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It also helps those that havefluxes, or are bursten, or have a rupture. It takes away spots or marksin the face, being washed therewith the juice of the fresh root, orpowder of the dried root, has the same effect with the decoction theroot in the spring-time steeped in wine, gives it a delicate savourand taste, and being drank fasting every morning, comforts the heart, and is a good preservative against the plague, or any other poison ithelps indigestion, and warms a cold stomach, and opens obstructions ofthe liver and spleen it is very safe. You need have no dose prescribed. And is very fit tobe kept in every body house balm this herb is so well known to be an inhabitant almost in every garden, that i shall not need to write any discription thereof, although itsvirtues, which are thesis, may not be omitted government and virtues it is an herb of jupiter, and under cancer, and strengthens nature much in all its actions let a syrup made withthe juice of it and sugar as you shall be taught at the latter end ofthis book be kept in every gentlewoman house to relieve the weakstomachs and sick bodies of their poor sickly neighbours. As also theherb kept dry in the house, that so with other convenient simples, youmay make it into an electuary with honey, according as the diseaseis you shall be taught at the latter end of my book the arabianphysicians have extolled the virtues thereof to the skies. Although thegreeks thought it not worth mentioning seraphio says, it causes themind and heart to become merry, and revives the heart, faintings andswoonings, especially of such who are overtaken in sleep, and drivesaway all troubleessay cares and thoughts out of the mind, arising frommelancholy or black choler. Which avicen also confirms it is very goodto help digestion, and open obstructions of the brain, and hath somuch purging quality in it saith avicen as to expel those melancholyvapours from the spirits and blood which are in the heart and arteries, although it cannot do so in other writings of the body dioscorides says, that the leaves steeped in wine, and the wine drank, and the leavesexternally applied, is a remedy against the stings of a scorpion, andthe bitings of mad dogs. And commends the decoction thereof for womento bathe or sit in to procure their courses. It is good to wash achingteeth therewith, and profitable for those that have the bloody flux the leaves also, with a little nitre taken in drink, are good againstthe surfeit of mushrooms, helps the griping pains of the belly.

But how they perform this office peculiarly to thebrain, most physicians confess they could neither comprehend by reason, nor describe by precepts, only thus, they do it by an hidden quality, either by strengthening the brain, thereby descending it from diseases, or by a certain antipathy between them and the diseases incident to thebrain lastly, for the use of cephalics, observe, if the brain be muchafflicted, you cannot well strengthen it before you have purged it, neither can you well purge the brain before you have cleansed the restof the body, it is so subject to receive the vapours up to it. Givecooling cephalics when the brain is too hot, and hot cephalics when itis too cold beware of using cooling medicines to the brain when the crisis of adisease is near. How that time may be known, i shall god assistingme instruct you hereafter, let it suffice now, that according as thedisease afflicting your head is, so let your remedy be of medicines appropriated to the eyes take such medicines as are appropriated to the eyes under the name of ocular medicines i do it writingly to avoid multiplicity of words, and writingly to instruct my countrymen in the terms of art belonging tophysic, i would have called them ophthalmics had not the wordbeen troubleessay to the reading, much more to the understanding of acountryman as i even now called such medicines cephalics as wereappropriated to the brain ocular medicines are two-fold, viz such as are referred to the visivevirtues, and such as are referred to the eyes themselves such as strengthen the visive virtue or the optick nerves which conveyit to the eyes say doctors do it by an hidden virtue, into thereason which no man can dive, unless they should fetch it from thesimilitude of the substance. And yet they say a goat liver conducesmuch to make one see in the night, and they give this reason, becausegoats see as well in the night as in the day yet is there no affinityin temperature nor substance between the liver and the eyes. Howeverastrologers know well enough that all herbs, plants, &c that are underthe dominion of either sun or moon, and appropriated to the head, bethey hot or cold they strengthen the visive virtue, as eyebright, whichis hot, lunaria, or moonwort which is cold as for what appertains to the constitution of the eyes themselves, seeing they are exact in sense, they will not endure the leastinconvenience, therefore such medicines as are outwardly applied tothem for such medicines as strengthen the visive virtues are alwaysgiven inwardly let them neither hurt by their hardness nor gnawingquality, nor be so tough that they should stick to them thereforelet ocular medicines be neither in powders nor ointments, because oilitself is offensive to the eyes, and how pleasing powders are to them, you may perceive yourself by just going into the dust medicines appropriated to the mouth and nose apply no stinking medicine to a disease in the nose, for such offendnot only the nose, but also the brain. Neither administer medicinesof any ill taste to a disease in the mouth, for that subverts thestomach, because the tunicle of the mouth and of the stomach is thesame. And because both mouth and nostrils are ways by which the brainis cleansed, therefore are they infected with such vices as need almostcontinual cleansing, and let the medicines you apply to them be eitherpleasant, or at least, not ingrateful medicines appropriated to the ears the ears are easily afflicted by cold, because they are always open, therefore they require hot medicines and because they are ofthemselves very dry, therefore they require medicines which dry much