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Who Can I Pay To Do My Essay


see hanzlik andcollins, archives of internal medicine, november, 1913 an inefficient antiseptic who can i pay to do my essay is more than merely useless. It is a menaceto public safety, in that it tends to lead to the neglect of rationaland effective protective measures it therefore seems advisable forthe council again to call the attention of physicians to the subject accordingly, three specimens of these products were purchased andexamined in the association chemical laboratory hex-iodinhex-iodin hexamethylenetetramine and iodum lozenges are manufacturedby daggett and miller company, inc , providence, r i they weigh15-1/2 grs each, are sweetened and are flavored with mint or menthol the package and circulars do not contain a definite statement ofcomposition the rather indefinite synonyms “hexameth and iodinecomp ” and “hexamethylenetetramine and iodum” suggest that the lozengescontain hexamethylenamin and free iodin the further statement thatthey “contain the combined medicinal antiseptic and prophylacticproperties of hexamethylenetetramine and iodum” is also ratherindefinite the therapeutic action claimed for the lozenges, however, could only be produced by free iodin and by liberated formaldehyde it is unnecessary to discuss in detail the extravagant claims madefor these lozenges the inefficiency of hexamethylenamin has alreadybeen referred to. The limitations of iodin, free or combined, inlozenge form, need not be discussed because the examination made in thea m a chemical laboratory showed that hex-iodin lozenges containedno free iodin, and only traces of combined iodin neither formaldehydenor paraformaldehyde was present. Hexamethylenamin was present but, thelozenges being neutral no formaldehyde is generated in contact withwater or with the alkaline saliva thus hex-iodin is shown to be worthless for the purpose for which it isadvertised of the two important ingredients said to be present, iodinand hexamethylenamin, only traces could be found of the former whilethe latter, as has been shown, is incapable of exerting any effect whenused as the manufacturers direct formitol tabletsthese tablets are prepared by the e l patch co , boston each tabletweighs 13-1/2 grs they have the odor of thymol or menthol and an acidtaste and reaction they are, according to the label. “for the throat and mouth soothing, astringent, antiseptic rapidly destroys germs of infection, preventing and relieving sore throat and mouth ”in a circular, it is stated, that one of the qualities of formitol. “ is the generation of formaldehyde when in contact with water or the saliva ” “besides generating formaldehyde, formitol, patch contains astringent, demulcent and soothing ingredients which render the combination unusually effective ”a bacteriologic report is given in this circular in which it is statedthat, in 2-1/2 minutes one formitol tablet rendered sterile a plateculture of a “characteristic throat micrococci ” the instructionsare to dissolve a tablet in the mouth, slowly, once an hour or ahalf-tablet every half hour the a m a chemical laboratory reported that formitol tabletscontained formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde, and ammonium compound, and essay hexamethylenamin it is probable that the formaldehyde orparaformaldehyde was produced by the decomposition of hexamethylenaminoriginally present in the tablets but decomposed by long contact withthe acid 128128 the e l patch company declares that “no hexamethylenaminehas ever been used in the manufacture of formitol tablets, ” and thatammonium chloride and paraformaldehyde are among the ingredients usedin the manufacture of these tablets the hexamethylenamine presentin the tablets, therefore, must have been produced by interaction ofthe paraformaldehyde and ammonium chloride this does not alter thelaboratory findings regarding the composition of the tablets, namely, that they “contain formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde, an ammoniumcompound and essay hexamethylenamine ”these tablets differ from hex-iodin in that they really contain activeformaldehyde and, therefore, possibly produce antiseptic effectin test-tube cultures the conditions in the mouth, however, arevery different from those in the test-tube, since in the mouth theformaldehyde would be immediately “bound” or absorbed the claimedabsence of irritation indicates sufficiently the absence of efficientquantities of formaldehyde under clinical conditions cin-u-form lozengescin-u-form lozenges, manufactured by mckesson and robbins, new yorkcity, are marketed in bottles of 24 for 25 cents they have a strongodor of cinnamon, weigh 15-1/2 grs each, and are acid in taste andreaction the label states that they contain. “cinnamon, eucalyptus, formaldehyde and menthol-- all powerful germicides against influenzal bacilli, but not injurious to the system in this palatable form ”a circular contains the same statement as to composition and claimsfurther that they. “ help to prevent the infection of spanish influenza, pneumonia, grip colds and to guard against sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, etc ”the a m a chemical laboratory reported that cin-u-formlozenges contained essay formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde and nohexamethylenamin it is obvious that the mouth and throat cannot be“disinfected” by these lozenges they would be totally ineffectiveagainst bacteria that enter through the nose.

