 entering the trachea naturally falltoward the right bronchial tube instead of the left because of thesize and position of the entrance of the right tube if then but onetube is involved, the signs will usually be on the right side. Whereasif the foreign body stop in the larynx or trachea, both sides will beaffected the latter condition is much more dangerous the symptomswould be resonance over the lung with the respiratory murmur writingly orwholly absent. Less mobility. Puerile breathing on the unaffected side in either case there may at first be little disturbance, especiallyif the shape of the foreign body is such as not to greatly interferewith the access of air. Otherwise there may be at once, and almostalways will be after a time, more or less urgent dyspnœa diminution ofthe necessary oxygen may cause convulsions, apoplexy, and other brainsymptoms acute emphysema of the portion of lung not obstructed mayfollow its forcible distention the local effect of the foreign body isan irritation which causes spasm and cough it may be carried upward bythe expirations and downward again by each inspiration inflammationis likely to appear eventually and may involve the lung if theobstruction is not complete there may follow periods of alternation ofgood and bad health, ending perhaps in recovery the foreign body maybe expelled after a greater or lesser interval on the other hand deathmay result from secondary causes in the absence of correct historythe symptoms may lead to a wrong diagnosis and inappropriate treatment;as where a patient whose symptoms resulted from the presence of a pieceof bone in the larynx, was treated for syphilis a foreign body may becoughed up from the lung into the trachea and fall backward into theopposite lung writingial closure of the larynx, most likely caused by a flat orirregular substance, rather than globular, may cause gradual asphyxiawith symptoms of apoplexy, making the diagnosis difficult when a foreign body remains a long time in the larynx, spasmodic coughand croupy breathing usually ensue, expectoration tinged with blood, hoarseness, or complete aphonia, pain, dyspnœa, possibly crepitationand dulness over the lungs the case may end suddenly in death fromclosure of the glottis, or the foreign body may pass into the tracheaand set up a new train of symptoms, or it may be expelled the frequency with which foreign bodies in the pharynx or œsophagusobstruct respiration, and the facility with which they may usually beremoved, suggest a careful examination otherwise the patient may betreated indefinitely for supposed obstruction in the air-passages foreign bodies in the œsophagus have perforated into the trachea, andeven the lungs, heart, and aorta in complete suffocation death will occur in from two to five minutes see remarks under strangulation death may also occur instantaneously the experiments of the committee on suspended animation890 showed that when the trachea of a dog was exposed, incised, and a tube tied in, the average time covered by the respiratory efforts after stopping up the tube with a cork was four minutes five seconds.