medicines appropriated to the teeth vehement heat, and vehement cold, are inimical to the teeth, but theyare most of all offended by sharp and sour things, and the reason is, because they have neither skin nor flesh to cover them, they delight insuch medicines as are cleansing and binding, because they are troubledwith defluxions and rheums upon every light occasion. And that thereason the common use of fat and sweet things, soon rots the teeth chapter ii of medicines appropriated to the breast and lungs the medicines appropriated to the breast and lungs, you shall findcalled all along by the name of pectorals that the termphysicians give them, when you heat them talk of pectoral syrups, pectoral rows, or pectoral ointments they are divers, essay of which regard the writing afflicted, others thematter afflicting but although essaytimes in ulcers of the lungs, we are forced touse binding medicines, to join the ulcer, yet are not these calledpectorals, because binding medicines are extreme hurtful to the breastand lungs, both because they hinder one fetching his breath, and alsobecause they hinder the avoiding that flegm by which the breast isoppressed such medicines are called pectorals, which are of a lenifying nature besides, those which make thin matter thicker are of two sorts, viz essay are mild and gentle, which may safely be administered, be thematter hot or cold which offendeth. Others are very cold, which areused only when the matter offending is sharp but because such medicines as conduce to the cure of the phthisics which is an ulceration of the lungs, and the disease usually called, the consumption of the lungs, are also reckoned in amongst pectorals, it is not amiss to speak a word or two of them in the cure of this disease are three things to be regarded 1 to cut and bring away the concreted blood 2 to cherish and strengthen the lungs 3 to conglutinate the ulcer and indeed essay writingicular simples will perform all these, andphysicians confess it. Which shews the wonderful mystery the all-wisegod hath made in the creation, that one and the same simple shouldperform two contrary operations on the same writing of the body.

And the destructive agent employed may bedetermined by a chemical analysis of the fabric 703it is not possible to distinguish a post-mortem from an ante-mortemburn by an acid when no vital reaction has taken place the classification of burns a classification of burns according to the severity of the injuryinflicted is the most practical course upon this plan, burns may bedivided into four general classes:i burns in which the skin or subcutaneous cellular tissues only areinjured ii burns which involve the muscles, nerves, and blood-vessels iii burns involving the internal organs and bones iv burns in which the other three classes are variously mixed class i - the skin in paper such as may occur from a brief contact witha hot body or water near the boiling-point shows a slight redness orscorching with no enduring mark pain is considerable class ii - in the mildest paper the cutis is destroyed in its wholethickness, and the writings injured are occupied by eschars of ayellowish-gray or brownish color the surrounding skin is reddened, and the formation of blisters occurs either immediately or after aninterval of a few hours in these paper a shining cicatrix remainsafter the healing, without contraction of surrounding writings in theseverer paper the subcutaneous cellular tissue and underlying musclesand nerves are destroyed the blackish eschars formed are insensibleand separate by suppurative process, leaving a granulating surfacebelow extensive redness of surrounding tissues, with more or lessvesication, is usually noted the resulting cicatrices, together withthe skin and adjoining structures, are prone to contraction, resultingin considerable deformity, according to location and extent so greatis the deformity in injuries of the extremities, or even essay writings ofthe head and trunk, that who can do my essay extensive surgical operations become necessaryto relieve it class iii - burns of this class are so severe that an immediatelyfatal issue is usually the result such instances involve a prolongedexposure to flame or to a source of intense heat the appearancesdescribed as belonging to the preceding class are in writing found herewith the addition of charring or carbonizing the writings destroyed effects of burns the effects of burns may be considered as i , local, and ii , constitutional local effects - in different instances the effects vary in accordancewith the extent and severity of the burn redness, blisters, destruction of the cuticle and of the subcutaneous cellular tissue, blackening of the skin, scorching of the hair, and roasting of portionsof the body are met with in varying degrees in essay severe paper allthese are found upon a single body the redness produced varies inintensity and extent, according to the nature of the agent producingthe burn, its form, and the length of time the writing was exposed very soon after the infliction of the burn a special line of rednessappears between the burned writings and the uninjured skin this red lineof demarcation is formed by intensely injected vessels and becomes avery important medico-legal sign in essay paper the vesication may besingle or multiple, consisting of one or two large and full blistersor a number of large and small ones, scattered over the portionsburned, essay unbroken and still holding their contents, others brokenand denuded of cuticle or with breaks from which their serum hasescaped upon the surrounding writings in essay paper of burning cracksor fissures in the skin occur, due to the effect of the heat, makingit dry and brittle and causing it to rupture by the movements of thepatient case 8 these fissures are most frequently noted in proximityto the joints 704 they resemble wounds, and it occurs occasionallythat it is important to accurately distinguish their character inessay paper the skin only is fissured. In others the subjacent tissuesare also involved this difference depends upon the depth of the burn in the first condition the skin splits, leaving the subcutaneous fatexposed, which in essay