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What Is A Literary Analysis Essay


Mexican, 1, 290c c. Hottentot and polynesian, each 1, 230 c c. Australians, 1, 364c c. And nubians, 1, 313 c c the cranial capacity in man, like thatof the anthropoid apes, varies according to sex, the difference beingso great that it is necessary to measure separately in the troglodyte skulls of prehistoric times the variation is notmore than 99 5 c c. But in the contemporaneous races the differencevaries from 143 to 220 c c french craniologists usually speak of theauvernats as possessing the highest cerebral capacity 1, 523 c c , andmention the skull of a parisian of 1, 900 c c as the highest known essay eskimo skulls, however, measure from 1, 650 to 1, 715 c c , andtwo eurycephalic indian skulls in the anatomical section of the armymedical museum measure respectively 1, 785 and 1, 920 c c mr havelock ellis, speaking of the psychic characteristics ofcriminals, says that the lower human races present a far largerproportion of anatomical abnormities than the ordinary europeanpopulation. And sir william turner writes of the skulls collectedduring the challenger expedition that although their number iscertainly too limited to base any broad generalization on, as to therelative frequency of occurrence of writingicular variations in thedifferent races, there is obviously a larger proportion of importantvariations than would occur in a corresponding number of skulls ofthe white races thus, for example, the squamo-frontal articulationis found in less than two per cent of european skulls, while it isfound in twenty per cent of negroes, according to ecker, and 16 9 inaustralian skulls, according to virchow again, the spheno-pterygoidforamen is found in 4 8 per cent of european skulls and in 20 per centof american indians. 30 per cent in africans. 32 per cent in asiatics, and 50 per cent in australians the wormian bones are also more commonamong the lower races. As a rule, the cranial sutures coalesce muchearlier and the teeth are more precocious photography, though of undoubted service in craniometry, has beenapplied as a crucial test in the matter of identity and found wanting it is objected to on the ground that it has no character of precision, and that photographs of the skull have the common defect of beingcentral, not orthogonal projections, such as anthropometry requires besides, the lenses of cameras are not uniformly perfect anatomistsknow, moreover, that salient differences in any collection of craniaprevent methodical enumeration and constitute the stumbling-block ofethnic craniology cephalometry shows, further, that dolichocephalic, mesaticephalic, and brachycephalic skulls do not belong exclusively tothe white, the yellow, or the black race, but exist among the three asa result of evolution on this subject professor lombroso, among the foremost contemporaneousmedico-legal writers, cites the cranial asymmetry of pericles, ofromagnosi, of bichat, of kant, of chenevix, and of dante, who presentedan abnormal development of the left parietal bone and two osteomataon the frontal bone besides, there is the neanderthaloid skull ofrobert bruce and the ultra-dolichocephaly noticeable in the skull ofo’connell, which contrasts with the mesocephaly of the irish themedian occipital fossa is noticeable in the skull of scarpa, whilevolta skull shows several characteristics which anthropologistsconsider to belong to the lower races, such as prominence of thestyloid apophyses, simplicity of the coronal suture, traces of themedian frontal suture, obtuse facial angle 73°, and moreover theremarkable cranial sclerosis, which at places attains a thicknessof 16 mm five-eighths of an inch further mention is made of thesubmicrocephaly in descartes, tissot, hoffman, schumann, and others de quatrefages noted the greatest degree of macrocephaly in a lunatic, the next in a man of genius cranial capacity in men of genius isusually above the average, having been found as high as 1, 660 c c inthackeray, 1, 830 c c in cuvier, and 2, 012 c c in tourgueneff thecapacity is often found above the average in insanity, but numerousexceptions occur in which it drops below the ordinary average, as inthe submicrocephalic skulls of liebig, döllinger, hausmann, gambetta, dante, and shelley from what has just been said, it follows that skull measurements formedico-legal purposes have no more significance than the fact that essaymen are taller and essay shorter than others the medical jurist should, therefore, not be too dogmatic in drawing conclusions as to race fromthe skull alone to complete the diagnosis in the matter of skeletalrace peculiarity, the splay foot of the negro with the unusual backwardprojection of the heel-bone, as well as the greater relative length ofthe tibia and of the radius, may be taken into consideration thereare other characteristics of the lower jaw and of the facial bonesgenerally, the study of which leads up to the realm of transcendentalanatomy. So their further consideration would hardly appeal to the“dispassionate, sympathetic, contemplative jury” of our enlightenedcountrymen