History

What Is The Purpose Of A Persuasive Essay


Rope broke what is the purpose of a persuasive essay. He was resuscitated. Reddish circular furrow onneck, not like parchment.

In fact, it is inconsistent with the statementthat the preparation contains all the constituents found in the freshplant even if instances of cumulative action have not been reportedthis does not prove that such cumulative action does not occur thetincture of digitalis has the systemic side-effects of digitalis in nogreater degree than the various proprietary preparations attempts tocreate the impression that digitalysatum possesses all the virtues ofdigitalis without its chief disadvantage are to be condemned as likelyto lead to incautious use of the preparation these exaggerated claims are in the main made indirectly, but they arenone the less inimical to sound therapy the council therefore declareddigitalysatum ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies and votedthat this report be published -- from the journal a m a , jan 8, 1916 so-called secretin preparations report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council authorized the following report for publication, and votedto endorse the work of professor carlson discussed therein w a puckner, secretary the council has not accepted for inclusion in new and nonofficialremedies any preparations said to contain secretin or prosecretin astheir active ingredient a report giving the reasons for the rejectionof one the first of the so-called secretin preparations marketed waspublished early last year;29 an article on secretin, based on workundertaken at the request of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, isnow published 3029 secretogen, j a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518 30 carlson, a j. Lebensohn, j e , and pearlmann, s j. Hassecretin a therapeutic value?. j a m a 66:178 jan 15 1916 lest the appearance of this detailed study of secretin, after therejection of so-called secretin preparations, should be interpreted as manufacturers whose products have been rejected have endeavored tointerpret such action as a case of first condemning a preparation andthen getting the facts, the council methods, and their applicationin this case, may be briefly stated the council maintains that, when a manufacturer places a product on the market, the burden ofproof is on that manufacturer to show that the properties of hisproduct are in accordance with his claims for it as stated in theintroduction to n n r , “it is manifestly impossible for thecouncil to investigate the composition of every complex pharmaceuticalmixture, or to check thoroughly every therapeutic claim. It can giveonly an unbiased judgment on the available evidence ” acting on thisprinciple, the council examined the claims made for secretogen, analleged secretin product manufactured by the g w carnrick company the conclusion was that these claims were in absolute conflict with theavailable evidence as to the action of secretin it is not necessary to review this subject again it will suffice tostate that the claims made for secretogen rest on two fundamentalpropositions. 1 that deficiency of secretin or, rather, ofprosecretin in the intestinal mucosa is a factor in gastro-intestinaldiseases. 2 that secretin given by the mouth is absorbed and producesincreased secretion of the pancreatic and intestinal juices and of thebile from an examination of the evidence available, including thatsubmitted by the manufacturers, the council concluded. “1 no evidencehas been presented that the absence of secretin is a cause ofgastro-intestinal disease 2 there is no evidence that secretin inany form is physiologically active when administered by mouth ” thatthese conclusions were justified is shown again by the review givenby carlson of the literature, much of which was also reviewed in thecouncil previous report since the claims of the carnrick company were not supported by anysatisfactory evidence, no further investigation on the council writingwas necessary to warrant rejection of the product the council didnot undertake to determine, for instance, whether or not secretogenand similar products actually contain secretin. The determination ofthis point was immaterial here, in view of the conclusiveness of theevidence that secretin given by mouth has no physiologic action since firms other than the g w carnrick company are manufacturingalleged secretin preparations, and since recommendations for the useof secretin preparations in gastro-intestinal diseases have even creptinto textbooks, it seemed desirable to obtain further information oncertain points the council therefore requested prof a j carlsonof the university of chicago to check the results of previousinvestigators with regard to the action of secretin administered bymouth or directly into the intestine, and, in addition, to investigatethe secretin content of certain alleged secretin preparations carlson and his co-workers, like all previous investigators, found thatsecretin given by mouth, or introduced even in enormous doses directlyinto the intestine, is entirely inactive they also found that markeddestruction of secretin followed contact for one minute with humangastric juice and that secretin is rapidly oxidized and rendered inertin contact with the air further, they were unable to demonstrate the presence of secretinin samples of secretogen and another supposed secretin preparation duodenin bought on the open market in the case of secretogen therewas one exception.