It succours the liver and spleen, and helps want of digestion and evil disposition of the body thencearising. It hastens travail in women with child, and is excellentagainst the bitings of venomous beasts distil sage whilst the flowers be on it, the water strengthens thebrain, provokes the menses, helps nature much in all its actions marjoram is in its prime in june, distilled water is excellent forsuch whose brains are too cold, it provokes urine, heats the womb, provokes the menses, strengthens the memory and helps the judgment, causes an able brain distil camomel water about the beginning of june it eases thecholick and pains in the belly. It breaks the stone in the reins andbladder, provokes the menses, expels the dead child, and takes awaypains in the head fennel water strengthens the heart and brain. Dilates the breast, thecough, provokes the menses, encreases milk in nurses, and if you washyour eyes with it, it clears the sight the hooves of the fore feet of a cow dried and taken any away, encrease milk in nurses, the smoke of them drives away mice mizaldus calaminth water heats and cleanses the womb, provokes the menses, andeases the pains of the head, distil it in may the distilled water of rosemary flowers, helps such as are troubledwith the yellow jaundice, asthmas, it cleanses the blood, helpsconcoction, strengthens the brain and body exceedingly water of the flowers of lilies of the valley, strengthens the brainand all the senses the water of cowslip flowers helps the palsey. Takes away pains inthe head, the vertigo and megrim, and is exceeding good for pregnantwomen the eyes being washed every morning with eyebright water, moststrangely clears and strengthens the sight maidenhair distilled in may, the water cleanses both liver and lungs, clarifies the blood, and breaks the stone hyssop water cleanses the lungs of flegm, helps coughs and asthmas, distil it in august the water of hore-hound, helps the cough and straitness of thebreast. It strengthens the breast, lungs and stomach, and liver, distilit in june carduus water succours the head, strengthens the memory, helps suchas are troubled with vertigoes and quartan agues, it provokes sweat, strengthens the heart, and all other fevers of choler it is in itsprime in may and june scabious water helps pleurises and pains, and pricking in the sides;aposthumes, coughs, pestilences, and straitness of the breast water of flower-de-luce is very profitable in dropsies, an ouncebeing drank continually every morning and evening. As also pains andtorments in the bowels bawm water distilled in may, restores memory, it quickens all thesenses, strengthens the brain, heart, and stomach, causes a merry mindand a sweet breath the water of comfrey solders broken bones, being drank, helpsruptures, outwardly it stops the bleeding of wounds, they being washedwith it wormwood water distilled cold, about the end of may, heats andstrengthens the stomach, helps concoction, stays vomiting, kills wormsin the stomach and bowels, it mitigates the pains in the teeth, and isprofitably given in fevers of choler mint water strengthens the stomach, helps concoction and staysvomiting, distil it in the latter end of may, or beginning of june, asthe year is in forwardness or backwardness, observe that in all therest chervil water distilled about the end of may, helps ruptures, breaksthe stone, dissolves congealed blood, strengthens the heart and stomach the water of mother of time strengthens the brain and stomach, gets aman a good stomach to his victuals, provoke urine and the menses, heatsthe womb it is in its prime about the end of june the water of marigold flowers is appropriated to most cold diseasesof the head, eyes, and stomach. They are in their vigour when the sunis in the lion the distilled water of centaury comforts a cold stomach, helps infever of choler, it kills worms, and provokes appetite maudlin and costmary water distilled in may or june, strengthens theliver, helps the yellow jaundice, opens obstructions, and helps thedropsy water-cresses distilled in march, the water cleanses the blood, andprovokes urine exceedingly, kills worms, outwardly mixed with honey, itclears the skin of morphew and sunburning distil nettles when they are in flower, the water helps coughs andpains in the bowels, provokes urine, and breaks the stone saxifrage water provokes urine, expels wind, breaks the stone, cleanses the reins and bladder of gravel, distil them when they are inflower the water of pellitory of the wall, opens obstructions of the liverand spleen, by drinking an ounce of it every morning. It cleanses thereins and bladder, and eases the gripings of the bowels coming of wind distil it in the end of may, or beginning of june cinquefoil water breaks the stone, cleanses the reins, and is ofexcellent use in putrified fevers distil it in may the water of radishes breaks the stone, cleanses the reins and bladder, provokes the menses, and helps the yellow jaundice elicampane water strengthens the stomach and lungs, provokes urine, and cleanses the passages of it from gravel distil burnet in may or june, the water breaks the stone, cleansesthe passages of urine, and is exceeding profitable in pestilentialtimes mugwort water distilled in may, is excellent in coughs and diseasesproceeding from stoppage of the menses, it warms the stomach, and helpsthe dropsy distil penny-royal when the flowers are upon it. The water heats thewomb gallantly, provokes the menses, expels the afterbirth.

