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And, also, that those books of mine that areprinted of that letter the small bibles are printed with, are veryfalsely printed. There being twenty or thirty gross mistakes in everysheet, thesis of them such as are exceedingly dangerous to such as shallventure to use them. And therefore i do warn the public of them. I cando no more at present. Only take notice of these directions by whichyou shall be sure to know the true one from the false the first direction - the true one hath this title over the head ofevery book, the complete herbal and english physician enlarged thesmall counterfeit ones have only this title, the english physician the second direction - the true one hath these words, governmentand virtues, following the time of the plants flowering, &c thecounterfeit small ones have these words, virtues and use, following thetime of the plants flowering the third direction - the true one is of a larger letter than thecounterfeit ones, which are in twelves, &c , of the letter smallbibles used to be printed on i shall now speak essaything of the bookitself all other authors that have written of the nature of herbs, give nota bit of reason why such an herb was appropriated to such a writing ofthe body, nor why it cured such a disease truly my own body beingsickly, brought me easily into a capacity, to know that health wasthe greatest of all earthly blessings, and truly he was never sickthat doth not believe it then i considered that all medicines werecompounded of herbs, roots, flowers, seeds, &c , and this first setme to work in studying the nature of simples, most of which i knewby sight before. And indeed all the authors i could read gave me butlittle satisfaction in this writingicular, or none at all i cannot buildmy faith upon authors’ words, nor believe a thing because they say it, and could wish every body were of my mind in this, to labour to beable to give a reason for every thing they say or do they say reasonmakes a man differ from a beast.

If before death, whether they were sufficient tocause death essay wounds and injuries might be sufficiently apparentand dangerous so that the common, inexperienced eye would at oncedetect that they were sufficient to cause death but in most instancesthis is not the case, and in such instances the testimony of expertsis required by the necessity of the case, to show that the wounds andinjuries were sufficient to cause death the general rules stated as to subjects for expert testimony - hencethe general rule is, that wherever the facts to be investigatedare such that common experience and knowledge of men do not enablethem to draw accurate conclusions, but are such that the study andexperience of specialists do enable such specially endowed persons todraw accurate conclusions, then the inferences and deductions theyhave drawn can be testified to by those who qualify themselves beforethe court as persons having sufficient skill and experience as suchspecialists to entitle them to give opinions the paper in which experttestimony is permitted to be given are set forth in rogers on experttestimony, sec 6, quoting from jones v tucker 41 n h , 546, asfollows:“1 upon questions of science, skill, or trade, or others of like kind “2 where the subject-matter of inquiry is such that inexperiencedpersons are unlikely to prove capable of forming a correct judgmentwithout such assistance “3 where the subject-matter of investigation so far writingakes of thenature of science as to require a course or previous habit of study inorder to the attainment of knowledge of it ”so also chief justice shaw of the supreme court of massachusetts, innew england glass co v lovell 7 cushing, 319, said:“it is not because a man has a reputation for sagacity and judgmentand power of reasoning that his opinion is admissible in testifyingas a witness if so, such men might be called in all paper to advisethe jury, and it would change the mode of trial. But it is because aman professional pursuit, or his peculiar skill and knowledge of essaydewritingment of science not common to men in general, enable him to drawinferences where men of common experience, after all the facts havebeen proved, would be left in doubt ”to the same effect see muldowney v illinois central r r co , 36iowa, 472. Wharton on evidence, sec 436. Greenleaf on evidence, sec 441 qualifications of this general rule - the extent to which an expertwitness can go in giving his opinion is limited to matters of scienceand skill, and does not extend to the expression of views on mattersof legal or moral observation, or the manner in which others wouldprobably be influenced if the writingies had acted in one way rather thanin another campbell v richards, 5 b & ad , 345 so it has been held that the question whether a physician has honorablyand faithfully discharged his duty in a given case, either to hismedical profession or to his patient, is not a question of science butof pure ethics, upon which the jury is as competent to decide as anyone else, and in such a case an opinion would not be allowed to begiven either by another medical practitioner or by a professor in thescience of morals rogers on expert testimony, sec 11, citing ramadgev ryan, 9 bing , 333 there are also essay matters of fact which apparently transcend thedividing line between common experience and judgment and scientificexperience and judgment, as to which expert testimony is notreceivable, but the jury and court must weigh the facts and draw theinferences for themselves an interesting example of this is found inthe case of manke v the people, 78 n y , 611 17 hun, 410, citedin stephens’ “digest of the law of evidence, ” p 107, note h, decidedin the new york court of appeals a few years ago in that case oneadolf was killed by a gunshot, and pieces of paper were found near thescene of the homicide bearing certain marks an expert was called uponto say whether they were powder-marks, and whether the condition of thepaper was such that in his opinion it was wadding which had been firedfrom a gun this evidence was held to be inadmissible by the generalterm of the supreme court, and this decision was affirmed by the courtof appeals these courts held that the question as to whether this wasa wad fired from a gun was a matter which the jury was as competent tojudge of as the witness in delivering the opinion at general term, presiding justice talcott said that this case was very close to theborder line, but in his judgment it was beyond the province of expertsand within the province of jurors nevertheless, in that case the evidence of chemists who had examinedthe wadding, and had discovered the marks on it which were said tobe powder-marks, and upon analysis had determined that they werepowder-marks, or that they were marks of powder which had exploded, would have been clearly admissible the subjects concerning which medical men may be called upon totestify as experts are as numerous as the diseases, injuries, mentaland physical conditions of the human race which fall within the rangeof the practice of medicine and surgery it is therefore practicallyimpossible to give them in detail 185practical suggestions and admonitions embodied in rules - itis deemed advisable that the following practical suggestions andadmonitions to physicians, concerning their duties as expert witnesses, shall here be given first.