“‘wheeler tissue phosphates’ is an unscientific shotgun mixture whose most active and powerful drug is the alcohol it contains that it was not years ago relegated to the realms of obsolete and discarded preparations is a commentary alike on the lack of scientific discrimination and on the power of advertising ”here we have “wheeler tissue phosphates” stripped of the verbalcamouflage with which its exploiters have invested it -- editorialfrom the journal a m a , sept 22, 1917 briefer paragraphs alcresta lotion to the editor:-- what is the composition of alcresta lotion?. l t a hotten, m d , paris, idaho according to a circular in our files, “alcresta dental lotion-libby”contains “emetin, the active amebicidal principle of ipecac, togetherwith benzoic acid, thymol, eucalyptol and aromatics ” the theorythat emetin is an active amebicide against pyorrhea alveolaris hasbeen exploded in this connection, it is interesting to note thatthe firm does not list the product in the latest catalogue in ourfiles -- query from the journal a m a , oct 29, 1921 calcidin tablets abbott to the editor:-- what is the composition of calcidin tablets abbott and what is their value?. j s answer -- calcidin is claimed to be a mixture of iodin, lime and starch in contact with water, the iodin and lime react to form calcium iodidand calcium iodate by the acid of the gastric juice, the calcium iodidand calcium iodate are decomposed with liberation of free iodin theadministration of calcidin tablets amounts to giving free elementaryiodin in the past, the advertising for calcidin has contained theunwarranted claim more or less directly that it was the most effectiveand only noninjurious preparation of iodin for internal use, and thatit possesses all of the valuable properties of the iodin with all ofthe objectionable effects left out so far as we know, the effectsproduced by the administration of free iodin do not differ from thoseproduced by the administration of iodids and, therefore, calcidin hasno advantage over the iodids, such as sodium iodid -- query in thejournal a m a , sept 25, 1920 di-crotalin treatment of epilepsy to the editor:-- do you have any literature or information relative to the di-crotalin treatment for epilepsy?. i will be very grateful if you can furnish information as to method of preparation, rationale of the treatment, etc r c decker, captain, m r c , u s soldiers’ home, washington, d c answer -- di-crotalin is a rattlesnake venom preparation sold by theswan-myers company of indianapolis as a “treatment for epilepsy, chorea, bronchial asthma, chronic or hereditary nervous headache, nervous prostration incident to change of life, hysteria-mania, insomnia, neurasthenia, etc ” dr thomas j mays of philadelphiaadvocated the use of rattlesnake venom for tuberculosis later hisformer assistant, dr r h spangler, used the same material in thetreatment of epilepsy that any measure of success sufficient tojustify the adoption of the rattlesnake venom or crotalin treatmentfor epilepsy has resulted is not to be concluded from the availablereports still less evidence is there for the use of rattlesnakevenom in the list of conditions for which the swan-myers company hasrecommended its preparation there are a number of good reasons why acautious physician will shun the administration of this treatment andadvise against it j f anderson, working in the hygienic laboratoryof the united states public health service, reported a death from thecrotalin treatment in consequence of infection, and reports that themarket supply of crotalin solution and crotalin tablets is highlycontaminated he also found both crotalin and crotalin solution tovary in activity the use of rattlesnake venom was discussed in thejournal, march 15, 1913, p 850 -- query in the journal a m a , aug 17, 1918 estivin to the editor:-- what is “estevin, ” or essaything like that?. it is said to be good in hay-fever constant reader answer -- the product called “estivin” is sold by schieffelin andcompany, new york a request for a statement of the composition of thispreparation sent to schieffelin and company by the council on pharmacyand chemistry brought the indefinite and, therefore, meaninglessstatement that “‘estivin’ is an extract of rosa gallica containing noalcoholic or foreign ingredients ”-- query from the journal a m a , nov 12, 1921 iron arsenite to the editor:-- can you inform me how iron arsenite can be prepared for subcutaneous injection?. a commercial firm furnishes physicians with ampules of arsenite of iron is this really arsenite of iron?. s h kempner, m d , new york answer -- ferric arsenite iron arsenite is in itself relativelyinsoluble in water, but may be treated with ammonium citrate, theresulting product thus being soluble. The latter substance wasat one time described in new and nonofficial remedies as “ferricarsenite, soluble” and is essaytimes sold as a solution in ampuleform in 1912, the council on pharmacy and chemistry deleted “ferricarsenite, soluble” from new and nonofficial remedies because “onecannot, in administering ferric arsenite, soluble, give a usefuldose of iron without giving too much arsenic. And, vice versa, onecannot give a safe dose of arsenic without giving too little iron ”the council, therefore, held the preparation to be irrational andunscientific -- query in the journal a m a , feb 19, 1921 k-y lubricating jelly to the editor:-- 1 what is the composition of “k-y lubricating jelly”?. 2 can you furnish a formula for a simple nongreasy lubricating jelly?.