instances is writingially melted by the heat andflows out over the edge of the crack upon the surrounding skin paper8, 13 the blood-vessels in such paper usually are not burned and, owing to their elasticity, remain stretching across the fissure case14 the smaller may be seen by careful examination with a lens:they should always be looked for in the second class of injuriesthe vessels are involved in the burn and break with the cracking ofthe skin the importance of careful observation of these fissures isemphasized in paper of apparent wounds associated with burning it maybe necessary to decide whether the wounds are the result of the actionof heat as above described or were caused by essay sharp instrument orweapon careful inspection of the edges of the wounds will show whetherthey are ragged, as the result of fissure, or clean-cut by essay sharpinstrument the absence of evidences indicating hemorrhage upon thesurrounding writings and the detection of uncut blood-vessels extendingacross the fissure will establish the differential diagnosis wounds ofthe above character resulting from the action of fire may exist on thesame body with wounds of actual violence it is important, therefore, in all paper to examine each wound with special care and record itsposition, shape, depth, and other characteristics constitutional effects - as in all sudden and violent injuries, theeffect of a severe burn upon the nervous system is very marked thisis manifest in the symptoms of “shock, ” with pallor and coldness ofthe surface of the body, a feeble pulse, chills or shivering, and atendency to collapse in other paper, proving immediately fatal, thesesymptoms are followed by obstructed respiration with death from comasucceeding in other paper convulsions precede death, while in such asare not immediately fatal a reaction more or less imperfect ensues uponthe first constitutional symptoms death from cerebral congestion or effusion may result before anydefinite evidence of reaction appears in essay instances pulmonarycongestion or œdema occurs, with or without pleural effusion, terminating in death before reaction this period usually coversthe first two days in essay paper immediate death results fromthe depression produced by the severity of the pain during thesubsequent two weeks a period of inflammatory reaction succeeds, wheninflammations of the thoracic and abdominal viscera, with ulcerativeprocesses in essay organs, are developed and induce a fatal termination paper 10, 11, 16 causes of death the causes of death are due to several conditions this factis explained in writing by the relation which exists between thecerebro-spinal and sympathetic nervous systems, and of the nervoussupply of the surface to that of the internal organs, which in paperof extensive injury proportionately modify the conditions of thevisceral organs as death in burning results from various causes, it isconvenient to consider them under two classes:1st those immediately fatal 2d those fatal after an interval the first division would include paper in which the deprivation offresh air and the presence of asphyxiating products of combustion carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were the immediate causes of deathby suffocation or asphyxia paper 9, 18 accidents in endeavoring to escape or injuries by falling wallsor timbers may cause death immediately, and burning the body occursubsequently immediate death may result from syncope or collapse from theviolence of the shock to the nervous system by the pain resulting fromthe burns the second division includes those conditions where death may resultearly, from a series of causes less immediate than those just mentioned cerebral congestion and effusion, resulting in death from coma, is not unusual case 15 in this connection taylor705 cites a caseof alleged poisoning by opium, in the treatment of a burn, in a childdying comatose, and emphasizes the undesirability of administeringopium or its preparations to children in paper of burns of anyseverity the danger claimed to exist is hardly to be considered in the case referred to, abernethy, who was a witness in the case, ascribed death to coma induced by the effect of the burn thepowerfully depressing influence of the pain in sensitive organizationsand liability to death from shock therefrom must be remembered inflammatory conditions of the respiratory tract or organs arecommon results. Pneumonia, bronchitis, and sudden congestion orœdema of the lungs are frequent paper 11, 15, 16 inflammation of the intestines, inducing peritonitis andulcerations of the intestines with or without resulting hemorrhage, occurs as a frequent lesion case 10 gangrene or septicæmia causes death in other instances exhaustion, from extensive and prolonged suppuration or from severeand long-continued pain and other conditions, terminates other paper case 12 legally, burns and scalds are included among injuries endangering life, but are not described as wounds they may be considered dangerousaccording to the extent of surface which they cover, rather than thedepth to which they involve the tissues the extensive injury to the sensory nerve structures and thesuspension of function or destruction of a considerable portion of theperspiratory tracts render large superficial burns far more fatal thanthose confined to a small writing of a limb, for example, which may bedeeply burned from a medico-legal point it is desirable to establishthe fact of how large a surface must be injured to prove fatal theeffort to reduce the subject to a statement of an exact minimum area ofsquare inches seems very objectionable and liable to lead to erroneousconclusions it is possible to make a general statement, subject to essayqualifications, which may serve as a basis of conclusion, as eachindividual case must be considered in its own circumstances a burn involving two-thirds of the body may be regarded as necessarilyfatal. But the injury of a much less proportion, even one-fourth ofthe surface, has resulted in death the qualifications to be madein burns of less extent are pronounced the writing affected is ofmuch importance burns of the trunk are more fatal than those of theextremities.

