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What Does Expository Essay Mean


Takeof bread twice baked, steeped in wine and dried, two ounces, mastich anounce, frankincense wormwood, red roses, spikenard, of each two dramsand an half, wood of aloes, mace, myrrh, washed aloes, acacia, trochesof gallia moschata, and earth of lemnos, calamus aromaticus, of eachone dram, labdanum three ounces, mix them and make them into a plaisteraccording to art culpeper it strengthens the stomach and liver exceedingly, helpsfluxes, apply it to the places grieved diaphœnicon cold college take of wax four ounces, ship pitch five ounces, labdanumthree ounces and an half, turpentine an ounce and an half, oil of rosesone ounce, melt these, and add pulp of dates almost ripe, boiled inaustere wine four ounces, flesh of quinces in like manner boiled, breadtwice baked often steeped in red wine and dried, of each an ounce, styrax calamitis, acacia, unripe grapes, balaustines, yellow sanders, troches of terra lemnia, myrrh, wood of aloes, of each half an ounce, mastich, red roses, of each an ounce and an half, austere wine asmuch as is sufficient to dissolve the juices, make it into a plaisteraccording to art culpeper it strengthens the belly and liver, helps concoction inthose writings, and distribution of humours, stays vomiting and fluxes emplastrum divinum or, a divine plaster college take of loadstone four ounces, ammoniacum three ounces andthree drams, bdellium two ounces, galbanum, myrrh, of each ten drams, olibanum nine drams, opopanax, mastich, long birthwort, verdigris, of each an ounce, litharge, common oil, of each a pound and an half, new wax eight ounces. Let the litharge in fine powder be boiled withthe oil to a thickness, then add the wax, which being melted, take itfrom the fire, add the gums dissolved in wine and vinegar, strain it, then add the myrrh, mastich, frankincense, birthwort, and loadstone inpowder, last of all the verdigris in powder, and make it into a plasteraccording to art culpeper it is of a cleansing nature, exceeding good againstmalignant ulcers, it consumes corruption, engenders new flesh, andbrings them to a scar emplastrum epispasticum college take of mustard seed, euphorbium, long pepper, of each onedram and an half, stavesacre, pellitory of spain of each two drams, ammoniacum, galbanum, phellium, sagapen, of each three drams, wholecantharides five drams, ship pitch, rozin, yellow wax, of each sixdrams, turpentine as much as is sufficient to make it into a plaster culpeper thesis people use to draw blisters in their necks for thetooth ache, or for rheums in their eyes. If they please to lay aplaster of this there, it will do it emplastrum a nostratibus, flos unguentorum dictum or, flower of ointments college take of rozin, per rozin, yellow wax, sheep suet, of eachhalf a pound, olibanum four ounces, turpentine two ounces and an half, myrrh, mastich, of each an ounce, camphire two drams, white wine half apound, boil them into a plaster culpeper i found this receipt in an old manuscript written in theyear 1513, the quantity of the ingredients very little altered a plaster of gum elemi college take of gum elemi three ounces, per rozin, wax, ammoniacum, of each two ounces, turpentine three ounces and an half, mallaga wineso much as is sufficient. Boil it to the consumption of the wine, thenadd the ammoniacum dissolved in vinegar culpeper the operation is the same with arceus liniment a plaister of lapis calaminaris college take of lapis calaminaris prepared an ounce, litharge twoounces, ceruss half an ounce, tutty a dram, turpentine six drams, whitewax an ounce and an half, stag suet two ounces, frankincense fivedrams, mastich three drams, myrrh two drams, camphire a dram and anhalf, make it up according to art emplastrum ad herniam college take of galls, cypress nuts, pomegranate pills, balaustines, acacia, the seeds of plantain, fleawort, water-cresses, acorn cups, beans torrified, birth-wort long and round, myrtles of eachhalf an ounce let these be powdered, and steeped in rose vinegar fourdays, then torrified and dried, then take of comfrey the greater andlesser, horsetail, woad, cetrach, the roots of osmond royal, fearn, ofeach an ounce, frankincense, myrrh, aloes, mastich, mummy, of each twoounces, bole-ammoniac washed in vinegar, lap, calaminaris prepared, litharge of gold, dragon blood, of each three ounces, ship pitch twopounds, turpentine six ounces, or as much as is sufficient to make itinto a plaster according to art culpeper the plaster is very binding and knitting, appropriated toruptures or burstens, as the title of it specifies, it strengthens thereins and womb, stays abortion, it consolidates wounds, and helps alldiseases coming of cold and moisture emplastrum hystericum college take of bistort roots one pound, wood of aloes, yellowsanders, nutmegs, barberry kernels, rose seeds, of each one