It is capable of influencing thedigestion of fats in short, liquid petrolatum, being a drug, itsindiscriminate and excessive use should not be encouraged -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 72 westerfield digitalis tablets report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary westerfield digitalis tablets the westerfield pharmacal co , dayton, ohio are claimed to represent a fat free tincture of digitalis and tobe “enteric coated ” it is claimed that because of this coating thesetablets pass the stomach unchanged and dissolve in the intestine, andthat this obviates any possibility of gastric disturbance the circular which sets forth the asserted advantages of the tabletsstates that digitalis contains a fat which is an irritant to thegastric membrane it also contains the following. “we feel no hesitation in saying that if this remedy is given a fair trial where it is properly indicated, the result obtained will be a gratifying surprise “it is a common expression from physicians who have tried this remedy to say, ‘surely i have never used digitalis before ’”if these quotations mean anything, they imply that these tabletspresent a distinct advance in digitalis therapy there is no warrantfor such a claim the statement with reference to the occurrence of anoil in digitalis is writingly false and writingly misleading tincture ofdigitalis, which the tablets are claimed to represent, is fat free;the fixed oil that is present in the drug is not soluble in 70 percent alcohol, the menstruum used for the preparation of the officialtincture of digitalis furthermore, a fairly large amount of this oil such as is present in 100 therapeutic doses of the drug is incapableof causing gastric disturbance gastric disturbance is a side actionthat is inseparable from slight overdosage with all true digitalisbodies and is not in any way due to local gastric action the claimthat such action is prevented by the use of enteric pills or tablets isobviously false and misleading the alleged “common expression from physicians who have tried thisremedy” does not constitute acceptable evidence of the value of thepreparation the council declared westerfield digitalis tablets inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies because unwarranted therapeutic claims aremade for this product when the preceding report was submitted to the westerfield pharmacalco , a reply was received indicating that the firm did not knowthat progressive manufacturers had discontinued the claim that “fatfree” digitalis preparations were devoid of gastric effects it alsosubmitted a revised circular, which, however, reiterated the claim thatthe tablet presented a distinct advance in digitalis therapy in that itwas “fat free, ” and coated to prevent disintegration in the stomach since tincture of digitalis and extract of digitalis are practicallydevoid of fatty material, and since it is now well known that thefat does not cause gastric disturbance and that therapeutic dosesof digitalis do not exert a local irritant action on the stomach, the manufacturer product and the claims made for it merely tend toperpetuate old errors the council declared westerfield digitalis tablets inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies on the ground that this presents anunessential modification of pills of an official substance it directedpublication of its report with this explanation -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 75 xeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merck omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report onbismuth tribromphenate-merck and xeroform-heyden these two productswere found not to comply with the standards for bismuth tribromphenateadopted for new and nonofficial remedies, and hence could not beretained as the manufacturers of both products announce that effortstoward the production of a satisfactory product are continued, theomission of the two brands is without prejudice to their reacceptancewhen a satisfactory product becomes available w a puckner, secretary the referee in charge of bismuth preparations submitted the followingreport of the a m a chemical laboratory which shows thatxeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merck do not comply with theadopted standards for bismuth tribromphenate essay time ago a request was received from the medical section of the national council of defense for a report on a brand of bismuth tribromphenate in accordance with this request the firm product was examined, and at the same time and for comparison, an examination was also made of a specimen of bismuth tribromphenate received from merck and company, october, 1915, and of another specimen of bismuth tribromphenate “xeroform-heyden” obtained from the chicago branch of the heyden chemical works in april, 1918 the examination brought out that the bismuth tribromphenate submitted to the national council of defense contained a large amount of uncombined tribromphenol, while the specimen of xeroform-heyden contained an excessive quantity of bismuth when the latter finding was submitted to the heyden chemical works, the firm stated. “the product had to be made in this country after importations from europe became impossible and the first lots were not fully up to the standard ” the firm stated that it could now furnish a product which it considered fully equal to that which was previously imported, and offered to submit “samples of the new material ” having been requested to do so, a specimen of xeroform-heyden was received from the heyden chemical works, new york this and a second specimen, purchased from a chicago wholesale drug house, were examined whereas the standards for bismuth tribromphenate which had been formulated by the laboratory and accepted by the heyden chemical works required that the product should contain from 40 to 49 per cent of bismuth and contain not more than 3 3 per cent of uncombined tribromphenol, the specimen purchased in chicago contained 67 7 per cent of bismuth, while the specimen received direct from the heyden chemical works contained 24 per cent of uncombined tribromphenol when this result was reported to the heyden chemical works, the firm replied. “it seems that we are not yet in a position to supply a product that answers a uniform standard and that we have to continue our efforts in this direction “we will take this matter up with you again as soon as we have been successful ” at the time when the preceding examination was being made, bismuth tribromphenate-merck could not be obtained from the chicago wholesale houses a request sent to merck and company for a specimen of the market supply brought the information that the product was temporarily unavailable though unable to supply the product, the firm gave valuable advice for a revision of the essaywhat loosely drawn tests for bismuth tribromphenate in new and nonofficial remedies, 1918 recently november, 1918 merck and company sent a specimen of its product labeled “bismuth tribromphenate-merck” “merck and company, new york, distributors and guarantors, ” and wrote “ you will notice this sample conforms in nearly all details to the tests we submitted with our letter of june 4th we have been able to produce better goods, but just at present unsatisfactory starting material confronts us the sample conforms to n n r , 1918, but will not meet the test for uncombined tribromphenol submitted by you in your letter of september 4th ” examination of the specimen demonstrated that it was soluble to a considerable extent in alcohol the n n r , 1918, description provides that it should be only slightly soluble in alcohol and according to the standards adopted for new and nonofficial remedies, 1919, contains 18 per cent uncombined tribromphenol more than five times the permitted amount in view of the laboratory report, the referee recommended that theacceptance of xeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merck bewithdrawn, without prejudice to their reinstatement when satisfactoryproducts are again offered for sale the council adopted therecommendation of the referee, and accordingly xeroform-heyden andbismuth tribromphenate-merck are omitted from new and nonofficialremedies, 1919 when the laboratory findings with regard to xeroform-heyden and theaction of the council deleting the article from new and nonofficialremedies was reported to the heyden chemical works, the firm expressedregret that efforts to produce a product equal to that formerlyobtained from gerthesis had so far not been successful and announcedthat it had decided to withdraw xeroform-heyden from the market for thepresent when merck and company was advised in regard to the report of thelaboratory and the council action, this firm questioned thefeasibility of producing a product meeting the council standards andsuggested that the test for free tribromphenol be revised to permit asmuch as 15 per cent of this constituent when merck and company wasreminded that its product, submitted in 1915, essentially complied withthe adopted standards and that the estimate of the therapeutic valueof bismuth tribromphenate is based on a product essentially free fromalcohol-soluble material, the firm replied. “as stated in our letter of the 12th inst we do not wish to market the chemical unless it meets all legitimate requirements of the physicians that use it if, therefore, your standard proves to be good and it is commercially possible to make supplies conforming to it, we shall do so we shall discontinue the article unless it is of suitable quality ”-- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 76 cream of mustard refused recognition report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycream of mustard, the cream of mustard co , south norwalk, conn , issaid to be made by mixing 2 drachms of oil of mustard and 2 drachmsof oil of turpentine with one pound of white petrolatum according tothe label it is “for tonsillitis, rheumatism, sore muscles, croup, pleurisy, frosted feet, sore throat, neuralgia, sprains, bronchitis, headache, chilblains, stiff neck, congestion, bruises, asthma, lumbago, pains and aches, colds in chest ”the council refused recognition to cream of mustard:because it is a simple pharmaceutical mixture of well-known ingredientsand has no advantage over established rubefacients which everyphysician knows how to prescribe and every pharmacist to compound incidentally, the name “cream of mustard” is misleading and notdescriptive of the composition of this pharmaceutical of oils ofmustard and turpentine -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1918, p 79 “pluriglandular” mixtures caps adreno-spermin comp , caps antero-pituitary comp , caps placento-mammary comp , caps thyro-ovarian comp , caps hepato-splenic comp , caps pancreas comp , and caps thyroid comp , not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryafter considering the evidence for the several “pluriglandular”mixtures described below, the council declared them inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies the council action was communicatedto the manufacturer, henry r harrower, in accordance with the usualprocedure after giving due consideration to the manufacturer replythe council authorized publication of the report which appears below w a puckner, secretary with the offer “to supply you with as much literature as may benecessary and as little of the actual remedies as may be desired” if“the prospects for the inclusion of these formulas in n n r aregood, ” henry r harrower sent the council a booklet descriptive of hispreparations and labels for the following mixtures. Caps adreno-spermin comp , each said to contain “adrenal gland total gr 1/4, thyroid gland u s p gr 1/12, spermin extr from gonads, brain and spinal cord aa gr 1, calc glycerophosphate q s ad gr 5 ” caps antero-pituitary comp , each said to contain “anterior pituitary body gr 2, thymus gland gr 1, thyroid gland u s p gr 1/12, calcium-phosphorus comp q s ad gr 5 ” caps placento-mammary co , each said to contain “desiccated placenta gr 2, mammary substance gr 1-1/2, pituitary body total gr 1/3, calcium-phosphorus comp q s ad gr 5 ” caps thyro-ovarian comp , each said to contain “desic corpora lutea ovarian substance gr 2-1/2, thyroid gland u s p gr 1/12, pituitary gland total gr 1/8, calcium-phosphorus comp q s ad gr 5 ” caps hepato-splenic comp , each said to contain “liver parenchyma, spleen substance aa gr 2, powd bile salts gr 1/2, adreno-spermin co no 1 gr 1 ” caps pancreas comp , each said to contain “adrenal gland, pituitary gland total aa gr 1/2, ovarian substance gr 1, pancreas substance q s ad gr 5 ” caps thyroid comp , each said to contain “desic thyroid gland u s p gr 1/8, calcium-phosphorus comp q s ad gr 5 ”the council declared these preparations inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies, for reasons which follow:1 each of the mixtures contains one ingredient or more, which isneither recognized in the u s pharmacopeia nor admitted to new andnonofficial remedies, namely. “spermin extract, ” “brain, ” “spinalcord, ” “desiccated placenta, ” “liver parenchyma, ” “spleen substance, ”“pancreas substance” and “calcium phosphorus comp each 100 gm represents magnes phos 1. Calc glycerophos 4. Potas bicarb 15;sod bicarb 22 and sod chlor q s ” for obvious reasons thecouncil does not accept a mixture containing an indefinite ingredientand hence it would be necessary as a preliminary for the considerationof any one of the mixtures that their unofficial ingredients bemade eligible for new and nonofficial remedies by the submission ofevidence that such ingredient is of uniform composition and that it istherapeutically valuable when given by mouth there is no evidence thatthesis of these organs have any value whatever when administered by themouth or in any other way 2 in the light of our knowledge the administration of gland mixturesin the host of conditions enumerated in the advertising circular isirrational and on a par with the use of the shotgun mixtures once invogue be it a pharmaceutical mixture, a “mixed” vaccine, or a“pluriglandular” product, the combination of two medicinal ingredientsin a mixture must be considered contrary to rational therapy unlessa good reason exists for such combination such mixtures are held inconflict with rule 10 unless the manufacturer presents acceptableevidence for the value of his combination a physician may prescribeany mixture which he considers indicated in a given case, but themarketing of mixtures of drugs in fixed proportions is in mostinstances irrational and a detriment to sound therapy -- from thejournal a m a , jan 18, 1919 cerelene not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following reportdeclaring cerelene inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary cerelene, a paraffin preparation for the treatment of burns, wassubmitted to the council by the holliday laboratories, with thestatement that it was composed of 84 per cent paraffin, 15 per cent myricyl palmitate, and 1 per cent purified elemi gum to which is addedoil of eucalyptus 2 per cent and betanaphthol 0 25 per cent it wasexplained. “myricyl palmitate is a purified form of beeswax, free from all impurities, acids, etc , which is solely manufactured by this company ”it was also stated that on “special order” cerelene has been madecontaining oil of eucalyptus and resorcin, oil of eucalyptus and picricacid, and picric acid alone the following report on the preparationwas presented to the council by the referee to whom cerelene had beenassigned. Cerelene is another compound wax for the treatment of burns according to the work of sollmann j a m a , 68:1799, 1917 it is highly improbable that compound mixtures have any advantage over simple paraffin of low melting point cerelene must therefore be considered as an unessential modification of paraffin, and as in conflict with rule 10. Unless definite evidence of superiority is submitted cerelene mixtures containing medicinal ingredients also appear unscientific since the evidence that the ingredients do not leave the wax has not been successfully contradicted finally, the claims made for cerelene are rather extreme, and would need essay revision before they could be accepted the a m a chemical laboratory reports.