“therefore, additional emphasis on the necessity for the proper selection of paper is essential in order that this useful preparation may not be unjustly discredited ”how these paper of sterility, abortions, etc , are to be selectedis not revealed in other words, the restriction is no more than aconvenient device by which every improvement is to be attributed to themedicine, and every failure to the physician the referee recommends that corpora lutea soluble extract, parke, davis & co , be held ineligible to n n r , because it is a secretpreparation advertised under extravagant claims editorial comment -- was it not in weir mitchell “adventures offrançois” that the itinerant promised to pull teeth without anypain, what is the purpose of a persuasive essay if the patient would hold absolutely still?. and, mirabiledictu, the ones who suffered were those who had not held absolutelystill!. -- from the journal a m a , april 7, 1917 wheeler tissue phosphates report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council held that the contribution from the a m a chemicallaboratory, “wheeler tissue phosphates, ” demonstrates that this is asemisecret, complex and irrational preparation, sold with misleadingclaims concerning its medicinal constituents and therapeutic properties the council directed that the report be included with the annualcouncil reports and declared wheeler tissue phosphates in conflictwith rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 w a puckner, secretary wheeler tissue phosphates l e warren, ph c , b s “wheeler tissue phosphates, ” known also as “compound elixir ofphosphates and calisaya, ” is advertised as a nerve food and anutritive tonic the label states that it contains calcium, iron, sodium trihydrogen phosphates, alkaloids of peruvian bark with 12-1/2per cent of alcohol the preparation is sold by the t b wheeler, m d co , of rouses point, new york according to the manufacturer, wheeler tissue phosphates “ is an inorganic combination of the phosphates of iron and calcium and hydrogen phosphoric acid together with hydrochloric acid, hydrocyanic acid, and quinine, cheerful coloring, and a delicious, cordial-like flavoring ” “ the iron is the green, inorganic phosphate and the calcium the simple white phosphate of your early student days ”the preparation is a red liquid, having an acid reaction, asweet-bitter taste and the odor of wild cherry qualitative testsindicated the presence of calcium, iron, a phosphate, a chlorid, asulphate, quinin or cinchona alkaloids, alcohol, sodium, cochinealcoloring and invert sugar ammonium salts, glycerol, citrates orlactates were not found from the quantitative values obtained thepreparation may be taken to represent. Sp gr at 25c /25c 1 1087 alcohol per cent, by volume 11 35 gm per 100 c c calcium phosphate ca₃ po₄₂*  0 397 iron phosphate fepo₄ 4h₂o* 0 068 chlorid as hydrochloric acid 0 407 sodium sulphate na₂so₄ 10h₂o  0 043 quinin sulphate u s p 0 041 sodium phosphate na₂hpo₄ 12h₂o  0 065 invert sugar 26 824 water, cochineal and flavor, to make 100 c c * it should be understood that the calcium and iron salts are held in solution by the hydrochloric acid the dose of wheeler tissue phosphates recommended by the manufactureris a tablespoonful or about 15 c c 1/2 oz the total calcium in adose of the preparation is equivalent to about one-sixth of an averagedose of the official calcium chlorid, and the total phosphate to eachdose is equivalent to about one-fourth of a dose of the officialdiluted phosphoric acid each prescribed dose of the preparationcontains about 0 01 gm 2/13 grain of iron phosphate or about onetwenty-fifth of the average dose, and to obtain a pharmacopeial dose ofiron phosphate the patient would be obliged to take three-fourths ofthe contents of an entire bottle-- or 12 ounces-- of the preparation ifit be assumed that all of the chlorid present is in the form of freehydrochloric acid, each dose of the preparation contains the equivalentof about two-thirds of one pharmacopeial dose of diluted hydrochloricacid each dose of the preparation contains about 0 0062 gm 1/10grain of quinin sulphate, or about one-sixteenth of the average tonicdose in other words, to obtain the amount of quinin sulphate given inthe u s pharmacopeia as the tonic dose, the patient would be requiredto swallow 7-1/2 fluidounces of the proprietary preparation, or thecontents of nearly half a bottle the fallacy of prescribing wheelertissue phosphates either for its quinin or its iron content is apparent wheeler tissue phosphates is, then, a mildly bitter flavored syrupwhich contains nearly 12 per cent of alcohol, small quantities each ofcalcium phosphate and hydrochloric acid and insignificant amounts ofiron and quinin salts in other words, essentially it is a sweetenedsolution of small quantities of calcium phosphate in very dilutehydrochlorid acid together with 12 per cent of alcohol bearing in mind the analysis of the preparation, how ludicrous essay ofthe claims appear. “tissue phosphates is not a hypophosphite preparation. It is not a combination of glycerophosphates or other organic