ounce, cinnamon, cloves, squinanth, chamomel flowers, of each half an ounce, frankincense, mastich, alipta moschata, gallia moschata, styraxcalamitis, of each one dram, mosch half a dram, yellow wax one poundand an half, turpentine half a pound, moschæleum four ounces, labdanumfour pounds, ship pitch three pounds. Let the labdanum and turpentinebe added to the pitch and wax, being melted, then the styrax, lastlythe rest in powder, and sifted, that they may be made into a plasteraccording to art culpeper the plaster being applied to the navel, is a means towithstand the fits of the mother in such women as are subject to them, by retaining the womb in its place emplastrum de mastich or, a plaster of mastich college take of mastich three ounces, bole-ammoniac washed in blackwine, an ounce and an half, red roses six drams, ivory, myrtle berries, red coral, of each half an ounce, turpentine, colophonia, tachamahacca, labdanum, of each two ounces, yellow wax half a pound, oil of myrtlesfour ounces.

Reduced facsimile of the letter-heads of an institutionknown variously as the “american hospital” and the “german hospital ”the change in name from “american” to “german” seems to have takenplace early in 1915-- when things german were more popular andprofitable than they are today!. But to come back to the “society of medical democracy”. The “medicalsociety of the united states” seems to have been born in 1916 itsparents, so far as is apparent, seem to have been lanphear andohmann-dumesnil the latter, it may be remembered, used to be theeditor and proprietor of the st louis medical and surgical journal, a publication so obviously venal, that its value to the nostrum makers, whose interests it espoused, must have been small advertising pages, “original articles” and “editorials”-- all were used to puff nostrums ofthe crudest type it was ohmann-dumesnil and his journal that came tothe defense of the “patent medicine” interests when they were so hardhit by mr adam “great american fraud” series in commenting on thisphase of “patent medicine” activities, collier, in january, 1907, said. “headache powders came in for a considerable share of attention in the patent medicine articles there was much talk of libels among the headache powder makers, but they decided upon the safer methods of hiring a meretricious medical publication, the st louis medical and surgical journal, to print an article in which the collier statements were branded as lies, and the collier editors and writers as liars and libelers this article the proprietary association of america circulated in pamphlet form the journal which printed it died a natural death a few weeks later its editor, one a h ohmann-dumesnil, has just appeared in the public prints in an unsavory connection with a corrupt lobbying project in st louis ”essay of the nostrums that ohmann-dumesnil has recommended are:“sanmetto, ” “gonosan, ” “cactina pillets, ” “pepto-mangan, ” “satyria, ”“campho-phenique, ” “tongaline, ” “germiletum, ” “narkogen, ” “nosophen, ”“mercauro, ” “arsenauro, ” and “hydrozone ” thesis of these testimonialswere, of course, used by the manufacturers in their advertising“literature ”at the time that the medical society of the united states was beingorganized-- in 1916-- there was published what purported to be apreliminary program of its first meeting the meeting was held in st louis, and the program, while containing the names of men with specialfads or interests to exploit, also contained the names of essay men ofstanding it appeared, however, on investigation, that at least essayof the latter had but a hazy conception of the use to which theirnames were being put, and protested vigorously on learning the facts, repudiating the organization illustration. Reduced facsimile of a letter sent out in 1912, soliciting the purchasing of stock in the “american hospital” on adivision of fee basis-- forty-sixty!. Now, in 1918, another drive is on for membership. Letters signed “emorylanphear” are being sent to various selected groups of physicians forexample, the eclectics are being coaxed by a letter which commences. “we want every reputable eclectic practitioner in this country to join our society of protest against the iniquities of the a m a ”an identical letter has been addressed to homeopaths, the words“homeopathic practitioner” being substituted for “eclecticpractitioners ” in all of the letters the “beautiful certificateof membership” is emphasized, and the trivial cost-- “only $1 00 ayear”-- is referred to, while the plea. “surely you are willing to helpto that amount to ‘down’ the ‘gang’ in charge of the a m a , ” isfeatured another group of letters has gone out to the graduates of thebarnes medical college this commences. “most graduates of ‘old barnes’ have joined our society of protest against the iniquities of the a m a why should you also not come in?. it costs only $1 00 to become a member, including the cost of a