History

Why I Deserve A Scholarship Essay


intravenous compound loffler has been on the market ten years. It is unmentioned in theliterature of scientific medicine the name of its exploiter, whilenot unknown in the twilight zone of professionalism as the exploiterof a nostrum, as a “specialist” in “chronic troubles” and “intravenoustherapy, ” as well as in other capacities even less savory, is equallyunknown to scientific medicine -- from the journal a m a , nov 12, 1921 intravenous specialties to the editor:-- there is a salesman here in salt lake city making extravagant claims about the medicines advertised in the enclosed pamphlet would you kindly advise me as to your opinion of it?. w c schulte, m d , salt lake city to the editor:-- i am interested in knowing the attitude of the council on pharmacy and chemistry regarding the products of the intravenous products company of america, 121 madison avenue, new york city if the council has already reported, please refer me to the appropriate number of the journal if it has not, please give me any information available h b gessner, m d , new orleans answer -- the intravenous products company of america has notrequested the council on pharmacy and chemistry to examine any of itsintravenous specialties, nor have they been discussed in the journalor examined in the american medical association chemical laboratory the firm list of specialties bears a striking resemblance to thoseof other “intravenous specialty” firms endoarsan, like venarsen ofthe intravenous products company of denver, is stated to contain acacodylate dimethylarsenate along with mercury and iodid venarsenwas reported on unfavorably by the council the journal, may 22, 1915, p 1780, the inferior efficacy of sodium cacodylate was discussed the journal, march 25, 1916, p 978 and the worthlessness of sodiumcacodylate as a spirocheticide confirmed by h n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012, william g ward the journal, feb 3, 1917, p 390, and r l sutton the journal, feb 17, 1917, p 566 endosal, like venosal of the intravenous products company of denver, is said to contain salicylate and a colchicum preparation the latteris also said to contain iodids venosal was found unacceptable fornew and nonofficial remedies by the council on pharmacy and chemistry like other “intravenous” firms, this company advertises the intravenousadministration of drugs such as sodium iodid and hexamethylenamin theobjections to and the dangers of indiscriminate administration of drugsintravenously was recently emphasized in a report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry “essay of loeser intravenous solutions” thejournal, april 16, 1921, p 1120 -- query from the journal a m a , dec 10, 1921 iodexat fairly frequent intervals physicians receive through the mail freesamples of “iodex, ” a black ointment sent out in small, circularaluminum boxes iodex is sold by menley and james, ltd , new york city, under the claim that it is a preparation of free iodin, 252 minusthe objectionable features that go with free iodin the preparationwas examined in the a m a chemical laboratory in 1915, and foundpractically devoid of free iodin the laboratory also reported thatwhen 1 or 2 grams of iodex was rubbed on the skin of the forearm onseveral subjects and the urine collected and tested for iodin, theresults were negative this disproved the claim that “thirty minutesafter inunction with iodex iodine can be found in the urine ”252 “free” or elementary iodin such as the tincture of iodinis used externally for its local irritant and antiseptic effects “combined iodin” e g , iodid of potassium, does not producethese effects. And when preparations containing iodin in combinedform are used, it is with the expectation of obtaining the systemic “alterative” effects such as are produced by iodids the findings of the laboratory, which were summed up in a report thejournal, june 19, 1915 of the council on pharmacy and chemistry oniodex, were essentially as follows. 1 the composition is incorrectly stated. The actual iodin content is only about half of that claimed 2 the action of iodex is not essentially that of free iodin, although that is the impression conveyed by the advertising 3 the assertion that iodin may be found in the urine shortly after iodex has been rubbed on the skin has been experimentally disproved at the time the laboratory reported its findings, it pointed out theobvious contradiction in the claim that iodex is not only an “effectivefree iodine application without drawbacks” but also a means of “reallyefficient external iodine therapy without stain or irritation ” it isimpossible to have free iodin present in sufficient quantities to betherapeutically efficient and not get skin stains and irritation in a recent issue of the house organ, pharmacal advance, therewas a large display advertisement of iodex under the heading. “forprophylaxis and to ‘double cross’ disease, ” with the claims. “free iodine ” “rub through skin ” “does not irritate nor stain ”on other pages of the same issue these claims appeared. “there is no therapeutic virtue in iodex which is not inherent-- though often latent-- in free iodine. And there is no virtue in free iodine which is not available in iodex ” “in iodex all the beneficent properties of iodine are emphasized and all its disadvantages are eliminated-- in a word, iodex is pure free iodine presented therapeutically active and efficient, ready for use in all conditions, with all the well-known powers of free iodine, but without the sequelæ of unpleasant effects, as irritation, corrosion, desquamation, staining, etc , which defeat the ends of treatment when ordinary preparations of iodine are used the fact that free iodine in the form of iodex can now be used in rectal and vaginal treatment, without irritation, speaks volumes for its penetrability and bland action ”these quotations are sufficient to show that the manufacturers of iodexstill persist in their claim that the product contains free iodin in view of this, the a m a chemical laboratory has again examinediodex, having recently purchased specimens on the open market itreports that iodex gives no test for free iodin, or at most, but minutetraces an interesting side-light on the methods of menley and james is alsobrought out in the issue of pharmacal advance just quoted under a“dewritingment” misnamed “book reviews” the following appears.