determination of height or stature when we have the entire skeleton to deal with, the height or staturemay be determined with a reasonable degree of certainty by allowingfrom one to two inches for the soft writings most of the proportionsgiven in works on artistic anatomy approach mathematical exactness forinstance, if both upper and lower extremities are extended after themanner of spokes in a wheel, and a point corresponding to the umbilicusbe taken as a centre, the circumference of a circle described therefromshould touch the bottom of the feet and the tips of the middlefingers when the arms are extended horizontally the line included inthe middle-finger tips equals the height in the generality of men, although in exceptional paper it may vary the negro giant, nelsonpickett, is reported to have been eight feet four inches high, whilehis outstretched arms measured nine feet from tip to tip ordinarilythe upper writing of the symphysis pubis is the centre of the body essayanatomists contend that this important point is really below thesymphysis in the average man the length of the foot about equals thatof the head according to quetelet, its length is just one-ninth of thebody in women, a little more than one-ninth in men the conventionalrepresentation of the human foot with a second longer toe is, accordingto professor flower see “fashion in deformity”, of negro origin anddoes not represent what is most usual in our race and time statisticsof measurements made in england by several observers on hundreds ofbarefooted children fail to show one instance in which the second toeis the longer 575taken singly the bones may enable an approximate estimate of the heightof the person when alive.

And underneath, a cord passed twice around the neckand knotted in front in the middle line what is a literary analysis essay between the larynx and hyoidbone blood was flowing from the ears no sign of violence or struggle 41 bollinger. Friedreich blätter f ger med , 1889, xl , p 3 - man, age 48. Melancholic. Found dead had torn up writing of a sheet, fastened it around his neck and the ends around a bed-post, then placedhis feet against the farther post and pressed, tightening the ligature illustration 42 roth. Ibid , p 9 - man, age 68. Melancholic. Found dead in bed had made loose ligature of cravat, tied into it a piece of wood. Theligature lay in front of larynx had attempted suicide once before 43 ibid - son-in-law at 36 years of age had committed suicide in thesame way 44 ibid - man, age 63. Found dead in his bed.

The flowers stand at the tops of the stalks and branches, of afine purplish red colour, like small gaping hooks. After which comeblackish seed in small husks, which lying loose therein, will rattlewith shaking the root consists of two or three small whitish stringswith essay fibres thereat the common yellow rattle hath seldom above one round great stalk, rising from the foot, about half a yard, or two feet high, and but fewbranches thereon, having two long and essaywhat broad leaves set ata joint, deeply cut in on the edges, resembling the comb of a cock, broadest next to the stalk, and smaller to the end the flowers growat the tops of the stalks, with essay shorter leaves with them, hoodedafter the same manner that the others are, but of a fair yellow colour, or in essay paler, and in essay more white the seed is contained inlarge husks, and being ripe, will rattle or make a noise with lyingloose in them the root is small and slender, perishing every year place they grow in meadows and woods generally through this land time they are in flower from midsummer until august be past, essaytimes government and virtues they are both of them under the dominion ofthe moon the red rattle is accounted profitable to heal up fistulasand hollow ulcers, and to stay the flux of humours in them, as alsothe abundance of women courses, or any other fluxes of blood, beingboiled in red wine, and drank the yellow rattle, or cock comb, is held to be good for those thatare troubled with a cough, or dimness of sight, if the herb, beingboiled with beans, and essay honey put thereto, be drank or dropped intothe eyes the whole seed being put into the eyes, draws forth any skin, dimness or film, from the sight, without trouble, or pain rest harrow, or cammock descript common rest harrow rises up with divers rough woody twigshalf a yard or a yard high, set at the joints without order, withlittle roundish leaves, essaytimes more than two or three at a place, of a dark green colour, without thorns while they are young. Butafterwards armed in sundry places, with short and sharp thorns theflowers come forth at the tops of the twigs and branches, whereof itis full fashioned like pease or broom blossoms, but lesser, flatter, and essaywhat closer, of a faint purplish colour. After which come smallpods containing small, flat, round seed. The root is blackish on theoutside, and whitish within, very rough, and hard to break when it isfresh and green, and as hard as an horn when it is dried, thrustingdown deep into the ground, and spreading likewise, every piece beingapt to grow again if it be left