beautiful certificate of membership ”still another group appeal is based on sex. Thus lanphear. “we want every reputable ‘lady physician’ in this country to join our society of protest against the iniquities of the a m a ”and yet another. “you formerly belonged to the tri-state medical society, of which i was treasurer for 20 years it is now dead i wish you would join our new society which has superseded tri-state in this territory ”with these various letters is enclosed a “preliminary program” of the1918 meeting which is to be held october 8 and 9 in chicago as mightbe expected, thesis of the names on the program are characteristic of theorganization and an interesting “story” might be made from the materialin the journal files on the individuals such names are of men, who, professionally speaking, range from faddists, who ride grotesque andbizarre medical hobbies, to those who with special interests to exploitand unable to use reputable medical organizations for that purpose, take refuge in such hybrid conglomerations as the medical society ofthe united states not that the program contains the names of crudequacks, or obvious medical swindlers it is representative, rather, ofthat twilight zone of professionalism, the penumbra, in whose uncertainlight it is difficult to distinguish between the unbalanced visionary, with a fad, and the more sinister near-quack, with a “scheme ”-- fromthe journal a m a , oct 5, 1918 the national formulary-- a review of the fourth editionthe fourth edition of the national formulary appears simultaneouslywith the u s pharmacopeia ix, and is to become official at the sametime september 1 the principles which determine its scope, asfrankly set forth in the preface, are apparently the same as thoseapplied, though more faint-heartedly, in the compilation of thepharmacopeia a statement in the preface of the new national formularyruns.

This is said to be a preparation of colloidalmercury and would therefore be similar to electromercurol new andnonofficial what does expository essay mean remedies, 1919, p 167 colloidal mercury preparationshave been used to essay extent. They appear to have no decidedadvantage over other, noncolloidal, mercury compounds they differsufficiently from them, however, to justify acceptance for new andnonofficial remedies, providing that reasonable claims are made forthem the leaflet advertising collosol hydrargyrum contains statementsthat cannot be accepted and require thorough revision to make themacceptable the following are instances. “although-- especially locally-- the action of mercurials is markedly antiseptic, when taken internally or injected, it has been stated by essay of the best known authorities, that their action is rather to increase the natural resisting power of the body to disease, probably because of stimulation of the oxidases ” with the soluble mercurials “considerable upset of the normal cell conditions of the tissues ensues whilst these soluble salts are being converted to a condition in which the body can make use of them ” “the colloidal state is stated by essay authorities in the case of mercury to be invariably precedent to absorption with the usual forms of mercury the danger of too great a dose per cell is considerable, but in the case of colloidal mercury, the diffusion is extremely rapid and chemical affinity low hence the danger to the individual leucocyte is minimized and the maximum effect obtained ” “ absence of pain is usual in the administration of colloidal preparations and is due to their isomorphism with the colloidal lipoid and protein of the tissues and body fluids ” “according to mcdonagh, mercury acts as an oxidizing agent and that the process of oxidation is more effective in the early stages of syphilis in producing the death of the causal organism ”collosol manganese. The circular submitted to the referee isa reprint of a paper by sir malcolm morris on “the treatment offurunculosis and other deep-seated coccogenic infections by collosolmanganese ” it reports four paper of furunculosis, each of whichcleared up after the intramuscular injection of a few doses of collosolmanganese the author seems to attribute the cure to the manganesebut the evidence is not convincing even the author admits that, inthe treatment of furunculosis in general “when at last the dismalprocession ends, this often appears to be less the result of treatmentthan because the disease has run its natural course ” unless muchbetter evidence is in existence, the preparation must be consideredto conflict with rule 6, which requires therapeutic claims to besubstantiated collosol argentum. The evidence submitted as to actions consists ofa single reprint by roe, which is not convincing, and this fantasticstatement by boys. “a young girl, aged 18, came to my house with acute inflammation of one eye with an ulcer on the cornea two drops of collosol argentum were dropped in the eye at 7 p