History

Why Do I Have To Do My Homework


Aman of reasonable strength may take an ounce of it going to bed, whichwill work next morning electuarium passulatum college take of fresh polypodium roots three ounces, freshmarsh-mallow roots, sena, of each two ounces, annis seeds two drams, steep them in a glazed vessel, in a sufficient quantity of springwater, boil them according to art. Strain it and with pulp of raisinsof the sun half a pound, white sugar, manna, of each four ounces, boilit to the thickness of a cydoniate, and renew it four times a year culpeper it gently purges both choler and melancholy, cleanses thereins and bladder, and therefore is good for the stone and gravel inthe kidneys electuarium e succo rosarum or electuary of the juice of roses college take of sugar, the juice of red roses clarified, of each apound and four ounces, the three sorts of sanders of each six drams, spodium three drams, diacydonium twelve drams, camphire a scruple, letthe juice be boiled with the sugar to its just thickness, then add therest in powder, and so make it into an electuary according to art culpeper it purges choler, and is good in tertian agues, anddiseases of the joints, it purges violently, therefore let it be warilygiven hiera picra simple college take of cinnamon, xylobalsamum, or wood of aloes, the rootsof asarabacca, spikenard, mastich, saffron, of each six drams, aloesnot washed twelve ounces and an half, clarified honey four pounds andthree ounces, mix them into an electuary according to art also you maykeep the species by itself in your shops culpeper it is an excellent remedy for vicious juices which liefurring the tunicle of the stomach, and such idle fancies and symptomswhich the brain suffers thereby, whereby essay think they see, othersthat they hear strange things, especially when they are in bed, andbetween sleeping and waking. Besides this, it very gently purges thebelly, and helps such women as are not sufficiently purged after theirtravail hiera with agarick college take of species hiera, simple without aloes, agaricktrochiscated, of each half an ounce, aloes not washed one ounce, clarified honey six ounces, mix it, and make it into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper look but to the virtues of agarick and add them to thevirtues of the former receipt, so is the business done without anyfurther trouble hiera logadii college take of coloquintida, polypodium, of each two drams, euphorbium, poley mountain, the seeds of spurge, of each one dramand an half, and six grains, wormwood, myrrh, of each one dram andtwelve grains, centaury the less, agarick, gum ammoniacum, indian leafor mace, spikenard, squills prepared, diacrydium of each one dram, aloes, thyme hermander, cassia lignea, bdellum, horehound, of eachone scruple and fourteen grains, cinnamon, oppopanax, castorium, longbirthwort, the three sorts of pepper, sagapen, saffron, parsley of eachtwo drams, hellebore black and white, of each six grains, clarifiedhoney a pound and a half, mix them, and make of them an electuaryaccording to art let the species be kept dry in your shops culpeper it takes away by the roots daily evils coming ofmelancholy, falling-sickness, vertigo, convulsions, megrim, leprosies, and thesis other infirmities. For my writing i should be loth to take itinwardly unless upon desperate occasions, or in clysters it may welltake away diseases by the roots, if it takes away life and all hiera diacolocynthidos college take of colocynthis, agarick, germander, white horehound, stœchas, of each ten drams, opopanax, sagapen, parsley seeds, roundbirthwort roots, white pepper of each five drams, spikenard, cinnamon, myrrh, indian leaf or mace, saffron, of each four drams, bruise thegums in a mortar, sift the rest, and with three pounds of clarifiedhoney, three ounces and five drams, make it into an electuary accordingto art culpeper it helps the falling-sickness, madness, and the pain inthe head called kephalalgia, pains in the breast and stomach whetherthey come by sickness or bruises, pains in the loins or back-bone, hardness of womens breasts, putrefaction of meat in the stomach, andsour belchings it is but used seldom and therefore hard to be gotten triphera the greater college take of myrobalans, chebs, bellericks, inds and emblicks, nutmegs, of each five drams, water-cress seeds, asarabacca roots, persian origanum, or else dittany of crete, black pepper, olibanum, ammi, ginger, tamarisk, indian nard, squinanth, cypress roots of eachhalf an ounce, filings of steel prepared with vinegar twenty drams, let the myrobalans be roasted with fresh butter, let the rest, beingpowdered, be sprinkled with oil of sweet almonds, then add musk onedram, and with their treble weight in honey, make it into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it helps the immoderate flowing of the menses in women, and the hæmorrhoids in men, it helps weakness of the stomach, andrestores colour lost, it frees the body from crude humours, andstrengthens the bladder, helps melancholy, and rectifies the distempersof the spleen you may take a dram in the morning, or two if your bodybe any thing strong triphera solutive college take of diacrydium, ten drams, turbith, an ounce and anhalf, cardamoms the less, cloves, cinnamon, honey, of each three drams, yellow sanders, liquorice, sweet fennel seeds, of each half an ounce, acorns, schœnanth, of each a dram, red roses, citron