Paraffin175 m p by u s p method 47 2 c 97 5 gm asphalt from 3 to 5 drops olive oil 1 5 c c 172 sollmann, torald. Suggested formulas for paraffin films, thejournal a m a , april 7, 1917, p 1037 173 hull, a j. The treatment of burns by paraffin, brit med jour , jan 13, 1917, p 37. The treatment of burns by paraffin, therapeutics, the journal a m a , feb 3, 1917, p 373 174 the “soft paraffin” of the british pharmacopeia resemblespetrolatum, u s p , queries and minor notes, the journal a m a , april 28, 1917, p 1281 175 the paraffin used in this formula was supplied by the standardoil company of indiana. The melting point given by the manufacturers isfrom 120 to 122 f , which, according to the american standard of takingmelting points, gives higher results than the method described in thepharmacopeia illustration. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - | inception | | | | where the dry wax poultice has been used | | | | thermozine known in france as l’ambrine, has been | | used in the following parisian hospitals, with | | 92% of cures. | | | | hospital de la pitie, services of drs lion, darier | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - photographic reproduction from a booklet on “thermozine” showing thatit is identical with “ambrine ”about 10 c c of “asphalt varnish” b asphaltum176 is placed ina beaker and heated on the steam bath for one-half hour from 3 to 5drops, delivered from a 1 c c pipet, are then placed in a casserole, and 1 5 c c of olive oil added the mixture is heated and stirredfor a few minutes until perfect solution is effected to this is thenadded, with stirring, the paraffin, which has been previously melted when it is cooled, a brown solid is obtained 177 the physical factorsof this paraffin mixture are, melting point 45 4 c u s p method;plasticity, 28 5. Ductility, 29. It is very pliable and strong at38 c , and adheres exceedingly well to the skin, although it detacheseasily this mixture, which is easy to prepare, is inexpensive, thecost of the materials being approximately 10 cents a pound 176 the “asphalt varnish” used was obtained from remien & kuhnertcompany, chicago 177 while needless, a color resembling “ambrine” may be obtained bythe addition of coloring agents both hull and sollmann noticed that tarlike substances and meltedparaffin do not mix well this is noticeable in “ambrine, ” which cannotbe called an “elegant” preparation the difficulty may be overcome byfirst mixing hot olive oil and asphalt. The asphalt will then go intosolution it is interesting to note that the suggested formula as wellas others which were also prepared is not as plastic as the paraffinitself 178 this is also true of “ambrine ” on the other hand, themelting point of the paraffin is higher the important point, however, in compounding all paraffin preparations, is to select a proper gradeof paraffin as elaborated below 178 in a personal communication dr sollmann expressed the opinionthat the synthetic preparation is inferior to the paraffin used in theformula, basing the view on the greater plasticity of the paraffin for practical purposes, the paraffin will most probably serve as wellas the mixture, especially when it is held in place by bandages, but ibelieve that the mixture is more adhesive examination of paraffins and paraffin preparationsillustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of a fullpage magazine advertisement of “thermozine, ” the name under which“ambrine” was sold to the public the name “paraffin” generally applies to a colorless and tastelesswaxlike substance that is solid at ordinary temperature it is composedof saturated hydrocarbons, that is, they are unable to take up any morehydrogen, and thereby are quite stable. The hydrocarbons in paraffinhave the general formula of c↓{n}h↓{2n2}, ranging as high as c₂₄h₅₀ toc₂₇h₅₆ paraffin may be found in crude form in coal, from which sourcethe first paraffin candles were made it may be produced from thedistillation of brown coal, as in gerthesis, or from bituminous shale in america, it is obtained chiefly from the distillation of crudepetroleum, being in the residue after the distillation of such productsas naphtha gasoline, kerosene and the lubricating oils the residueis treated by one of a number of processes causing the unpurifiedsolid paraffin to be made available the crude paraffin is eithersold as such, or is refined paraffin or “paraffin waxes”179 aredesignated in the trade by their melting points which in the “americanstandard” is expressed in fahrenheit degrees, and as to their stateof refinement as “crude, ” “semirefined” and “fully refined” paraffin there are certain chemical and physical differences so that two refinedwaxes having the same melting point would not have the same plasticity the higher melting point varieties of paraffin are hard and tough atroom temperature.