salts, or so-called peptonates and manganates, all recently condemned by the best therapeutic opinion here and in europe, as much slower and less active than the simpler salts the iron is the green, inorganic phosphite and the calcium the simple white phosphate of your early student days nature takes these simple salts and builds them rapidly into lecithin, bone, and other tissue, without the delay incurred by splitting up the organic salts before she can recombine them ” “tissue phosphates is in fact a chemical food ” “the formula, suggested by professor dusart, of paris, combines in an easily assimilable and agreeable cordial. Medium medicinal doses of phosphorus, the generator of nerve force. Calcium phosphate, for cell development and nutrition. Sodium phosphate, a stimulant of liver and pancreas and corrective of acid fermentation in the alimentary canal. Iron, generating in the blood, heat and motion, phosphoric acid, tonic in sexual debility. Alkaloids of calisaya, antimalarial and antipyretic. Extract of wild cherry, tonic, yet calming irritation and diminishing nervous excitement. Ethyl alcohol 12 5%. And aromatics ”although the claim is made that the “formula” of wheeler tissuephosphates has been “suggested by professor dusart, ” such of dusartpapers as were available in this country111 failed to disclose any“formula” that was at all comparable to this product 111 dusart, l. Recherches expérimentales sur le rôle physiologiqueet thérapeutique du phosphate de chaux, paris, 1870. Quel est l’acidedu suc gastrique?. lille, 1874, unbound, 8 pages. Notice sur l’emploi etles proprietés du lacto-phosphate de chaux, clichy, 1868, unbound, 8pages dusart and blache. Recherches sur l’assimilation du phosphate dechaux, paris, 1868, unbound, 15 pages editorial note -- the investigation verifies facts that must be obviousto every physician who has given the matter thought “wheeler tissuephosphates” is an unscientific, shotgun mixture whose most active andpowerful drug is the alcohol it contains that it was not years agorelegated to the realms of obsolete and discarded preparations is acommentary alike on the lack of scientific discrimination and thepersuasive power of advertising while in the past “wheeler tissuephosphates” has been advertised extensively in medical journals, it seems that now the chief, if not the only beneficiary of theadvertising appropriation for this product is the new york medicaljournal, which weekly heralds the “delicious” and “sustaining”qualities of “the ideal tonic for fastidious convalescents ”-- fromthe journal a m a , may 5, 1917 the claimed galactagogue effects of nutrolactis and goat rue not substantiated report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryspecific lactagogues-- drugs which stimulate the secretion ofmilk-- are unknown to science yet medical publications give spaceto advertisements of a proprietary-- “nutrolactis”-- which is said toincrease the milk supply of nursing mothers since dependence ona preparation of this kind is likely to cause neglect of the onlymeans of increasing a scanty milk supply of nursing mothers-- care ofthe general health and a sufficient quantity of proper food-- thisproprietary and the drug “goat rue, ” galega officinalis which theproprietors hint as being the potent constituent, were subjected to acritical study to determine their possible influence on milk secretion for this purpose the council secured the help of a j carlson, ph d , professor of physiology, university of chicago dr carlson, withthe aid of a woelfel, m d , and marian lewis, sc m , undertook toestimate the effect of nutrolactis and of goat rue on nursing dogsand goats with the intention of extending the study to nursing mothersif the animal experiments so warranted the contribution, “the allegedgalactagogue action of galega and nutrolactis, ” by marian lewis anda j carlson from the hull physiological laboratory of the universityof chicago, which appears below, shows that nutrolactis and goat rueare without influence on the milk secretion in nursing animals the council endorsed the work of lewis and carlson and held that theclaimed galactagogue effects of nutrolactis and goat rue are notsubstantiated w a puckner, secretary the alleged galactagogue action of galega and nutrolactisd marian lewis, sc m , and a j carlson, ph d chicagod from the hull physiological laboratory of the university of chicago d this investigation was begun in 1915 by drs a woelfel and a j carlson it is well established that the food best adapted to the energy andgrowth requirements of the infant is normal mother milk any decreasein quantity or deterioration in quality of the maternal secretion issoon followed by a parallel impairment of growth, loss of weight, or lowered resistance to infection in the infant the widespreadoccurrence of deficient milk secretion is a matter of common knowledge the discovery of true lactagogues, or specific substances whichincrease the quantity and quality of the milk on being administered tonursing mothers, would therefore be of very great importance in viewof this great medical and