Thus theepidemics in erfurt in 1237, in the rhine countries in 1374, and thesisothers see hirsch it is rather remarkable that while such views and practises prevailedin the christian church, the followers of mohammed not only helddifferent views, but adopted a mode of treatment of the insane whichlaid the foundation of modern therapeutics in diseases of the mind in the twelfth century, in bagdad, a palace called the “home of mercy”was built, in which the insane were confined, examined every month, andreleased as soon as they had recovered an asylum in cairo was foundedin 1304, while the first christian asylum expressly for the mad isnoted in 1409 lecky but science fought its way through the barriers of ignorance, misdirected zeal, and superstition altho there were physicians and“magicians, ” who conformed to the views of the church, the seed sown bythe earlier schools of medicine slowly but surely began to put forthshoots, and the result was a tree of knowledge, the fruit of whichmay be observed in every modern insane asylum of the world, wherethe unfortunate sufferer is treated with kindness and skill, which, fortunately, often results in cure scientific reason frequently rebelled against the “insanesuperstition, ” at first mildly, but constantly increasing in strength, until an effectual protest was finally raised by john weir, of cleves, who was soon followed by michel de montaigne and now a battle royalwas waged between the adherents of theology and the disciples of the“resurrected” truth, and once more in the history of the world wasdemonstrated the correctness of the saying, that “truth crushed toearth shall rise again ” all over the world the warfare was carried, and at the end of the eighteenth century new champions arose jeanbaptiste pinel in france, and william tuke in england their followersare legion, and in the book of life, in letters of gold, thesis a namehas been written of those who trod in the footsteps of these pioneers theology no longer interferes in the treatment of the insane. In fact, it would be manifestly unjust not to mention that thesis christiantheologians subsequently joined in the noble work of lunacy reform, andaided progress greatly how great this progress in the treatment of the insane can best beappreciated by essay of the older physicians in practise to-day whodoes not remember the chains, the strait-jacket, the dark locked cellsof the insane asylum?. these conditions existed not very thesis years ago, and altho the novels of charles reade are no doubt greatly exaggeratedin regard to the conditions he portrayed in insane asylums, yet morethan a grain of truth is probably contained in them the books didmuch to bring about reforms in england and elsewhere modern alienists have wrought wonders. Their successful operationsare not published in the daily press, but any visitor who knows whatan insane asylum was fifty years ago, and who spends a few hours ina modern hospital for the treatment of lunatics, will observe whatappears but little short of the miraculous imagine two thousandor more insane persons dining in a large hall, upon the table atablecloth, and the insane using knife and fork in a decorous manner, and when the visitor is told that the “violent ward” is also present, and is asked to single these out from among the thesis, and fails ashe invariably does, the results attained by science, above all othermeasures, are strikingly apparent bibliography ælius swritingianus de vita hadriani caracalla in peter. Scriptores historiæ augustæ lipsiæ, 1884 alexander von tralles original text und uebersetzung von puschmann wien, 1878-79 almansoris astrologiæ propositiones ad saracenorum regem basileæ, 1551 aristophanis comoediæ ed bergh lipsiæ, 1878-78 aureli augustini de divinatione daemomum corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum ed zycha vindobonæ, 1900 bartisch, ὀφθαλμοδουλεῖα das ist augendienst dresden, 1583 baur apollonius von tyana und christus tübingen, 1832 bernoulli die heiligen der merowinger tübingen, 1900 berthelot la chemie des anciens et du moyen ge paris, 1889 bethem centiloquium basileæ, 1551 bouché-leclercq l’astrologie grecque paris, 1899 cæsarius heisterbacensis dialogus miraculorum ed strange cöln, 1851 campbell, thompson the reports of the magicians and astrologers of nineveh and babylon in the british museum london, 1900 delitzsch babel und bibel leipzig, 1903 batavi jahrbücher für klassische philologie 16 supplementband leipzig, 1888 erastus, thomas de astrologia divinatrice epistolæ basileæ, 1580 ermerius anecdota medica graeca lugd batovorum, 1840 eunapius sardianus de vitis philosophorum et sophistorum ed hieronymus cammelin coloniæ allobrogum, 1616 fühner lithotherapie berlin, 1902 galeni opera omnia ed gottlieb kühn leipzig, 1821-33 gregorii turonici historiæ francorum libri decem paris, 1561 gregorovius geschichte der stadt rom im mittelalter