Melting point, u s p method, 126 f density, u s p method, 0 907 iodin value, 0 5 saponification number, 0 9 “stanolind surgical wax” is manufactured by the standard oil company ofindiana in the submission of the product to the council on pharmacyand chemistry, it was stated that the product was a specially preparedparaffin “free from dirt or other deleterious matter it hasbeen steamed and resteamed to drive out any free oil and repeatedlyfiltered ”the examination of the foregoing products yielded the figures describedin table “b ”-- from the journal a m a , may 19, 1917 the stability of iodine ointments l e warren, ph c , b s in general, the literature on the keeping qualities of iodine ointment, and on the stability of iodine if mixed with ointment bases, isconfusing the recorded evidence is often contradictory the attentionof the writer was brought to this condition by studies of severalproprietary preparations, iodex, 184 iod-izd-oil, 185 iocamfen, andiocamfen ointment 186184 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 89 185 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 106 186 rep chem lab , a m a , 1916, 9, 118 iodex was sold under the claim that it is “ an embodiment of vaporized iodine, in an organic base, reduced and standardized at 5 per cent by incorporation with a refined petroleum product ”the exact composition of iodex is a trade secret analysis showed thatit contains petrolatum-like substances and combined iodine, the latterprobably in combination with oleic acid tests for free iodine weremade in five specimens why i deserve a scholarship essay of iodex in one of these no free iodine waspresent. In the others the merest traces were found two years ago a preparation called “iod-izd-oil” was examined this wasclaimed to contain 2 per cent of free iodine in liquid petrolatum at the time of the examination the age of the preparation was notknown, but it had been obtained just prior to the analysis, and wasthought not to be very old the analysis showed that it contained butabout 0 43 per cent of iodine, all of which was in a free state thefact that all of the iodine present was in the free state appearedto indicate that iodine is relatively stable in liquid petrolatumsolutions iocamfen is a liquid composed of iodine, camphor and phenol it wasclaimed to contain 10 per cent of free iodine analysis showed thatit contained 9 3 per cent of total iodine of which 7 5 per cent was present in an uncombined state, 66 1 per cent of camphor and19 7 per cent of phenol after storing for several months a secondassay of iocamfen showed no appreciable loss in iodine content this would indicate that iodine is relatively stable in presenceof phenol and camphor, although immediately after mixing there isessay loss of free iodine the iocamfen ointment was supposed tocontain 50 per cent of iocamfen equivalent to 5 per cent of freeiodine in a lard-wax-cacaobutter base the analysis showed that theointment contained but 0 4 per cent of free iodine, the balancebeing in combination from the results of the examination, and fromcorrespondence with the manufacturers schering and glatz, it becameevident that the only plausible explanation for the loss of free iodinein the preparation of iocamfen ointment from iocamfen lay in thecombination of the free iodine with the ingredients of the ointmentbase it seems likely that the free iodine originally present iniocamfen for the most writing had gradually gone into combination with thefatty substances after the ointment had been prepared the literature was then examined to determine the consensus of opinionconcerning the stability of iodine in iodine ointment in the olderliterature the belief that iodine ointment is unstable appears