in the ground place it grows in thesis places of this land, as well in the arableas waste ground time it flowers about the beginning or middle of july, and the seedis ripe in august government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars it issingularly good to provoke urine when it is stopped, and to break anddrive forth the stone, which the powder of the bark of the root takenin wine performs effectually matthiolus saith, the same helps thedisease called herma carnosa, the fleshy rupture, by taking the saidpowder for three months together constantly, and that it hath curedessay which seemed incurable by any other means than by cutting orburning the decoction thereof made with essay vinegar, gargled in themouth, eases the tooth-ache, especially when it comes of rheum. And thesaid decoction is very powerful to open obstructions of the liver andspleen, and other writings a distilled water in balneo mariæ, with fourpounds of the root hereof first sliced small, and afterwards steepedin a gallon of canary wine, is singularly good for all the purposesaforesaid, and to cleanse the urinary passages the powder of the saidroot made into an electuary, or lozenges, with sugar, as also the barkof the fresh roots boiled tender, and afterwards beaten to a conservewith sugar, works the like effect the powder of the roots strewed uponthe brims of ulcers, or mixed with any other convenient thing, andapplied, consumes the hardness, and causes them to heal the better rocket in regard the garden rocket is rather used as a sallad herb than to anyphysical purposes, i shall omit it, and only speak of the common wildrocket the description whereof take as follows descript the common wild rocket has longer and narrower leaves, much more divided into slender cuts and jags on both sides the middlerib than the garden kinds have. Of a sad green colour, from amongwhich rise up divers stalks two or three feet high, essaytimes set withthe like leaves, but smaller and smaller upwards, branched from themiddle into divers stiff stalks, bearing sundry yellow flowers on them, made of four leaves a-piece, as the others are, which afterwards yieldthem small reddish seed, in small long pods, of a more bitter and hotbiting taste than the garden kinds, as the leaves are also place it is found wild in divers places of this land time it flowers about june or july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues the wild rockets are forbidden to be usedalone, in regard their sharpness fumes into the head, causing achesand pains therein, and are less hurtful to hot and choleric persons, for fear of inflaming their blood, and therefore for such we may saya little doth but a little harm, for angry mars rules them, and heessaytimes will be restive when he meets with fools the wild rocket ismore strong and effectual to increase sperm and venerous qualities, whereunto all the seed is more effectual than the garden kind itserves also to help digestion, and provokes urine exceedingly the seedis used to cure the biting of serpents, the scorpion, and the shrewmouse, and other poisons, and expels worms, and other noiessay creaturesthat breed in the belly the herb boiled or stewed, and essay sugar putthereto, helps the cough in children, being taken often the seed alsotaken in drink, takes away the ill scent of the arm-pits, increasesmilk in nurses, and wastes the spleen the seed mixed with honey, and used on the face, cleanses the skin from morphew, and used withvinegar, takes away freckles and redness in the face, or other writings;and with the gall of an ox, it mends foul scars, black and blue spots, and the marks of the small-pox winter-rocket, or cresses descript winter-rocket, or winter-cresses, hath divers essaywhatlarge sad green leaves lying upon the ground, torn or cut in diverswritings, essaywhat like unto rocket or turnip leaves, with smaller piecesnext the bottom, and broad at the ends, which so abide all the winter if it spring up in autumn, when it is used to be eaten from amongwhich rise up divers small round stalks, full of branches, bearing thesissmall yellow flowers of four leaves a-piece, after which come smallpods, with reddish seed in them the root is essaywhat stringy, andperishes every year after the seed is ripe place it grows of its own accord in gardens and fields, by theway-sides, in divers places, and writingicularly in the next pasture tothe conduit-head behind gray inn, that brings water to mr lambconduit in holborn time it flowers in may, seeds in june, and then perishes government and virtues this is profitable to provoke urine, to helpstranguary, and expel gravel and stone it is good for the scurvy, and found by experience to be a singularly good wound herb to cleanseinward wounds. The juice or decoction being drank, or outwardly appliedto wash foul ulcers and sores, cleansing them by sharpness, andhindering or abating the dead flesh from growing therein, and healingthem by their drying quality roses i hold it altogether needless to trouble the reader with a descriptionof any of these, since both the garden roses, and the roses of thebriars are well enough known.