m , and a pad placed over the eye when she came next morning the eye was quite well. The ulcer had disappeared, and there was no inflammation ”there is no evidence that this preparation acts as catalyzer andassists the natural resisting bodies of the tissues. Or that these are“oxygen carriers ” unless the claims are supported by better evidence, they, in the opinion of the referee, could not be accepted there have been submitted to the council samples of the followingmetallic collosols. Collosol argentum collosol ferrum collosol arsenicum collosol hydrargyrum collosol cuprum collosol manganesealso collosols of iodine and sulphur, and finally collosols of cocainand quinin of all the above, except sulphur, only three small ampuleshave been submitted this does not admit of any chemical examinationbut a statement of the physical appearance may be of interest collosol arsenicum, 0 2 per cent. Very turbid with large quantitiesof a lemon yellow flocculent precipitate on shaking does not becomehomogeneous and rapidly separates again collosol argentum, 1-2000. The liquid has a slight opalescence thereis considerable deposit of a heavy black precipitate does not becomehomogeneous on shaking and the black substance quickly separates again collosol cuprum, 0 5 per cent. Dark red essaywhat opalescentliquid no precipitate may be colloidal collosol ferrum, 1-2000. Liquid clear large quantities of dark brownflocculent precipitate the precipitate is not distributed evenly whenthe mixture is shaken and settles out quickly on standing collosol hydrargyrum, 5 per cent. Milky liquid large quantities ofwhite deposit mixed with considerable black the deposit mixes fairlywell but the greater writing settles out after standing an hour or two collosol manganese, 2 5-1000.

But the prophet suggests in a differentmanner than does the professional exorcist ”besides these official christian exorcists, a great multitude of otherpersons carried on the trade of conjurer of demons the sorcerers andmagicians who plied their nefarious trade for the cure of the possessedand for those suffering from other diseases, worked with various kindsof mystic signs and ceremonies, and they certainly did an excellentbusiness, for he who humors the superstition and the stupidity what does expository essay mean of manalways prospers modern quackery illustrates this most strikingly but, besides these healers, there existed numerous other conjurers ofdemons and medical wonder-workers who plied their trade not for thesake of contemptible mammon, but solely for ethical reasons these werethe members of the various theosophico-philosophical sects, who wereactive during the first christian centuries and have been exhaustivelydescribed on the previous pages altho christians were eager to exalt their exorcists, who worked onlywith prayer and the invocation of christ, above all practises ofsorcery, they were not able, in the long run, to prevent christiandogmas from being confounded with and corrupted by those of philosophy under the influence of saturninus, basilides, and carpocrates, thevarious philosophical vagaries concerning accessory, intermediary, andinferior gods, and their influences upon the fate of man, corruptedthe pure and simple teachings of christ that error against which paulhad so impressively cautioned the early christian communities in hisepistle to the colossians, chapter ii , verse 8 “beware lest any manspoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition ofmen, after the rudiments of the world, and not after christ”, had, nevertheless, made its appearance at last, and the adulteration ofpure gospel by philosophical speculations and fantastic views began togrow more complete from the third century on this was the foundationof the religio-mystic system which, during the middle ages, and evenbeyond the period of the renaissance, oppressed humanity like asuffocating nightmare, and not only checked progress, but also filledeach branch of human knowledge with the most frightful superstition andthe crassest mysticism this was the case also in medicine. In fact, this branch of science has probably suffered most from the alliance ofchristianity with the fantastic doctrines of philosophical schools the ancient doctrine of demons passed under the influence of christianmysticism through certain changes and transitions, especially in itsrelation to the bodily condition of individuals the variations in thisdoctrine were naturally most plainly evidenced in the medical views ofthe day it was believed that every human being from birth was allotteda good and an evil demon the good spirit held his hand protectinglyover his human charge, whereas the evil demon only waited his chance toinflict injury upon man, forming especially the determining principlein the etiology of disease it is true, the evil spirits apparentlywere no longer allowed to have such full sway over the health ofhumanity as