to bequite general such statements as the following are typical. The ointment should be prepared only when wanted for use, for it undergoes change if kept, losing its deep, orange-brown color, and becoming pale upon its surface 187 187 u s disp , ed 19, p 1315 it is better to prepare it only as it is required for use 188 188 am disp , ed 2, p 2022 this ointment must not be dispensed unless it has recently been prepared 189 189 u s pharmacopeia, ix, p 481 in 1909 lythgoe, 190 of the massachusetts board of health laboratory, reported an examination of four samples of iodine ointment three werefound to be pure, the fourth was low in iodine experiments showedthat iodine ointment deteriorates rapidly. Consequently, no furthercollections of samples were made 190 rep mass bd health, 1909, 41, 477 in 1912 pullen191 reported that he had prepared two specimens ofiodine ointment according to the british pharmacopeia, one beingfrom new lard and the other from a specimen of lard at least 2 yearsold assays for free iodine were carried out immediately after thepreparations were made, and at intervals afterward up to four months the following values were found:191 pharm jour , 1912, 89, 610 sample i sample ii ointment from ointment from new lard, old lard, per cent per cent iodine introduced 4 0 4 0 iodine found immediately after making 3 95 3 38 iodine found after twenty-four hours 3 30 3 15 iodine found on the third day 3 18 2 62 iodine found on the seventh day 3 15 2 46 iodine found on the fourteenth day 3 00 2 45 iodine found after one month 3 00 2 39 iodine found after two months 2 90 2 31 iodine found after four months 2 92 2 26pullen found that the loss in free iodine could be accounted for by theiodine which had gone into combination with the fats of the ointmentbase pullen also found that if the potassium iodide and glycerin wereomitted in the preparation of the ointment, the loss in free iodinewas very rapid, the preparation containing practically no free iodine only 1/20 after a few hours he concludes that the use of potassiumiodide and glycerin is necessary for the preservation of the ointment he obtained specimens of iodine ointment in drug stores, and assayedthem for free iodine it is to be presumed that the ages of the severalspecimens were not known the results are found in the following table. Specimen no 1 2 74 per cent specimen no 2 2 85 per cent specimen no 3 2 62 per cent specimen no 4 2 48 per cent specimen no 5 2 53 per cent specimen no 6 2 79 per cent fried192 prepared iodine ointment according to the u s p viiiformula, and assayed it at intervals his results are tabulatedherewith:192 pharm jour , 1912, 89, 610 per cent iodine introduced 4 00 iodine found immediately after making 3 89 iodine found one hour after making 3 51 iodine found one day after making 3 48 iodine found five days after making 3 06 iodine found ten days after making 2 84 iodine found thirty days after making 2 81 iodine found ninety days after making 2 81 iodine found eight months after making 2 81iodine ointment has been official in the u s pharmacopeia since 1870 briefly, the method now used for making the preparation is as follows. Four gm of iodine, 4 gm of potassium iodide and 12 gm of glycerin are weighed into a tared mortar and the mixture triturated until the iodine and potassium iodide are dissolved and a dark, reddish-brown, syrupy liquid is produced eighty gm of benzoinated lard are then added in small portions and with trituration after each addition the mass is then triturated until of uniform consistence 193193 the time required to complete the process after the initialportion of lard has been added should be about twenty minutes paraffins and paraffin preparations-- table a key. A.