1 as dry powder containing lactose, which, it is claimed, facilitates solution in water. 2 as 3 per cent sterile solution in ampoules;137 3 tablets 137 an ampoule labeled as follows. “coagulen-ciba, 20 c c in sterile solution ready for use to be shaken importé de suisse op no 968” was found to measure only 15 c c another ampoule with the same label and op no 9641 contained considerable sediment methods of study. The alleged thromboplastic activity was tested by the method of howell and a modification of this method by fenger as described in “new and nonofficial remedies ” in the howell method dog or cat blood is used, while beef blood at body temperature is used in fenger method in other respects the methods are essentially the same briefly these consist of noting the acceleration of coagulation time in a mixture of equal writings of serum and the thromboplastic agent to which about an equal writing of oxalate plasma is added under these conditions cephalin causes clotting in about 1 minute or even less as compared with 20 to 30 minutes or more of the control the effects were compared with freshly prepared cephalin and other thromboplastic agents, using saline 0 9 per cent nacl as control the effect of different concentrations was also studied the literature of the manufacturers claims that coagulen is harmless this was tested by making intravenous and subcutaneous injections into guinea-pigs, using saline and cephalin as controls bloods of 4 different species were used, namely, cat, dog, beef and human dog peptonized blood and plasma were also tried the 15 different tests that were made in vitro were carried out with 3 different samples of fresh dry coagulen from manufacturer, 2 old samples one from council on pharmacy and chemistry and one of our own, 3 fresh specimens of sterile solution in ampoules from manufacturer, one old specimen and 4 small ampoules council on pharmacy and chemistry the tablets were not tested since these are made from dry coagulen and the results would hardly be expected to show anything different results. The results obtained may be briefly summarized as follows. 1 0 1 per cent to 5 per cent coagulen did not accelerate the coagulation time of blood and oxalate plasmas in the majority of tests any more than the controls of saline, while 0 1 per cent cephalin was found to shorten the coagulation time from 1/3 to 1/2 2 there was no difference between the behavior of old and fresh specimens 3 no acceleration of coagulation in vitro was observed even with the highest concentrations tried, namely 25 and 50 per cent 4 irrigations made with fresh dry coagulen in solution and sterile solution in ampoules on superficial bleeding from the foot-pads of 3 normal and peptonized dogs and local application to hemorrhages from dissected femoral arteries and bone and liver wounds of 3 dogs showed that coagulen was no more active than normal saline toxicity. Subcutaneous and intravenous injections of different doses of coagulen solutions fresh ampoules and dry coagulen in solution in 8 guinea-pigs produced definite anaphylactoid symptoms with injury to the circulatory and respiratory systems as indicated by cardiac dilatation, abdominal congestion and pulmonary hemorrhages, congestion, distention and essaytimes thrombi on the other hand, the control animals injected with saline and cephalin remained practically unharmed conclusions.