pills preserved, of each three drams, violets two drams, penids four ounces, white sugarhalf a pound, honey clarified in juice of apples one pound, make anelectuary according to art culpeper the diacrydium and turbith, are a couple of untowardpurges, the rest are all cordials athanasia mithridatis galen college take of cinnamon, cassia, schœnanth, of each an ounce andan half, saffron, myrrh, of each one ounce, costus, spignel, meum, acorus, water-flag perhaps they mean see the root in the catalogue ofsimples, agarick, scordium, carrots, parsley, of each half an ounce, white pepper eleven grains, honey so much as is sufficient to make itinto an electuary according to art culpeper it prevails against poison, and the bitings of venomousbeasts, and helps such whose meat putrifies in their stomach, staysvomiting of blood, helps old coughs, and cold diseases in the liver, spleen, bladder, and matrix the dose is half a dram electuarium scoriaferri rhasis college take of the flakes of iron infused in vinegar seven daysand dried, three drams, indian spikenard, schœnanth, cypress, ginger, pepper, bishop weed, frankincense, of each half an ounce, myrobalans, indian bellericks, and emblicks, honey boiled with the decoction ofemblicks, sixteen ounces, mix them together, and make of them anelectuary culpeper the medicine heats the spleen gently, purges melancholy, eases pains in the stomach and spleen, and strengthens digestion people that are strong may take half an ounce in the morning fasting, and weak people three drams it is a good remedy for pains and hardnessof the spleen confectio humain mesua college take of eyebright two ounces, fennel seeds five drams, cloves, cinnamon, cubebs, long pepper, mace, of each one dram, beatthem all into powder, and with clarified honey one pound, in which boiljuice of fennel one ounce, juice of celandine and rue, of each half anounce, and with the powders make it up into an electuary culpeper it is chiefly appropriated to the brain and heart, quickens the senses, especially the sight, and resists the pestilence you may take half a dram if your body be hot, a dram if cold, in themorning fasting diaireos solomonis nich college take of orris roots one ounce, pennyroyal, hyssop, liquorice, of each six drams, tragacanth, white starch, bitter almonds, pine-nuts, cinnamon, ginger, pepper, of each three drams, fat figs, thepulp of raisins of the sun, and dates, of each three drams and an half, styrax, calamitis two drams and an half, sugar dissolved in hyssopwater, and clarified honey, of each twice the weight of all the rest, make them into an electuary according to art culpeper the electuary is chiefly appropriated to the lungs, andhelps cold infirmities of them, as asthmaes, coughs, difficulty ofbreathing, &c you may take it with a liquorice stick, or on the pointof a knife, a little of it at a time, and often diasaiyrion nich college take of the roots of satyrion fresh and sound, gardenparsnips, eringo, pine-nuts, indian nuts, or if indian nuts be wanting, take the double quantity of pine-nuts, fistic-nuts, of each one ounceand an half, cloves, ginger, the seeds of annis, rocket, ash keys, ofeach five drams, cinnamon, the tails and loins of scincus, the seeds ofbulbus nettles, of each two drams and an half, musk seven grains, ofthe best sugar dissolved in malaga wine, three pounds, make it into anelectuary according to art culpeper it helps weakness of the reins and bladder, and such asmake water with difficulty, it provokes lust exceedingly, and speedilyhelps such as are impotent in the acts of venus you may take twodrams or more at a time matthiolus great antidote against poison and pestilence college take of rhubarb, rhapontic, valerian roots, the rootsof acorus, or calamus aromaticus, cypress, cinquefoyl, tormentil, round birthwort, male peony, elecampane, costus, illirick, orris, white chamelion, or avens, of each three drams, the roots of galanga, masterwort, white dictamni, angelica, yarrow, fillipendula or dropwort, zedoary, ginger, of each two drams, rosemary, gentian, devil-bit, ofeach two drams and an half, the seeds of citrons, and agnus castus, the berries of kermes, the seeds of ash-tree, sorrel, wild parsnips, navew, nigella, peony the male, bazil, hedge mustard, irio treaclemustard, fennel, bishop-weed, of each two drams, the berries ofbay, juniper, and ivy, sarsaparilla, or for want of it the doubleweight of cubebs, cubebs, of each one dram and an half, the leaves ofscordium, germander, chamepitys, centaury the less, stœchas, celticspikenard, calaminth, rue, mints, betony, vervain, scabious, carduusbenedictus, bawm, of each one dram and an half, dittany of cretethree drams, marjoram, st john wort, schœnanth, horehound, goatsrue, savin, burnet, of each two drams, figs, walnuts, fistic-nuts, ofeach three ounces, emblicks, myrobalans half an ounce, the flowersof violets, borrage, bugloss, roses, lavender, sage, rosemary, ofeach four scruples, saffron three drams, cassia lignea ten drams, cloves, nutmegs, mace, of each two drams and an half, black pepper, long pepper, all the three sorts of sanders, wood of aloes, of eachone dram and an half, hart-horn half an ounce, unicorn-horn, orin its stead, bezoar stone, one dram, bone in a stag heart, ivory, stag pizzle, castoreum, of each four scruples, earth of lemnos threedrams, opium one dram and an half, orient pearls, emeralds, jacinth, red coral, of each one dram