they formerly had god now utilized them principally asexecutors of punishments which he intended for mankind as a retributionfor various forms of delinquency thus the church father, anastasius sprengel, vol ii , page 210, tells us that the reason why so thesislepers and cripples were found among christians was that god, enragedat the luxury of the members of the community, had sent the evil demonof disease among them the wrath of god from that time until late inmodern times has been considered a fully efficacious principle ofpathology. In fact, there are numbers of people even to-day who believethat not natural, but supernatural and unearthly, factors are active inthe bodily ailments of mankind the idea of good and evil demons, however, now assumed a specificallychristian character which, it is true, greatly resembled the ancientbabylonian notion, excepting that the good demons were replaced byangels and saints, whereas the evil spirits were embodied in the devil both, saints as well as devils, were thenceforth destined to play awriting in the domain of medicine it is true, the general recognitionwhich they enjoyed during the middle ages and a considerable periodof modern times has probably now passed away, but there still existnumerous classes of our people in whom the medical rôle of saints aswell as devils is most willingly acknowledged we have referred elsewhere to the therapeutic accomplishments ofthe saints during the middle ages we will here only dwell upon theinfluence which the devil, the christian successor of the ancientevil spirit, has exerted upon the medical views of all classes of thepeople this influence was very great the devil and his subordinateinfernal spirits were considered the “disturbers of peace” in thehealth of humanity disease in its various forms was their work;they resolved to inflict it either from inherent villainy or asincited by various magical arts of evil men it was especially thelatter form of diabolical activity that, during the entire middleages and during a considerable writing of modern times, was acceptedas uncontestedly authentic, and the imagination of mankind at thatperiod was inexhaustible in inventing the greatest variety of infamousactions which the devil was able to perform either of his own accordor as summoned by incantations any one desiring to acquaint himselfthoroughly with these delusive ideas should read the work of the friarcæsarius, who lived about 1225, in the rhenish-cistercian monasteryof heisterbach naturally, we are only interested in the medical actswhich the devil was always ready to perform according to the historyof medical superstition, the devil, who was invoked by various spellsor appeared of his own volition, was able to influence each individualbodily organ in a manner most disagreeable to the possessor of thesame neither were the prince of hell and his hosts always satisfiedto tease and to plague an individual being, but very frequently theycarried on this business wholesale they threw themselves upon theentire population of a country, and caused sickness in all who crossedtheir path the great epidemic of st vitus dance of the fourteenthcentury, for instance, was considered to be the work of the devil, andthe clergy busied themselves in driving out this devil pest by meansof sprinkling holy water and by the utterance of conjuring formulas the sexual life of men as well as of women offered an especiallyfruitful field for the activity of the devil and of his infernalcompanions thus, it was a favorite trick of the ruler of hell and ofhis subordinate demons to assume the shape of the husband or loverof this or that female, and, under this mask, to assume rights whichshould be permitted only to the husband the infernal spirit thatplayed this rôle was called incubus thus, for instance, hinkmer tellsus of a nun who was mischievously claimed by such an infernal paramour, and who could be relieved of him only by priestly aid but hell alsocontained female constituents who played the same rôle for the maleas did incubus for women such a wanton woman of hell was calledstriga or lamia compare hansen, pages 14 and 72 these amorous femalefriends of hell did not even stop when they met eminent saints in theconvent of st benedetto, near the italian town of subiaco, a rose-bushis shown even to-day into which the naked st benedict threw himself inorder to resist the unholy temptation and every one is sufficientlyacquainted with the troubles which st anthony of padua had with theseinfernal women however, we physicians know well enough the causeof these temptations they may surely and actually have approachedthe nun of whom hinkmer reports, also st benedict and st anthony;however, they were not the devil prostitutes, but the expressions ofsuppressed and disregarded impulses of nature which, in the form ofvoluptuous imaginations, appeared before the eyes of persons removedfrom terrestrial