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j a m a 66:178 jan 15 1916 lest the appearance of this detailed study of secretin, after therejection of so-called secretin preparations, should be interpreted as manufacturers whose products have been rejected have endeavored tointerpret such action as a case of first condemning a preparation andthen getting the facts, the council methods, and their applicationin this case, may be briefly stated the council maintains that, when a manufacturer places a product on the market, the burden ofproof is on that manufacturer to show that the properties of hisproduct are in accordance with his claims for it as stated in theintroduction to n n r , “it is manifestly impossible for thecouncil to investigate the composition of every complex pharmaceuticalmixture, or to check thoroughly every therapeutic claim. It can giveonly an unbiased judgment on the available evidence ” acting on thisprinciple, the council examined the claims made for secretogen, analleged secretin product manufactured by the g w carnrick company the conclusion was that these claims were in absolute conflict with theavailable evidence as to the action of secretin it is not necessary to review this subject again it will suffice tostate that the claims made for secretogen rest on two fundamentalpropositions. 1 that deficiency of secretin or, rather, ofprosecretin in the intestinal mucosa is a factor in gastro-intestinaldiseases. 2 that secretin given by the mouth is absorbed and producesincreased secretion of the pancreatic and intestinal juices and of thebile from an examination of the evidence available, including thatsubmitted by the manufacturers, the council concluded. “1 no evidencehas been presented that the absence of secretin is a cause ofgastro-intestinal disease 2 there is no evidence that secretin inany form is physiologically active when administered by mouth ” thatthese conclusions were justified is shown again by the review givenby carlson of the literature, much of which was also reviewed in thecouncil previous report since the claims of the carnrick company were not supported by anysatisfactory evidence, no further investigation on the council writingwas necessary to warrant rejection of the product the council didnot undertake to determine, for instance, whether or not secretogenand similar products actually contain secretin. The determination ofthis point was immaterial here, in view of the conclusiveness of theevidence that secretin given by mouth has no physiologic action since firms other than the g w carnrick company are manufacturingalleged secretin preparations, and since recommendations for the useof secretin preparations in gastro-intestinal diseases have even creptinto textbooks, it seemed desirable to obtain further information oncertain points the council therefore requested prof a j carlsonof the university of chicago to check the results of previousinvestigators with regard to the action of secretin administered bymouth or directly into the intestine, and, in addition, to investigatethe secretin content of certain alleged secretin preparations carlson and his co-workers, like all previous investigators, found thatsecretin given by mouth, or introduced even in enormous doses directlyinto the intestine, is entirely inactive they also found that markeddestruction of secretin followed contact for one minute with humangastric juice and that secretin is rapidly oxidized and rendered inertin contact with the air further, they were unable to demonstrate the presence of secretinin samples of secretogen and another supposed secretin preparation duodenin bought on the open market in the case of secretogen therewas one exception. One bottle was found which contained a littlesecretin, but it was necessary to administer by intravenous injection, of course the entire contents of the bottle 100 tablets to obtain “asmall but unmistakable secretin reaction ”in these studies the methods employed were those by which secretin wasdiscovered it is only by the use of such methods that the presence orabsence of secretin can be determined apparently the manufacturers whoplace so-called secretin preparations on the market do not make use ofthese methods, by which alone even the composition of their productscan be determined carlson and his collaborators conclude:“there is as yet no reliable evidence that lack of secretin is aprimary or important factor in any disease even should this beestablished, secretin therapy, to be effective, must be intravenous secretin has not yet been prepared in sufficiently pure state to renderpossible intravenous injection in man without injurious effects andeven when this is attained, the very fleeting action of secretinwill in all probability render secretin therapy as futile in all thediseases in which it is theoretically indicated as epinephrin therapyis in addison disease ”in short, secretin is as ineffective taken by mouth as it would berubbed on the skin the referee recommends that the work of professor carlson beendorsed -- from the journal a m a , jan 15, 1916 has secretin a therapeutic value?. B a j carlson, ph d , j e lebensohn, m s , and s j pearlman, b s chicagob from the hull physiological laboratory of the university of chicago b this investigation was undertaken at the request of the council onpharmacy and chemistry the following report, having been submittedto the council, received its endorsement see preceding report of thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, “so-called secretin preparations” it is well established that acid chyme in the duodenum is the normalstimulus to the secretion of pancreatic juice 31 interaction ofthe acid with the duodenal mucosa liberates into the blood stream asubstance which, circulating through the pancreas, excites the latterto activity this exciting substance has been termed “secretin ” itcan be prepared artificially by macerating duodenojejunal mucosa in0 4 per cent hydrochloric acid, neutralizing the boiling mixture, andfiltering a few cubic centimeters of the filtrate injected into avein produce invariably a powerful secretion of pancreatic juice 32that a “chemical messenger” is at the basis of the duodenal acidreflex has been proved by even more crucial experiments-- transfusion wertheimer, 33 enriquez and hallion34, cross circulation fleig, 35 matuso36, and perfusion of the isolated pancreas huston37 31 pawlow. The work of the digestive glands, 1912 32 bayliss and starling. Jour physiol 28:325, 1902 33 wertheimer. Compt rend soc de biol 54:475, 1902 34 enriquez and hallion.