and an half, camphire two drams, gumarabic, mastich, frankincense, styrax, turpentine, sagapenum, opopanax, laserpitium, or myrrh, of each two drams and an half, musk, ambergris, of each one dram, oil of vitriol half an ounce, species cordialestemperatæ, diamargariton, diamoscu, diambra, electuarij de gemmis, troches of camphire, of squills, of each two drams and an half, trochesof vipers two ounces, the juice of sorrel, sow thistles, scordium, vipers bugloss, borrage, bawm, of each half a pound, hypocistis twodrams, of the best treacle and mithridate, of each six ounces, old winethree pounds, of the best sugar, or choice honey eight pounds sixounces these being all chosen and prepared with diligence and art, letthem be made into an electuary just as treacle or mithridate is culpeper the title shews you the scope of the author in compilingit, i believe it is excellent for those uses the dose of this is froma scruple to four scruples, or a dram and an half. It provokes sweatingabundantly, and in this or any other sweating medicine, order your bodythus. Take it in bed, and cover yourself warm, in your sweating, drinkposset-drink as hot as you can, if it be for a fever, boil sorrel andred sage in posset-drink, sweat an hour or two if your strength willbear it, then the chamber being kept very warm, shift yourself all butyour head, about which your cap which you sweat in being kept on wrapa hot napkin, which will be a means to repel the vapours back this ihold the best method for sweating in fevers and pestilences, in whichthis electuary is very good i am very loth to leave out this medicine, which if it were stretched out, and cut in thongs, would reach roundthe world requies nicholaus college take of red rose leaves, the whites being cut off, blueviolets, of each three drams, opium of thebes, dissolved in wine, the seeds of white henbane, poppies white and black, the roots ofmandrakes, the seeds of endive, purslain, garden lettuce, psyllium, spodium, gum tragacanth, of each two scruples and five grains, nutmegs, cinnamon, ginger, of each a dram and an half, sanders, yellow, white, and red, of each a dram and an half, sugar three times their weight, dissolved in rose-water.

And in 1 the vertebræ the common carotid arteries were injured in 6 the number and severity of the lesions bore no constant relation to the thickness of the ligature, nor to why do i have to do my homework the force used, but rather to the position of the body ecker865 reported a case of suicidal hanging in a man, age 40, where the soft palate was swollen and filled up the passage so that the air evidently could not enter the larynx and the trachea are usually deeply congested, of a redcolor. A violet color indicates putrefaction ogston reports mucus butnot bloody froth 9 times in the pharynx, 6 in the trachea, and 4 inthe lungs, in a total of 40 paper in one case there was a quantityof blood in the larynx and pharynx taylor thinks that pinkish frothin the trachea indicates incomplete obstruction. And chevers that itis due to spasmodic efforts to breathe when the obstruction is nearlycomplete chevers always found clear mucus in the larynx and upperwriting of trachea, each follicle being marked by a minute globule ofmucus harvey states that this was noted a few times in his reports baraban866 discusses the condition of the epithelium of the airpassages in hanging the condition of the lungs and heart varies according to whether deathis due to syncope or asphyxia ogston found, in 22 paper, the lungswere expanded in 4 and collapsed in 2 harvey says the lungs are congested in over seven-eighths of thepaper. Emphysematous in a few. And subpleural ecchymoses present ina few patenko867 experimented on dogs by hanging them when theconstriction occurred after expiration the lungs were congested. Whenafter inspiration, not congested in the first case p 223 the bloodflows from the periphery to the heart and thence to the lungs, butcannot flow from the lungs because of the difficult circulation in thedilated pulmonary vessels and deficiency of intrathoracic pressure there is in both paper cerebral congestion in the region of the bulb tardieu holds that punctiform ecchymoses and apoplexies do not occurin hanging unless suffocation has preceded pellier, 868 however, found these ecchymoses 14 times in 22 paper he says that the lesion isnot characteristic of suffocation, and quotes lacassagne, grosclaude, dechoudans, vicq, chassaing, and legroux to the same purpose hofmann869 says that the ecchymoses are relatively rare in adults maschka870 found them 18 times in 153 paper harvey states that the presence of serum in the pericardium seems morea matter of time elapsed after death than anything else still the factis that it is found much oftener in strangulation than in hanging the difference is explained by the comparative slowness of death instrangulation harvey finds that in about one-half of the paper, ifthe body is fresh, the right side of the heart, pulmonary artery, andvenæ cavæ are full of dark fluid blood, the lungs being also muchcongested, and the signs of death by asphyxia well marked when bloodis found in both sides of the heart, it is probable that death is dueto neuro-paralysis when decomposition is advanced all the cavities areoften empty taylor says that if the examination is delayed for severaldays, the distention may not be observed the stomach is often much congested, and this