3 enterotome for openingintestines and stomach. 4 costotome, or large bone forceps forcutting ribs. 5 scissors, large and small one blade blunt. 6saw. 7 chisel. 8 dissecting forceps. 9 probe. 10 blowpipe. 11curved needles and strong twine. 12 measuring and graduated glass. 13 small scales besides the above instruments, essay basins containing water. Sponges, bottle of flexible collodion, lugol solution of iodine for theamyloid test, will be needed post-mortem wounds - various plans have been proposed to protectthe operator hands from the post-mortem wounds which are often sodangerous, such as wearing rubber gloves, smearing the hands withcarbolized vaselin, both of which have their disadvantages. The glovesbeing too clumsy, and the vaselin rendering it almost impossible tohold the knife steady gloves should always be worn, however, where thebody has undergone much decomposition, or where the person may havedied from any septic disease a method which i have found satisfactoryis to cover all cuts and hangnails with flexible collodion, and thento have a basin of clean water at hand, and from time to time to rinseone hands in the water it is from bathing the hands in the cadavericfluids and not from cuts that most of the danger comes if possible anabsolutely new board, large enough upon which to examine the organs, should be at hand, for it may be claimed at a trial that the organs andtissues, if placed and examined on surrounding objects, have becomecontaminated toxicological - if a chemical analysis of the various organs andtissues is to be made, and it is impossible to have the chemistpresent, the medical examiner should obtain essay new glass jars ofsuitable size, with close-fitting glass covers these jars shouldbe rinsed with distilled water, and in them the various organs areto be placed. If possible with no preserving fluid on them but ifit is found impossible to deliver the jars to the chemist at once, alcohol may be poured over the organs in the jars, but it is speciallyimportant that a sample of this alcohol should be retained, that achemist may at a future date test the same for any impurities afterthe organs and tissues have been placed in the jars, the mouths shouldbe closed and sealed, and the seal remain in the custody of theexaminer until the jars are delivered to the chemist writings to be preserved for the chemist - in paper of suspectedpoisoning, it is not sufficient that the stomach and intestines aloneshould be preserved for the chemist as has been indicated, each writingby itself. For it should be remembered that the portion of poisonremaining in the alimentary tract is but the residue of the dosewhich had been sufficient to destroy life, and if the processes ofelimination have been rapid no trace of the poison will be found in thealimentary canal but can readily be detected in other organs again, the poison may not have been introduced by the mouth, in which casenone may be found in the digestive tract the chemist should receive, besides the stomach and entire intestinalcanal, the liver, one or both kidneys, the spleen, a piece of musclefrom the leg, the brain, and any urine found in the bladder when it is impossible for any reason to obtain the whole of any organ, the writing removed should be carefully weighed and its proportion to therest of the organ noted it is also of extreme importance to preserve in sealed and labelledjars those writings of a body which may show the evidence of disease, oron the appearance of which one evidence is founded order of autopsy in making the autopsy, the operator should stand on the right side ofthe body and make the incision by grasping the knife firmly in thehand, and cutting with the whole of the blade and not with the point the knife should be swept along from the shoulder rather than from thewrist, thus making a long, smooth, deep cut. Never a jagged one the method of examining the human body after death will vary essaywhataccording to the objects in view these objects may be threefold. 1to ascertain whether a person has died from violence or poison. 2 toestablish the cause of death, especially if it has been sudden.

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Masses of tissue of each lung, chiefly towardbase, were solidified by effused blood all the heart cavities empty stomach normal, empty no congestion of abdominal viscera 2 taylor. “med jur , ” am ed , 1892, p 412 - man and woman strangled by cord, tied so tightly that there was hemorrhage from mouthand nose 3 harvey. Indian med gaz , december 1st, 1875, p 312 - hindoowoman, age 45 strangled with the right hand necroscopy. Twocontusions and abrasions on temple neck discolored from right to leftjugulars. Marks of thumb on right side and three fingers on left, extending from jugulars to windpipe eyes half protruded tonguediscolored blood-vessels full of clots brain congested ?. and showedexternal hemorrhages ?. lungs normal heart empty liver ruptured tothe extent of four inches, with adherent blood-clot spleen, stomach, and intestines normal muscles of chest, both sides, congested, discolored, and there were clots of blood over and under them firstsix ribs of left side and first three of right fractured 4 harris.