stuttgart, 1886-96 gregorovius der kaiser hadrian 3 aufl stuttgart, 1884 häser lehrbuch der geschichte der medicin und der epidemischen krankheiten 3 bearbeitung jena, 1875-82 hansen zauberwahn, inquisition und hexenprocess im mittelalter historische bibliothek band xii münchen und leipzig, 1900 harnack medicinisches aus der ältesten kirchengeschichte leipzig, 1892 hermetis centum aphorismorum liber basileæ, 1551 hippocrates sämmtliche werke in deutsche übersetzt von fuchs münchen, 1895, 1900 hoffmann de potentia diaboli in corpore halæ, 1703 hoffmann medicus politicus halæ, 1746 deutsch von ansbach leipzig, 1753 jacobi forliviensis egregia et subtilis expositio cum quæstionibus supra aureum capitulum de generatione embrionis venedig, 1502 josephi flavii opera ed destinon et niese band vi berlin, 1894 klenke wie müssen dämonenglauben, besessensein und kerner-eschenmayerche gespenstererscheinungen nach dem heutigen standpunkt der physiologie und psychologie erklärt werden?. leipzig, 1840 krusch passiones vitæque sanctorum ævi merovingici et antiquorum aliquot in monumenta germaniæ historica tomus iii u iv hannoveræ, 1896, 1902 lecky geschichte des ursprungs und einflusses der aufklärung in europa übersetzt von dr jolowicz leipzig und heidelberg, 1868 lehman aberglaube und zauberei von den ältesten zeiten an bis in die gegenwart deutsche autorisierte ausgabe von dr petersen stuttgart, 1898 livius ab urbe condita ed weissenborn-müller leipzig, 1891 ff lucrez de rerum natura ed brieger lipsiæ, 1899 magnus medicin und religion abhandlungen zur geschichte der medicin herausg von magnus, neuburger, sudhoff heft i breslau, 1902 magnus die augenheilkunde der alten breslau, 1901 magnus metaphysische krankenbehandlung medicin-geschichtliche studien über gesundbeten und verwandte bestrebungen breslau, 1902 dietrich papyrus magica musei lugdunensis marci manilii astronomicon basileæ, 1551 moehsen beschreibung einer berliner medaillen-sammlung gedächtnissmünzen berühmter aerzte berlin und leipzig, 1781, i u ii v oefele verbotene aderlasstage in der keilschriftcultur wiener medicinische blätter, 1902, no 10 petersen hauptmomente in der geschichtlichen entwickelung der medicinischen therapie kopenhagen, 1877 philostratus opera ed kayser leipzig, 1870-71 c plini secundi naturalis historiæ libri xxxvii recensuit sillig hamburgi et gothæ, 1851-58 plutarchi chaeronensis moralia rec bernardakis lipsiæ, 1888 porphyrii de abstinentia ed de roer trajecti ad rhenum, 1767 priscianus theodorus euporiston ed rose leipzig, 1894 ptolemäus quadriwritingitum basileæ, 1551 ptolemäus centiloquicum basileæ, 1551 puschmann handbuch der geschichte der medicin jena, 1902-03 rantzovius catalogus imperatorum, regum ac principum qui artem astrologicam amarunt et exercuerunt lipsiæ, 1581 rantzovius tractatus astrologicus francofurti, 1533 v ringseis system der medicin regensburg, 1841 sextus empiricus πρὸς μαθηματικους ed becker berlin, 1842 soranus ephesius frauenkrankheiten und geburtshülfe uebersetzt von lüneburg und mit med noten versehen von chr huber münchen, 1894 sprengel versuch einer pragmatischen geschichte der arzneykunde halle, 1821-1828 stich μάρκοὐ αντονίνου ἐις ἑαυτον lipsiæ, 1882 stöffler calendarium romanum magnum oppenheim, 1518 sudhoff zur geschichte der lehre von den kritischen tagen im krankheitsverlaufe wiener med wochenschrift, 1902, no 5 ff sudhoff medicinisches aus babylonisch-assyrischen astrologen-berichten die medicinische woche, 1901, no 41 sudhoff jatromathematiker, vornemlich im 15 und 16 jahrhundert abhandl zur geschichte der medicin herausgegeben von magnus, neuburger, sudhoff heft ii breslau, 1902 suidas, lexicon ed bekker berlin, 1854 villoison anecdota græca venetiis, 1781 wierus de dæmonum præstigiis et incantationibus libri vi basileæ, 1566 und 1577 amstelodami, 1664 winckler die gesetze hammurabis, königs von babylon in. Der alte orient jahrgang 4, heft 4 leipzig, 1902 windelband geschichte der alten philosophie handbuch der klassischen alterthums-wissenschaft herausg von j von müller band v , abth 1 münchen, 1894 transcriber notewords in italics were surrounded with underscores and words in smallcapitals with all capitals the following corrections were made, on page 18 “conspiculously” changed to “conspicuously” becomes conspicuously prominent 30 “explicity” changed to “explicitly” will be more explicitly referred to 57 “julien” changed to “julian” led her toward the grave of st julian 77 “guage” changed to “gauge” gauge the ideas of priests 91 “ephesus 500” changed to “ephesus 500” the absurd theory which heraclitus of ephesus 500 b c has propounded 116 “invidual” changed to “individual” to plague an individual being 192 “person the” changed to “the person” it was not the person who acted 196 “manasteries” changed to “monasteries” nunneries, and monasteries 203 “autorisirte” changed to “autorisierte” deutsche autorisierte ausgabe otherwise the original was preserved, including inconsistenthyphenation and possible errors in languages other than english, for example the capitalisation in greek sentences end of the project gutenberg ebook of superstition in medicine, by hugo magnus*** end of this project gutenberg ebook superstition in medicine ******** this file should be named 44744-0 txt or 44744-0 zip *****this and all associated files of various formats will be found in. 