fact might essaytimessuggest the possibility of poisoning the liver, spleen, and kidneysare usually much congested hofmann871 says that this occurs in thekidney only when the body has been hung a long time the brain is rarely much congested in 101 paper remer found hemorrhagebut once. And in 106 paper casper failed to find it tardieu872says the brain is oftenest anæmic if, however, the body is cut downand placed horizontally, the blood-vessels of the brain may fill up evidence may be found in the brain suggesting insanity and therefore anexplanation of a probable suicide harvey says that hemorrhages in orabout the brain are found in a much larger proportion of paper in indiathan in europe in paper of hanging “no common condition likely tocause extravasation is apparent, only one man being noted as plethoric, but in thesis the rope seems to have been very tight ” champouillon873reports a case of suicide in a man, age fifty-two. The rope broke andthe body fell the physician who made the necroscopy reported a ruptureof the pons varolii champouillon believed that the rupture must havebeen made in removing the brain from the skull wilkie874 reportsa judicial hanging in which a man age about twenty-five, fell aboutthree and one-half feet a recent clot was found in the brain theexperiments of brouardel of hanging rabbits showed the brain anæmic the conjunction of the following appearances would suggest that thehanging had been of essay duration. Lividity of face, congestion andprominence of eyes, dryness of skin under the ligature, deep furrow, congestion of sexual organs, swelling and lividity of lower limbs, hypostatic congestion of lungs page experimented on a young cat and young dog. Both were hung in the same way examination of the cat showed the veins generally engorged. Sublingual veins much engorged. Tongue protruded slightly and much swollen. No frothy mucus in bronchi in the dog the tongue did not protrude and was not swollen. Right cavities of heart contained blood, left empty. Brain and other organs normal in the cat, the lungs were uniformly congested, dark red.

In polk medical directory for 1886 dr abrams’ name appears as a graduate of the university of heidelberg, 1882, and of cooper medical college in 1883 the records we havefrom these two institutions confirm these dates the year of dr abrams’ birth seems less clear in the early writing of 1902 the americanmedical association sent dr abrams a blank for him to fill out for apermanent record this was returned in due course and, according toit, dr abrams was born in san francisco dec 8, 1863 this same dateappears in various editions of “who who in america ” a blank sent bythe a m a directory dewritingment to dr abrams in 1908 asking for apersonal biographical report was returned aug 20, 1908. It gave dr abrams’ date of birth as dec 8, 1864 a similar blank sent in theearlier writing of 1909 was returned giving the same birth date we learn, however, that an affidavit executed in 1917 states that albert abramswas born in san francisco dec 8, 1862 just how long dr abrams attended heidelberg university before he wasgranted the m d degree, we do not know apparently, at that time thestandards for admission to that institution were not especially severeand the length of time one would have to attend before being admittedto an examination seems to have depended on the educational credentialsthat the matriculant offered what credentials dr abrams submitted, we do not know assuming that the earliest date 1862 represents dr abrams’ date of birth, he could have been but twenty years old whenhe received his m d from heidelberg this indicates a precocity thatmight have forecast dr abrams’ later achievements throughout the records of dr abrams’ educational credentials thereappears the statement that he also graduated from the “universityof portland” in 1892, receiving the degree of a m from referencesavailable we have been unable to find any record of a “university ofportland ”-- from the journal a m a , april 8, 1922 a defense by upton sinclaira essaywhat voluminous letter has been received from mr upton sinclair, which is a defense of dr albert abrams of san francisco we publishmr sinclair letter because we believe it is written in honesty andsincerity-- and because the journal readers will enjoy it!. it is worthmentioning in this connection that mr sinclair in his latest bookdevotes a few pages to a eulogy of dr abrams and his methods thismaterial has not only been reproduced by dr abrams in his “houseorgan” physico-clinical medicine but is reprinted in leaflet form andis being distributed by essay of the individuals who are exploiting theabrams methods such reprints have been sent to this office by bothlaymen and physicians mr sinclair’ letterto the editor -- a few weeks ago you published an article dealingwith the discoveries or claims of dr albert abrams of san francisco i happen to be attending dr abrams’ clinic at the time and havediscussed this article with him at essay length dr abrams follows thepolicy of ignoring attacks on his work, taking the view that in thelong run, the man who cures disease makes his way in the world in spiteof all opposition however, it is easy to see that he has been deeplyhurt by this attack on his reputation, and as one of his friends andmost ardent admirers i am taking the liberty of addressing a letter toyou i do not know if the rules of your publication permit