Provided all persons who furnish tosaid board satisfactory evidence by affidavit or otherwise of havingpractised obstetrics previous to the passage of the act, shall receivea license without an examination this section does not apply tophysicians holding certificates nor prohibit services in paper ofemergency, nor apply to persons practising obstetrics in communitieswhere there are no licensed practitioners 12 board meetings - the board is required to meet at the territorialcapital on the first monday of january, march, june, and september ofeach year at 10 a m , and such other times as the president of theboard shall deem necessary 13 colleges - “respectable medical colleges” include colleges in legalstanding of any recognized school of medicine 15 fees - to the treasurer of the board of examiners, for examination andcertificate, $25 3 to the treasurer of the board of examiners, for license to a graduate, $5 4 the secretary of the board is required to enter without fee, on theregister to be kept by him, the names of all persons to whom licensesare issued as physicians and surgeons 4 to the county recorder, for recording, his usual fees 5 to the treasurer of the board of examiners, upon examination forlicense to practise obstetrics, $10 to the treasurer of the board of examiners, upon license to practiseobstetrics without examination, $1 12 vermont qualification - the medical societies organized under a charter fromthe general assembly at each annual session elect a board of censors ofthree members, who may examine and license practitioners of medicine, surgery, and midwifery revised laws, 1880, s 3, 908 a practitioner of medicine, surgery, or midwifery who by sign oradvertisement offers his services to the public as a practitioner ofmedicine, surgery, or midwifery, or who by such sign or advertisementassumes the title of doctor, shall obtain a certificate from one ofsuch medical societies, either from a county, district, or statesociety 3, 909 a person not a resident of the state who has not received a diplomafrom a chartered medical college must obtain a certificate from a boardof censors before he shall be permitted to practise the medical art inthe state 3, 910 each board of censors must issue certificates without fee to physiciansand surgeons who furnish evidence by diploma from a medical collegeor university, or by a certificate of examination by an authorizedboard, which satisfies said censors that the person presenting suchcredentials has been, after due examination, deemed qualified topractise the branch mentioned in such diploma or certificate s 3, 911 the censors in their discretion shall notify the practitioner ofmedicine, surgery, or midwifery of this chapter, and require suchpersons to comply therewith within thirty days after notification orsuch further time as is allowed by the censors not exceeding ninetydays 3, 912 the certificate must set forth the branches of the medical art in whichthe person is qualified to practise 3, 913 the certificate must be recorded in the clerk office of the county inwhich the holder resides, or, if not a resident of the state, in thecounty in which he obtained his certificate 3, 914 a certificate issued by a board of censors is valid throughout thestate after being duly recorded the censors may revoke or annula certificate if in their judgment the holder has obtained itfraudulently or has forfeited his right to public confidence by theconviction of crime 3, 915 penalty - to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery in the state, orsign a certificate of death for burial or removal unless authorized bya certificate issued and recorded, is punishable with a fine of from$50 to $200 for the first offence, and for subsequent offences with afine of from $200 to $500, recoverable by an action of debt for the useof any person who sues or by indictment 3, 916 no person practising either of the branches of medicine, surgery, ormidwifery is permitted to enforce in the courts the collection of afee or compensation for services rendered or medicine or materialfurnished in the practice of any of the branches for which he has not acertificate 3, 917 exceptions - the law does not apply to the practice of dentistry, norto the practice of midwifery by women in the town or locality in whichthey reside, nor to practitioners of medicine who resided and practisedmedicine in the state for five years previous to november 28th, 18763, 918 virginia board of examiners - there is a state board of medical examinersconsisting of three members from each congressional district and twofrom the state at large, and five homœopathic physicians from the stateat large code 1887, s 1, 744 the board is composed of men learned in medicine and surgery appointedby the governor from a list of names recommended by the medical societyof virginia, together with five homœopathic physicians nominatedto him by the hahnemann medical society of the old dominion therecommendations are required to be by votes of a majority present atessay meeting of such society. But if the governor considers any personso recommended unsuitable he may decline to appoint him, in which paperuch society shall within ninety days after notification make