gratifications. For nature does not even exempt asaint, and the ancient saying, “naturam expellas furc, tamen usquerecurret, ” applies to them as well as to any other mortal finally these liberties which the devil and his infernal host were saidto take as regards matters pertaining to love, assumed general andquite serious forms. In fact, they gave rise to delicately contrivedlegal questions namely, the idea had suggested itself that thedevil was able not only to call forth promiscuous love between menand women, but that essaytimes he derived a writingicular enjoyment if hecould manage to prevent a marriage that had already been consummatedby rendering the husband impotent maleficium was the technical termfor such an event, equally saddening to husband as to wife, and thetheologians, philosophers, and jurists of the middle ages have writtenthe most learned commentaries regarding the legal consequences of thisimpotentia ex maleficio it was disputed whether or not this form ofimpotence would constitute a legal cause for dissolution of marriagewhich, after all, was a divine institution. The reasons also why godpermitted the devil to play such a reprehensible game were investigatedin a most serious and profound manner any one interested in thisquestion of impotentia ex maleficio may read the most excellentdescription of this subject by hansen chapter iii this impotentia ex maleficio i e , one of the most extravagantoutgrowths of medical superstition occasionally also gave rise toscandalous lawsuits this was the case in the disgraceful divorce suitwhich took place about the year 860 between king lothaire ii and hisspouse teutberga lothaire was said to have lost his procreative powercompletely, owing to infernal artifices of his concubine, waldrada thereason why a concubine should undertake such a step, which, after all, was bound to discredit her title and office in the eyes of her lover, is not quite evident however, at that period it was not difficult tofind an explanation for this remarkable fact it was stated, e g , that waldrada was instigated to this act solely by jealousy andselfishness, in order to divorce the king from his consort this firststep once taken, the courtesan, by removing the spells cast by her, would take good care that the king should soon be delivered from theodious condition of impotence however, waldrada had reckoned withouther host i e , in this case, without hinkmar, archbishop of rheims;for this latter gentleman, exceedingly well versed in all mattersecclesiastic, politic, and diabolic, a genuine clerical fighting-cock, very soon closely investigated the impotence of his royal master inan extensive memorial he considered the royal impotence according toits legal, theologic, philosophic, moral, and various other aspects medical superstition, accordingly, had acquired such power that thesovereign of the holy roman and german empires had to submit hispotestas in venere to the test of public discussion but conditions were to become much worse when, about the thirteenthcentury, scholasticism had usurped full control of human reason, and all sciences were permitted to be pursued only in a scholasticsense, medicine was entirely divorced from the actual conditions oflife it was completely detached from nature, its great teacher, andirretrievably entangled in the subtleties of an uncertain philosophy its activity now depended exclusively upon the study of the ancients byno means, however, upon that study in which an attempt was made tomaster the intellectual spirit of ancient medicine, but which consistedin a slavish adherence to the letter every decision of the ancients, without any regard to nature, was made a dogma, and he was the bestphysician who was most familiar with these dogmas, who understoodbest how to interpret them most keenly mankind had entirely lost theconception that the ancients had attained worth and importance onlyin that they measured things by the standard of unbiased experience, and tested their conclusions according to the phenomena of nature asdescribed from accurate observation of the sick it is quite obvious that superstition met with a well-prepared soil ina system of medicine that was overburdened with dogmas and degradedinto utter subserviency to a vainglorious philosophy the naturalresult was that the medical art of a period of the middle ages, steepedin scholasticism, was nothing but a chaos of the most despicablesuperstition and folly the most shocking result of these conditionswas the belief in witches, and, with this, medical superstition enteredupon a new stage whereas until then it had possessed a restricted, mere local vitality, and entailed danger only upon those who, fromthoughtlessness, lent a willing ear to it, now it degenerated into amental epidemic which threatened equally all classes of the people the unspeakable misery which this variety of medical superstition hasbrought to the western world