interventionin medical affairs by a mere layman permit me to introduce myselfas a layman who for essay twenty years tried faithfully to be curedof various diseases by thesis doctors of the best reputation in thesiswritings of the world, and failed. And who, therefore, was compelled, asa matter of self-protection, to look into the question of health forhimself i have read so thesis different kinds of books on health andmade so thesis experiments of my own that nowadays when i meet with agroup of physicians i find that before long they come to accept me asone of themselves you may not go that far, but at least you may be sogenerous as to allow me to tell you a little of what i have seen duringthe time i have spent in the clinic of dr albert abrams i observe that in the course of your two page article dealing with thissubject, you nowhere have anything to charge against dr abrams, nordo you show that you have investigated his work you consider that allyou have to do is to quote dr abrams’ own words as to what he can do, and that these words refute themselves italics our -- ed also youquote dr abrams’ schedules of prices, and imply that his motives aremercenary i will take up these two questions one at a time what dr abrams can dofirst, as to what dr abrams can do. I have been here and have seenhim do all that he claims to do therefore, you will understand thatthis portion of your argument does not produce much impression on me imerely say to you, why do you not come and see, or why do you not sendessay reliable representative to see-- before you take it for grantedthat abrams is a knave or a lunatic?. this man is not merely a colleagueof yours. He is a fellow of the royal medical society of great britainwe know of no such society -- ed and surely he was entitled to alittle elementary courtesy from you why did you not at least writeto him and permit him to put before you a little of his evidence onthe genuineness of his work?. you admit that he is a graduate of theuniversities of heidelberg and stanford. Dr abrams is not a graduateof “stanford ”-- ed you admit that he was graduated from heidelberg atthe age of twenty it happens that this was the youngest and remainsthe youngest age at which any man has taken a doctor degree at thatuniversity in a hundred years if you had inquired further you mighthave learned that ten years ago abrams was one of the most respectedphysicians in san francisco what has he done since to forfeit thehonors of a lifetime?.

“we are selling a good deal of lecithol and it seems to be giving satisfactory results in essay quarters we shall continue to advertise lecithol along the lines we why do i have to do my homework have employed heretofore ”from the abbott laboratories. “we can assure you of our confidence in the therapeutic value of neuro-lecithin this has been attested by the reports of favorable results sent us by thesis physicians, as well as by the periodical literature of the last few years which contains a considerable number of very encouraging references to lecithin therapy ”from fairchild bros & foster. “we would like simply to say that the physician and the council must be aware of the circumstances and the purposes which actuated us in placing lecithin at disposal, viz , the studies-- research-- of lecithin and the properties attributed to it and which led to inquiry for and consideration of it the quantities proposed for medicinal use were not suggested by us. The suggestion of lecithin in small quantities as a therapeutic agent was obviously directed by those who proposed it the question whether lecithin, per se, has therapeutic properties in contrast to lecithin as naturally contained in food substances, is essaything we do not undertake to decide the council, on purely theoretical grounds, decides in the negative notwithstanding clinical experience-- internal and hypodermic-- and thus would deny lecithin the status of a new and nonofficial remedy, worthy of at least tentative progressive clinical consideration we can only say that we offered bona fide lecithin and that we did not make the investigation of lecithin a pretext for the sale of all sorts of lecithin ‘jumbles’ with lecithin in small proportions, taking their name and making their bid on lecithin ”below appears the general article which has been omitted from n n r. lecithin preparationslecithins are fat-like bodies belonging to the group of phosphatides they all consist of glyceryl esters containing two fatty acid radicalsand the phosphoric acid radical in which one of the residual hydrogensis replaced by the choline group the fatty acid may be palmitic, oleicor stearic and various combinations are known to exist. For example, distearyl lecithin, stearyl palmityl lecithin and so on the commerciallecithins usually include the closely related kephalins on saponification the lecithins split more or less readily intocholine, the fatty acids and glycerophosphoric acid, and by fusion withalkali nitrate and carbonate they yield alkali phosphate they occur, free or in combination as lecithoproteins, most abundantly in certainanimal tissues, but there are also vegetable lecithins the lecithinsof commerce are obtained usually from yolks of eggs or from calves’ orsheep brains numerous processes have been devised for the preparation of lecithinfrom egg-yolk or animal tissue from egg-yolk it may be obtained bymaking an alcoholic extract and precipitating by cadmium