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- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - | inception | | | | where the dry wax poultice has been used | | | | thermozine known in france as l’ambrine, has been | | used in the following parisian hospitals, with | | 92% of cures. | | | | hospital de la pitie, services of drs lion, darier | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - photographic reproduction from a booklet on “thermozine” showing thatit is identical with “ambrine ”about 10 c c of “asphalt varnish” b asphaltum176 is placed ina beaker and heated on the steam bath for one-half hour from 3 to 5drops, delivered from a 1 c c pipet, are then placed in a casserole, and 1 5 c c of olive oil added the mixture is heated and stirredfor a few minutes until perfect solution is effected to this is thenadded, with stirring, the paraffin, which has been previously melted when it is cooled, a brown solid is obtained 177 the physical factorsof this paraffin mixture are, melting point 45 4 c u s p method;plasticity, 28 5. Ductility, 29. It is very pliable and strong at38 c , and adheres exceedingly well to the skin, although it detacheseasily this mixture, which is easy to prepare, is inexpensive, thecost of the materials being approximately 10 cents a pound 176 the “asphalt varnish” used was obtained from remien & kuhnertcompany, chicago 177 while needless, a color resembling “ambrine” may be obtained bythe addition of coloring agents both hull and sollmann noticed that tarlike substances and meltedparaffin do not mix well this is noticeable in “ambrine, ” which cannotbe called an “elegant” preparation the difficulty may be overcome byfirst mixing hot olive oil and asphalt. The asphalt will then go intosolution it is interesting to note that the suggested formula as wellas others which were also prepared is not as plastic as the paraffinitself 178 this is also true of “ambrine ” on the other hand, themelting point of the paraffin is higher the important point, however, in compounding all paraffin preparations, is to select a proper gradeof paraffin as elaborated below 178 in a personal communication dr sollmann expressed the opinionthat the synthetic preparation is inferior to the paraffin used in theformula, basing the view on the greater plasticity of the paraffin for practical purposes, the paraffin will most probably serve as wellas the mixture, especially when it is held in place by bandages, but ibelieve that the mixture is more adhesive examination of paraffins and paraffin preparationsillustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of a fullpage magazine advertisement of “thermozine, ” the name under which“ambrine” was sold to the public the name “paraffin” generally applies to a colorless and tastelesswaxlike substance that is solid at ordinary temperature it is composedof saturated hydrocarbons, that is, they are unable to take up any morehydrogen, and thereby are quite stable. The hydrocarbons in paraffinhave the general formula of c↓{n}h↓{2n2}, ranging as high as c₂₄h₅₀ toc₂₇h₅₆ paraffin may be found in crude form in coal, from which sourcethe first paraffin candles were made it may be produced from thedistillation of brown coal, as in gerthesis, or from bituminous shale in america, it is obtained chiefly from the distillation of crudepetroleum, being in the residue after the distillation of such productsas naphtha gasoline, kerosene and the lubricating oils the residueis treated by one of a number of processes causing the unpurifiedsolid paraffin to be made available the crude paraffin is eithersold as such, or is refined paraffin or “paraffin waxes”179 aredesignated in the trade by their melting points which in the “americanstandard” is expressed in fahrenheit degrees, and as to their stateof refinement as “crude, ” “semirefined” and “fully refined” paraffin there are certain chemical and physical differences so that two refinedwaxes having the same melting point would not have the same plasticity the higher melting point varieties of paraffin are hard and tough atroom temperature. When melted, paraffin expands and forms a thin mobileliquid 179 paraffin is essaytimes spoken of as “white wax ” this isunfortunate, as “white wax” is an official name for “white beeswax, u s p ” the term “white wax” is also often applied to “chinese wax, ”which is formed from an insect living on the tree ligustrum lucidum illustration.