is well known, so that we may refrain fromentering into details, referring our readers to the excellent work ofhansen on this subject physico-medical thought was so thoroughly destroyed by theabove-described conditions that, even when humanity commenced toshake off the scholastic yoke, during the period of renaissance, medicine was only able, in writing, to follow this lead altho, under theinspiration of the ancients, it returned to nature, it was not able torid itself of the superstitious idea of the continuous interference ofsupernatural powers with the performance of the most common functionsof the body the church still persisted in the implicit belief in suchviews, and still dominated men minds so thoroughly that even thesisphysicians, who in other respects were entirely unbiased, remained onthis point dutiful children of the church. In fact, even those who werefully aware of the shortcomings of the christian church unhesitatinglyadhered to the belief in demons as developed from antique conceptionsby the church fathers thus, for instance, dr martin luther was astrict believer in the doctrine which taught men to hold the devilresponsible for the origin of all diseases he thus expressed himself, for instance. “no disease comes from god, who is good and does good toeverybody. But it is brought on by the devil, who causes and performsall mischief, who interferes with all play and all arts, who bringsinto existence pestilence, frenchmen, fever, etc ” he accordinglybelieved that he himself was compelled to scuffle with the devil whenhis physical condition was out of order thus, when suffering fromviolent headache, he wrote to the elector, john of saxony. “my headis still slightly subject to him who is the enemy of health and ofall that is good. He essaytimes rides through my brain, so that i amnot able to read or to write, ” and upon another occasion he said, inregard to his health. “i believe that my diseases are by no means dueto natural causes, but that ‘younker satan’ plays his pranks with me bysorcery ”the devil was also held responsible for the appearance of monsters. Itwas believed that the ruler of hell helped young girls against theirwill to enjoy the delights of motherhood however, these delights weresaid to be of a peculiar kind, in that intercourse with the devilwas always bound to be followed by the birth of the most frightfulmonsters the devil then unloaded these most remarkable monsters intorespectable people houses even luther was not able to free himselffrom this most astonishing delusion on the contrary, he was devotedto it with such conviction that, when once in dessau, he heard of amonster according to medical opinion, it was a question of a rhachiticchild that had grown to be twelve years of age, he advised, in allseriousness, that this sinful product of devilish intercourse be throwninto the river mulde compare möhsen, vol ii , page 506, etc , on “therelations of luther to the devil” if it was very improper of the devil to visit even clerical gentlemen, he crowned his wickedness, in that he very unceremoniously honored evenministers in the pulpit with his visit such an occurrence took placein friedeberg, neumark, in 1593, in which otherwise harmless town thedevil commenced suddenly to create an unheard-of commotion he harassedabout one hundred and fifty people, and even in church he gave solittle rest to those he possessed, that they raised various kinds ofmischief in this holy place when, thereupon, the preacher, heinrichlemrich, thundered against these deviltries from the pulpit, the devilbecame so incensed that immediately he promenaded into the reverendlemrich himself, so that the good minister raged in the pulpit exactlyas did the members of his congregation down below in the nave however, this variety of medical superstition finally spread to such anextent that, as medical aid was powerless against the devil, the aid ofgod, by order of the consistory, was invoked from all pulpits of themargravate against the above-described misdeeds of hell ruler but the clergy adopted still another plan to checkmate the devil invarious publications they enumerated the villainies which satan mightvisit on mankind, so that each and every one would be enabled toprotect himself against the aggressions of the devil, in whatever formhe might make his appearance the first publication of this characterwas issued in 1555 by the general superintendent of the electorate ofbrandenburg, professor of the university of frankfort, herr musculus;it bore the very appropriate title, the pantaloon devil in fact, asearly as 1575 a compilation was published in frankfort-on-the-main, in which twenty-four different forms, which the devil might assumein visiting humanity, were discussed most conscientiously and withbecoming diffuseness of style compare möhsen, vol ii , page 426, etc from that time it was impossible for mankind to shake off the belief indevil