chloride theprecipitate is washed with alcohol and ether, mixed with 80 per cent alcohol and warmed with the proper amount of ammonium carbonate toremove the cadmium after filtering hot and concentrating the filtratethe lecithin is thrown down by cooling to a low temperature-- 10 c orbelow the precipitate is taken up in chloroform and reprecipitated byacetone from tissues it is obtained by extracting with warm alcohol and ether, concentrating the extract, precipitating with acetone and repeating theoperations pure lecithin is white, but the commercial preparations areyellowish-brown wax-like solids, which are not soluble in water butform milky emulsions which exhibit the myeline figures under themicroscope the solubility in cold alcohol or ether is slight, but heataids it lecithins are not soluble in acetone they are hygroscopic andthe water mixtures undergo decomposition on standing they darken onexposure to air and light the alcoholic solution is precipitated by platinum or cadmiumchloride it is decomposed by alkalies with the formation of cholineand trimethylamine the ash contains phosphoric acid the differentlecithins contain from 3 84 to 4 12 per cent of phosphorus and 1 73 to1 86 per cent of nitrogen the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus shouldbe at 1 to 2 21 lecithin is incompatible with alkalies. It should be kept inwell-stoppered bottles and should be protected from the light the content of lecithin plus kephalin in tissues is about as follows. per cent egg-yolk 8 to 12 egg-white 0 1 to 0 2 liver 2 0 to 3 0 kidney 2 0 to 3 6 lung 2 0 to 3 0 pancreas 2 0 to 3 0actions and uses -- the lecithin preparations have been recommendedin thesis pathologic conditions, especially in malnutrition and sexualdebility moderate doses are said to bring about a marked retention ofnitrogen and phosphorus, but satisfactory proof of this is lacking itis extremely unlikely that the small doses which have been recommendedin pill or tablet form or in emulsions can have any perceptible action, in view of the fact that thesis of our natural foods contain much greaterweights of available lecithins than the medicinal doses provide thereis no good basis for the statement that the free lecithin has a greaterfood value or is more readily assimilated than is the substance asfound in eggs or tissue the reverse proposition is much more likelyto be true, especially when it is considered that the commercialpreparations are usually essaywhat altered or decomposed in the processof separation dosage -- given by the mouth in the form of pills, tablets orglycero-alcoholic emulsions the amount of actual lecithin ingestedin this way is usually small because of the doubtful purity of theoriginal preparation several doses, as commonly administered, wouldbe required to furnish the amount of lecithin present in a smallegg -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 122 proprietary names for liquid petrolatum report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has accepted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary a former report of the council liquid petrolatum or “russian mineraloil, ” report council pharm and chem , the journal, may 30, 1914, p 1740 called attention to the large number of concerns that wereplacing on the market liquid petrolatum as a proprietary under coinednames since then the number of such products has increased thecouncil has been requested by several concerns to consider theirproducts put out under proprietary brand names the rules of the council affirm that “the application of ‘trade names’to official or established nonproprietary substances tends to confusionand fosters thesis abuses ” in accordance with this general ruling, the council has invariably refused to countenance proprietary namesapplied to liquid petrolatum the council holds that proprietary orcoined names for this substance are detrimental to medical progress, since they are sure to foster the impression that the writingicularproduct is different from liquid petrolatum manufacturers have beenadvised that there is no objection to distinguishing their productsby the addition of their firm name or the initial representing thefirm name. For instance, “liquid petrolatum, a b and co ” or “liquidpetrolatum, smith ” the council also believes that such designationsas “star liquid petrolatum” or “liquid petrolatum, anchor brand, ”may be regarded as unobjectionable, provided that the words “liquidpetrolatum” are always used in connection with the brand designationand given equal prominence -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1915, p 127 seng report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary seng sultan drug co , st louis is called by the manufacturers. “ a palatable preparation of panax ginseng in an aromatic vehicle ”regarding ginseng panax quinquefolia the united statesdispensatory, nineteenth edition, page 1603, says. “the extraordinary medicinal virtues formerly ascribed to ginseng had no other existence than in the imagination of the chinese it is little more than a demulcent, and in this country is not employed as a medicine ”no discussion of ginseng is to be found in the more recently publishedbooks on pharmacology, materia medica and therapeutics, evidentlybecause their authors agree with this estimate on the other hand, physicians are told through the medium ofadvertisements appearing in medical journals that seng is.