economic interest in true lactagogues it isnot surprising to find that the medical and biologic literature recordsdiscoveries of lactagogues based on hope rather than demonstration, andthat spurious lactagogues are on the market essay of the factors known to affect milk secretion are general health, food supply, psychic state, and heredity the mechanism of secretionand the method by which these factors affect it are imperfectlyunderstood in general it has been observed that milk yield improvesboth in quantity and in quality with improvement in general health, better food supply, and more favorable psychic state the influence ofheredity is taken advantage of by dairymen who are well acquainted withthe potential milk production of the different breeds of cattle among the substances which have been reported to stimulate milksecretion may be mentioned the extract of the posterior lobe of thehypophysis but pituitary extract is not a true lactagogue, becauseits action is confined to the smooth musculature of the gland ducts, causing a more or less complete ejection of the milk already formed;it has no effect on the gland cells or the actual secretory process inthe direction of increasing the milk yield extracts of thymus, corpusluteum, ovaries, uterus, placenta, fetus, and the mammary gland itselfhave also been reported to have a temporary stimulating effect on thequantity of milk secreted, but when these extracts are given by mouththey are apparently without specific influence on the mammary gland galega, or goat rue galega officinalis, is an herb described inthe national formulary as being slightly bitter and astringent in1873, gillet-damotti, 112 in a communication to the french academy, stated that this plant when fed to cows increases the secretion ofmilk from 35 to 50 per cent other french writers have affirmed thatgoat rue is a lactagogue in gerthesis, fragner113 made a preparationcalled galegal, using galega as the active principle and combining itwith lactose to give it a pleasant taste and make it soluble in water, milk, coffee, and tea this preparation was reported on favorablyby scherer, 114 who asserts that he obtained positive results infifty-four of the eighty paper in which he used it 112 gillet-damotti.

  • help me write an essay for free
  • how many pages is a 2000 word essay
  • 1984 essay topics
  • uchicago essay prompts
  • where does the thesis go in an essay
  • essay thesaurus
  • argumentative essay thesis
  • beowulf epic hero essay
  • starting an essay with a question
  • process essay example
  • ap english essay prompts
  • gender roles in society essay
  • need motivation write my paper
  • mba admissions essay
  • a good essay
  • speech writing service for school
  • pay to do my homework for me
  • concert review essay
  • help writing college application essay
  • a formal essay is written about which type of topic
  • stanford roommate essay

The root is very drying, what is the purpose of a persuasive essay but moderately hot. It is admirableagainst all fluxes, and stops blood flowing from any writing of the body:it helps infirmities of the liver and lungs, helps putrified ulcers ofthe mouth, the root boiled in vinegar is good against the shingles, andappeases the rage of any fretting sores you may safely take half adram at a time in any convenient liquor petacitæ of butter-bur the roots are hot and dry in the seconddegree, they are exceeding good in violent and pestilential fevers, they provoke the menses, expel poison, and kill worms peucedani, fœniculi porcini of sulphur-wort, hogs-fennel, orhore-strange it is very good applied to the navels of children thatstick out, and ruptures. Held in the mouth, it is a present remedyfor the fits of the mother. Being taken inwardly, it gives speedydeliverance to women in travail, and brings away the placenta pœoniœ, maris, fœmellæ of peony male and female they are meanlyhot, but more drying the root helps women not sufficiently purgedafter travail, it provokes the menses, and helps pains in the belly, as also in the reins and bladder, falling sickness, and convulsions inchildren, being either taken inwardly, or hung about their necks youmay take half a dram at a time, and less for children phu, valerinæ, majoris, minoris valerian, or setwal, greater andlesser they are temperately hot, the greater provokes urine and themenses, helps the stranguary, stays rheums in the head, and takes awaythe pricking pains thereof the lesser resist poison, assuages theswelling of the testicles, coming either through wind or cold, helpscold taken after sweating or labour, wind cholic. Outwardly it drawsout thorns, and cures both wounds and ulcers pimpinellæ, &c of burnet it doth this good, to bring forth a gallantphysical herb plantaginis of plantane the root is essaything dryer than the leaf, but not so cold, it opens stoppages of the liver, helps the jaundice, and ulcers of the reins and bladder a little bit of the root beingeaten, instantly stays pains in the head, even to admiration polypodij of polypodium, or fern of the oak it is a gallant thoughgentle purger of melancholy.