anotherrecommendation, and if the society fail to make a recommendation thegovernor is required to appoint such board in whole or in writing withoutregard to such recommendation if any examiner cease to reside in thedistrict for which he was appointed his office is deemed vacant s 1, 745 the regular meetings of the board are required to be held at least oncea year, and at such times and places as the board may prescribe, andspecial meetings may be held on the call of the president and any fivemembers 1, 746 qualification - the board at any of its meetings must examine allpersons making application to them who desire to practise medicineor surgery. When an applicant shall have passed an examinationsatisfactory as to proficiency before the board in session thepresident must grant a certificate to that effect if any applicantfail to pass a satisfactory examination before the board he shall notbe permitted to stand a further examination within the next threemonths, nor shall he be required again to pay the fees prescribed, butno applicant shall be rejected on his examination on account of hisadherence to any writingicular school of medicine or system of practice, nor on account of his views as to the method of treatment and the cureof disease when, in the opinion of the president of the board, the applicant hasbeen prevented by good cause from appearing before the board, he shallappoint a committee of three members who shall examine the applicantand may grant a certificate having the same effect as though grantedby a full board, until the applicant have an opportunity to appearbefore the board, when, if he fail to appear for examination, thepresident shall have the authority to revoke said certificate. Or inany case the president shall have authority, at his discretion, togrant a special permit to any applicant to practise medicine until heshall have an opportunity to appear before the board in session forexamination, revokable at the discretion of the president the boardhas in its discretion authority to accept in lieu of examination acertificate from a medical board of any other state, showing that theapplicant has passed a satisfactory examination as to his proficiency, and obtained a license from said board to practise medicine and surgeryin said state 1, 747, as amended act 1892, c 70 a person obtaining a certificate from the president of the board mustcause it to be recorded in the clerk office of the county or thecorporation court, of the county or corporation in which he resides, or, if he resides in the city of richmond, in the clerk office of thechancery court of the said city 1, 749 no person who shall have commenced the practice of medicine or surgerysince january 1st, 1885, or who shall hereafter commence the practiceof the same, shall practise as a physician or surgeon for compensationwithout having obtained a certificate and caused it to be recorded penalty - the violation of this act is punishable with a fine offrom $50 to $500 for each offence, and the violator is debarred fromreceiving compensation for services rendered as a physician or surgeon;a person assessed with a license tax as a physician or surgeon by anycommissioner of revenue prior to july 1st, 1892, shall be taken ashaving commenced the practice of medicine or surgery prior to thatdate. But any person who shall not have been so assessed shall be takenas not having commenced such practice prior to that date s 1, 750, as amended act 1892, c 70 non-residents - a physician or surgeon residing in an adjoining statewithin ten miles of the boundary line of this state, is entitled tostand the examination and receive a certificate, and the certificatemust be recorded in that county in the state nearest to his place ofresidence, and such certificate and recordation shall make it lawfulfor him to practise medicine and surgery in this state s 1, 751 exceptions - this chapter does not affect practitioners of dentistry, nor include physicians or surgeons residing in other states calledinto consultation in a special case with a physician or surgeonresiding in this state, nor does it affect in any way the laws inreference to the license tax 1, 752 nor does it apply tomidwives 1, 753 fees - to the board of examiners, before examination, $5 s 1, 747, as amended act 1892, c 70 to the clerk of the court, for recording, same fee as for recording adeed 1, 749 washington examining board - the governor is required to appoint a state medicalexamining board of nine members, learned and skilled in the practiceand theory of medicine and surgery act march 28th, 1890, s 1 the said board is required to hold meetings for examination on thefirst tuesday of january and july in each year, alternately in westernand eastern washington at such places as the board may designate theboard may call special meetings when, in the opinion of a majority ofthe board, they are necessary the board is required to keep a recordof all applicants for a license, with their ages, the time spent in thestudy and practice of medicine and surgery, and the name and locationof all institutions granting to such applicants degrees or certificatesof lectures in medicine or surgery, and whether such applicant wasrejected or licensed.