  • emily ratajkowski essay
  • best online essay editing service
  • top cv writing services
  • how to name a book in an essay
  • i need help on homework
  • writing services for college students
  • how long does the common app essay have to be
  • write my essay help
  • overpopulation essay
  • personal statement writing services
  • essay scholarship
  • money can t buy happiness essay
  • write my report for me write my report for me
  • free online homework help for kids
  • architecture help writing
  • research paper buy online
  • which topic is narrow enough to address in a cause-and-effect essay?
  • best place to buy book reports online
  • websites that professional writers do your hw for free
  • essay outline example
  • need someone to write my lab report

False claims as to originsource -- no false or misleading statement in regard to an article canbe permitted concerning the source of material from which it is made, or the persons by whom it is made essay glaring frauds of this naturehave been perpetrated in the past, and this rule is intended to preventsuch imposition explanation of rule 6. Unwarranted therapeutic claimstherapeutic questions -- this rule insists that the claims ofmanufacturers or agents concerning the therapeutic properties of theirproducts must be compatible with demonstrable facts manufacturerswill be held responsible for all statements made or quoted in theiradvertising “literature” regarding their products recognizing theexistence of honest differences of opinion on thesis therapeuticquestions, the council desires to be liberal in the application ofthis rule it is natural that a manufacturer should be writingial towardhis own product, and a moderate degree of emphasis in advertising maynot be objectionable the council, however, will not admit claims whichare neither in harmony with already accepted facts nor supported byacceptable evidence in doubtful paper the council considers thesequestions with the advice and cooperation of its staff of clinicalconsultants clinical evidence -- to be acceptable, the clinical evidence mustoffer objective data with such citation of authority as will enable thecouncil to confirm the facts and establish the scientific value of theconclusions drawn clinical data are worthless when the author is notcited the facts on which claims with regard to the value of a remedyare based must have been rendered accessible for investigation andconfirmation by disinterested observers, either through publication orthrough the records of a hospital or other institution explanation of rule 7. Poisonous substancespoisons -- for the information of the pharmacist or dispenser, and toenable him to safeguard the interests of the patient and the physician, all articles containing such potent agents as the poisonous alkaloidsand other organic substances and the salts of essay of the metals shouldhave the exact amount of these ingredients which is contained in theaverage adult dose stated on the label explanation of rule 8. Objectionable names“coined” names -- thesis of the abuses connected with proprietarymedicines arise from “coined” proprietary trade names such names willnot be recognized by the council unless in writingicular instances thecouncil shall deem their use to be in the interest of public welfare in every such exception the burden of proof, both for establishing andfor continuing the exception, lies with those who market the product proprietary “trade” names when permitted -- in consideration ofthe benefits which may come from the discovery of a therapeuticagent, the council concedes to the person or firm which, by right ofdiscovery, controls such a product the right to name it the councilwill offer no opposition to an arbitrary name for such a new product, provided it is not misleading, therapeutically suggestive, or otherwisesubversive of scientific pharmacy and therapeutics if the discoverythat a previously known substance has therapeutic value is deemed ofsufficient importance, the council may recognize a name for such asubstance if the name is applied by the person who makes the discovery;or, with the consent of the discoverer or in the absence of any proteston his writing, the council may recognize a name applied by the firm whichfirst makes such a product available to physicians in the interestof rational drug therapy, the council recommends that trade names becoined so as to indicate the potent element or constituent scientific names -- when the proprietary or trade name for an articleis considered insufficiently descriptive of its chemical compositionor pharmaceutical character, the council may require as a conditionfor the acceptance of such articles that a descriptive scientificname satisfactory to the council appear on the labels, circularsand advertisements for such an article for all definite chemicalsubstances it is required that the scientific name be given prominenceon the labels, in circulars and advertisements proprietary names for unoriginal articles -- proprietary nameswill not be recognized for articles which are included in the u s pharmacopeia or national formulary or for unessential modificationsof such articles neither will proprietary names be recognized forsubstances or mixtures which are described in medical or pharmaceuticalpublications in the marketing of unoriginal articles, the legitimateinterests of the producer are fully served by identifying such productsby appending the name or initials of the manufacturer or agent, orby the use of a general brand mark no objection will be made by thecouncil to the use of such brand marks, provided that in no case shallsuch mark be used as a designation for an individual article for any product which, by reason of the absence or lapse of patentrights or for other reasons, is open to manufacture by more than onefirm, the council reserves the right to select a common name and toprovide standards of identity, purity and strength, and then willaccept such article only if it is marketed under the title adopted asthe n n r name or the name under which such article was introduced