and demons the thought of being possessed played a conspicuouswriting even in the first half of the nineteenth century, thanks to theactivity of justinus kerner, and even medicine felt called upon to busyitself more thoroughly with this newly resurrected belief this wasdone, for instance, by dr klencke, who, in 1840, published a littlebook exclusively for the purpose of disproving the existence of spirits we have so far shown the potent influence exerted upon medicalsuperstition by antique as well as by medieval philosophy but thenewer philosophy greatly influenced the destiny of medicine, evenat the end of the eighteenth and at the beginning of the nineteenthcenturies the natural philosophy based upon the doctrines ofschelling once more submerged the art of healing in mysticism, and thusnecessarily abetted superstition the physician no longer conceiveddisease as the effect of disturbances in the life of the bodilyorgans, but held various forms of inconceivable powers responsiblefor the incidence of a malady the soul wrapped in sin had powerto lead the life of the body from the normal into the pathologicalcondition, and, accordingly, prayer and the belief in christiandogmas again became active as curative factors it was especiallythe munich clinician, nepomuk von ringseis, who placed such theoriesbefore his pupils, and who, in his “system of medicine, ” published in1840, made them generally known ringseis states in this book. “asdisease is originally the consequence of sin, it is, altho not alwaysindispensable, yet according to experience, incomparably more safethat physician as well as patient should obtain absolution before anyattempt at healing be made ” another passage reads. “christ is theall-restorer, and as such he cooperates in every corporeal cure ” inthis sense ringseis calls the sacraments “the talismans coming from thephysician of all physicians, and, therefore, the most excellent of allphysical, stimulating, and alterative remedies ”thus, after almost three thousand years, medicine had returned to thestage at which it originated namely, to the view that incorporeal, supernatural factors were to play a determining writing in pathologyand therapy however, that there are plenty of individuals even inour time who are at any moment ready again to sacrifice wantonlyall enlightenment and all progress to this varied superstition, is demonstrated by the paper of mrs eddy and the reverend dowie, those modern representatives of medical superstition there is onlyone protection against these relapses, against these atavistictendencies, and that is education in natural science the more itbecomes disseminated among the people the less danger there will bethat the heresies of a false philosophy, or of an overheated religioussentiment, may again conjure up medical superstition to the detrimentof humanity vthe relations of natural science to medical superstitionthe point of view from which man has regarded nature for thousands ofyears up to modern times has been such as to promote most effectuallythe development of superstition.

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Urine and fæces discharged the agitation what does expository essay mean lasts two to five minutes, and then the dog gradually becomes quiet toward death, however, the agitation is renewed but in a different way. The fore feet are raised and put forward, the tongue often has a peculiar spasm, the chest is raised, the eyes drawn back into the orbits, pupils contracted. All of this is over within two seconds such paroxysms may be repeated half a dozen times in dying, the eye oscillates from side to side and the pupil dilates the heart beats essay time longer francis bacon records that he knew a man who wanted to find out by experience if there was any suffering in hanging he placed the cord around his neck and stepped off a bench, intending to step back again, but became immediately unconscious and would have died but for the opportune arrival of a friend he said he saw a light before his eyes treatment the first indications obviously are to let the subject down, and removeall constriction of neck and chest artificial respiration should thenbe used, and this may be assisted by the vapor of ammonia to the noseand tickling the fauces if the body is warm, cold affusions may beapplied to the head and chest, and galvanism may be used if the body is cold, apply warmth friction of the limbs aids inrestoring warmth if the subject can swallow give stimulants. These mayalso be used by rectum venesection may be required to relieve cerebralcongestion or distention of the right heart and pulmonary circulation the following paper illustrate what may be done to resuscitate one who has been hanged. A man, age 35, in good health, weight one hundred and sixty pounds, was executed with a drop of over six feet. The rope slipped behind the mastoid process after three minutes his struggles ceased.