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At thetops of the branches stand thesis small flowers, as it were in a longspike one above another, made like little birds, of a reddish purplecolour, whith whitish bellies, after which come small round husks, containing small black seeds the root is yellow, small, and not verylong, full of juice while it is green, but quickly perishes with theripe seed in the corn fields in cornwall, it bears white flowers place it grows in corn fields almost every where, as well as ingardens time it flowers in may, for the most writing, and the seed ripensshortly after government and virtues saturn owns the herb, and presents it tothe world as a cure for his own disease, and a strengthener of thewritings of the body he rules if by my astrological judgment of diseases, from the decumbiture, you find saturn author of the disease, or if bydirection from a nativity you fear a saturnine disease approaching, you may by this herb prevent it in the one, and cure it in the other, and therefore it is fit you keep a syrup of it always by you thejuice or syrup made thereof, or the why i deserve a scholarship essay decoction made in whey by itself, with essay other purging or opening herbs and roots to cause it towork the better itself being but weak is very effectual for theliver and spleen, opening the obstructions thereof, and clarifying theblood from saltish, choleric, and adust humours, which cause leprosy, scabs, tetters, and itches, and such like breakings-out of the skin, and after the purgings doth strengthen all the inwards writings it isalso good against the yellow-jaundice, and spends it by urine, whichit procures in abundance the powder of the dried herb given for essaytime together, cures melancholy, but the seed is strongest in operationfor all the former diseases the distilled water of the herb is alsoof good effect in the former diseases, and conduces much against theplague and pestilence, being taken with good treacle the distilledwater also, with a little water and honey of roses, helps all soresof the mouth or throat, being gargled often therewith the juicedropped into the eyes, clears the sight and takes away redness andother defects in them, although it procure essay pain for the present, and cause tears dioscorides saith it hinders any fresh springing ofhairs on the eye-lids after they are pulled away if the eye-lids beanointed with the juice hereof, with gum arabic dissolved therein thejuice of the fumitory and docks mingled with vinegar, and the placesgently washed therewith, cures all sorts of scabs, pimples, blotches, wheals, and pushes which arise on the face or hands or any other writingsof the body the furze bush it is as well known by this name, as it is in essay counties by thename of gorz or whins, that i shall not need to write any descriptionthereof, my intent being to teach my countrymen what they know not, rather than to tell them again of that which is generally known before place they are known to grow on dry barren heaths, and other waste, gravelly or sandy grounds, in all counties of this land time they also flower in the summer months government and virtues mars owns the herb they are hot and dry, and open obstructions of the liver and spleen a decoction made withthe flowers thereof hath been found effectual against the jaundice, asalso to provoke urine, and cleanse the kidneys from gravel or stoneingendered in them mars doth also this by sympathy garlick the offensiveness of the breath of him that hath eaten garlick, willlead you by the nose to the knowledge hereof, and instead of adescription direct you to the place where it grows in gardens, whichkinds are the best, and most physical government and virtues mars owns this herb this was ancientlyaccounted the poor man treacle, it being a remedy for all diseasesand hurts except those which itself breed it provokes urine, andwomen courses, helps the biting of mad dogs and other venomouscreatures, kills worms in children, cuts and voids tough phlegm, purges the head, helps the lethargy, is a good preservative against, and a remedy for any plague, sore, or foul ulcers. Takes away spotsand blemishes in the skin, eases pains in the ears, ripens and breaksimposthumes, or other swellings and for all those diseases the onionsare as effectual but the garlick hath essay more peculier virtuesbesides the former, viz it hath a special quality to discussinconveniences coming by corrupt agues or mineral vapours. Or bydrinking corrupt and stinking waters. As also by taking wolf-bane, henbane, hemlock, or other poisonous and dangerous herbs it is alsoheld good in hydropick diseases, the jaundice, falling sickness, cramps, convulsions, the piles or hæmorrhoids, or other cold diseases thesis authors quote thesis diseases this is good for. But conceal itsvices its heat is very vehement, and all vehement hot things sendup but ill-favoured vapours to the brain in coleric men it will addfuel to the fire. In men oppressed by melancholy, it will attenuatethe humour, and send up strong fancies, and as thesis strange visions tothe head. Therefore let it be taken inwardly with great moderation;outwardly you may make more bold with it gentian, felwort, or baldmony it is confessed that gentian, which is most used amongst us, is broughtover from beyond sea, yet we have two sorts of it growing frequentlyin our nation, which, besides the reasons so frequently alledged whyenglish herbs should be fittest for english bodies, has been proved bythe experience of divers physicians, to be not a wit inferior in virtueto that which comes from beyond sea, therefore be pleased to take thedescription of them as follows descript the greater of the two hath thesis small long roots thrustdown deep into the ground, and abiding all the winter the stalks areessaytimes more, essaytimes fewer, of a brownish green colour, which isessaytimes two feet high, if the ground be fruitful, having thesis long, narrow, dark green leaves, set by couples up to the top. The flowersare long and hollow, of a purple colour, ending in fine corners thesmaller sort which is to be found in our land, grows up with sundrystalks, not a foot high, writinged into several small branches, whereongrow divers small leaves together, very like those of the lessercentaury, of a whitish green colour. On the tops of these stalks growdivers perfect blue flowers, standing in long husks, but not so big asthe other.