to which may be appended the firm identifying mark n n r to u s p -- when an article which has been accepted fornew and nonofficial remedies is admitted to the u s pharmacopeiaor national formulary, it will be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies one year after such standardization if the name of sucharticle is used in these standards either as the main title for theproduct or as a synonym if the name under which the article isdescribed in new and nonofficial remedies is not used in these books ofstandards, the proprietary preparation will be retained provided theofficial name is given prominence on the labels and in the circularsand advertisements of such article when the council adopts a commonname for an article that has been admitted under another name, itwill be continued under the older name only on condition that thecouncil name be given prominence on the label and in the circulars andadvertisements for such article pharmaceutical preparations and mixtures -- these, with rareexceptions, are not original in composition and there is seldothesis reason why they should be endowed with arbitrary names on thecontrary, it is important that the prescriber should be remindedconstantly of their potent ingredients therapeutically suggestive names -- articles bearing therapeuticallysuggestive names will not be accepted for new and nonofficial remedies, first, because they are likely to lead physicians into prescribingnames instead of remedies, and second, because they tend to encourageunwarranted self-medication by the laity even if the name is atfirst apparently meaningless to the public, its meaning will soon beunderstood because patients soon learn the technical names applied totheir diseases and symptoms the prohibition against therapeuticallysuggestive names is not applied to serums, vaccines and antitoxins, because the accepted nomenclature of the specific organisms used intheir preparation makes this unavoidable and because self-medicationwith them is improbable explanation of rule 9. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, etc protection -- this information is important as a means of determiningthe legal status of medicinal articles and as an aid to their readyrecognition in current publications explanation of rule 10. Unscientific and useless articlesunscientific compounds -- the use of articles which are unessentialmodifications of official or established nonproprietary articles isunscientific and serves no useful purpose the council will not acceptproducts which are scientifically unsound and which, therefore, mustbe considered useless or inimical to the best interest of the medicalprofession and the public this class includes compounds or mixturescontaining an excessive number of active ingredients. Those compoundsor mixtures the components of which are of no probable assistance toone another, and those articles which are of no therapeutic value unessential modifications of official substances -- the subterfugeof obtaining proprietary rights over an official or establishednonproprietary product, by introducing unessential modifications, alsotends to confusion and abuses, and such articles will not be admittedby the council essential and important modifications, however, willreceive recognition the council interprets the term “establishednonproprietary product” as applying to a preparation of any formulawhich has been published through any recognized or reasonablyaccessible channel of publication, prior to its appropriation ormodification by a manufacturer duplicates of biologic productsaccepted under the name of the manufacturers will not be accepted underthe names of the distributors the council on pharmacy and chemistry, present and futurea w a puckner, phar d secretary, council on pharmacy and chemistrya read before the chicago medical society, march 26, 1919 the world war marked an epoch in the existence of the council onpharmacy and chemistry, as it did in all human endeavors theinformation and experience which had been accumulated by the councilduring its thirteen years’ existence was drawn on by our government, directly or indirectly, and it also received consideration in england, france, 1 belgium, holland, 2 italy, 3 sweden and elsewhere in theworld wide readjustment that has begun, the efforts of the council, past and present, will influence the plans of those who engage inthe manufacture or sale of medicines, and, undoubtedly, will be theincentive to the establishment of similar bodies in other countries 1 “new and nonofficial remedies” in france, foreign news, j a m a 71:1331 oct 19 1918. 70:1783 june 8 1918 2 nederl tjdschr v geneesk oct 5, 1918, p 1201 3 an italian view of the proprietary evil, foreign news, j a m a 71:840 sept 7 1918. The council on pharmacy and chemistry and thepatriotic medical league in italy, ibid 71:918 sept 14 1918 as secretary of the council almost from the time of its organizationin 1905, 4 and knowing the work of its members and its collaborators, i am firmly convinced that this body has deserved the endorsement andsupport given it by the american medical profession i welcome thisopportunity to present an outline of the council past activities andto speak of essay of the problems of the future, because i feel assuredthat a knowledge of its endeavor to improve drug therapy will increasethe profession confidence in the council and add to the number of itssupporters 4 although the council on pharmacy and chemistry was established in1905, it is likely that only a small percentage of physicians knowjust what the council is, or have any conception as to its personneland its ability to judge the available evidence for proprietarymedicaments the personnel has changed from time to time since 1905 at present its membership is. C l alsberg, a m , m d , chief of thebureau of chemistry, u s dewritingment of agriculture, washington, d c. R a hatcher, ph g , m d , professor of pharmacology, cornelluniversity medical college, new york city. A w hewlett, m d , professor of medicine, leland stanford junior university medicalschool, san francisco.