1997 june websites to get essays 241905. Ibid 45. 935 sept 23 1905. Ibid 46. 134 jan 13 1906;ibid 46. 290 jan 27 1906. Ibid 58. 280 jan 27 1912 long after the death of dr cyrus edson, the claim was made thatphenalgin was made under his direction and that it was his “discovery ”as a matter of fact, dr edson had favored the use of ammonol at onetime, and when the council exposed the false claims then being madefor phenalgin, the journal charged that a fraud was being perpetratedon the medical profession despite the exposure of the methods used inexploiting ammonol and phenalgin, one finds just as glaringly falsestatements made in the advertisements of phenalgin today as weremade in its unsavory past this would seem to indicate either thatphysicians have short memories or that they are strangely indifferentto the welfare of their patients, to their own reputations and to thegood name of medicine the new york medical journal of dec 22, 1917, contained anadvertisement of phenalgin-- it has been running for months-- from whichthe following is quoted. “for the relief of pain the ‘logical supplanter of opium and other habit-forming drugs’ is phenalgin no matter how severe or where located pain is promptly and satisfactorily controlled by this effective anodyne-- and without disturbing the digestion, suppressing the secretions, causing constipation or inducing a drug habit “this is why phenalgin has superseded opium and its derivatives for relieving headaches, rheumatism, gout, la grippe, lumbago, neuralgia, disorders of the female, dysmenorrhea, and painful conditions generally to thousands of physicians phenalgin ‘is the one dependable analgesic-- the logical supplanter of opium ’”if we are to suppose that the composition of phenalgin is todayessentially the same as when it was examined, the claims just quotedare obviously false for, of course, such a mixture must have theproperties of acetanilid with all of its drawbacks and limitations we may contrast the statements made in the advertisement just quotedwith those made in bulletin 126 of the bureau of chemistry of theu s dewritingment of agriculture this bulletin on “the harmfuleffects of acetanilid, antipyrin and phenacetin” summarizes thereplies received from 400 physicians to whom a questionnaire had beensent the information thus gained was tabulated and the figures thatfollow are from these tables there were reported no fewer than 614paper of poisoning by acetanilid with 16 deaths and 112 paper of itshabitual use the larger number of paper of poisoning followed theadministration of the drug, by physicians, in doses larger than thosenow regarded as fairly safe this large number reported by only 400physicians indicated an excessively large number in the whole country since the questionnaire was sent to nearly a thousand physicians, ofwhom about 500 failed to reply, it may be assumed that had it been sentto the entire 130, 000 physicians in the country, at least 75, 000 paperof poisoning would have been reported prior to the passage of the federal food and drugs act the “purefood law” thesis nostrum makers had declared that their preparationscontained no acetanilid when that law went into effect, essay of thesemanufacturers triumphantly pointed to the fact that they were stillable to make the same claim without conflicting with the requirementsof the law this was accomplished in fact by changing the formula andsubstituting acetphenetidin phenacetin for the acetanilid whileacetphenetidin is essaywhat less toxic than acetanilid, bulk for bulk, the toxicity and therapeutic activity of the two drugs are nearlyproportional the claim made by thesis proprietary medicine manufacturers that they are“strictly ethical” because they advertise only to physicians is mereverbal camouflage there may be no more certain way of insuring thecontinued use of a nostrum by the public than to have it prescribed byphysicians.

Dry them and keep them for use trochisci e violis solutivi or troches of violets solutive college take of violet flowers meanly dry, six drams, turbith oneounce and an half, juice of liquorice, scammony, manna, of each twodrams, with syrup of violets, make it into troches culpeper they are not worth talking of, much less worth cost, thecost and labour of making trochisci de vipera ad theriacum or troches of vipers, for treacle college take of the flesh of vipers, the skin, entrails, head, fat, and tail being taken away, boiled in water with dill, and alittle salt, eight ounces, white bread twice baked, grated and sifted, two ounces, make it into troches, your hands being anointed withopobalsamum, or oil of nutmegs by expression, dry them upon a sieveturned the bottom upwards in an open place, often turning them tillthey are well dried, then put them in a glass or stone pot glazed, stopped close, they will keep a year, yet is it far better to maketreacle, not long after you have made them culpeper they expel poison, and are excellently good, by a certainsympathetical virtue, for such as are bitten by an adder trochisci de agno casto or troches of agnus castus college take of the seeds of agnus castus, lettuce, red roseflowers, balaustins, of each a dram, ivory, white amber, bole-ammoniacwashed in knotgrass water two drams, plantain seeds four scruples, sassafras two scruples, with mussilage of quince seeds, extracted inwater of water-lily flowers, let them be made into troches culpeper very pretty troches and good for little trochisci alexiterii renodæus college take of the roots of gentian, tormentil, orris florentine, zedoary, of each two drams, cinnamon, cloves, mace, of each half adram, angelica roots three drams, coriander seeds prepared, roses, ofeach one dram, dried citron pills two drams, beat them all into powder, and with juice of liquorice softened in hippocras, six ounces, makethem into soft paste, which you may form into either troches or smallrolls, which you please culpeper it preserves and strengthens the heart exceedingly, helpsfaintings and failings of the vital spirits, resists poison and thepestilence, and is an excellent medicine for such to carry about themwhose occasions are to travel in pestilential places and corrupt air, only taking a very small quantity now and then troches of annis seed mesue college take of annis seeds, the juice of maudlin made thick, ofeach two drams, the seeds of dill, spikenard, mastich, indian leaf ormace, the leaves of wormwood, asarabacca, smallage, bitter almonds, of each half a dram, aloes two drams, juice of wormwood so much as issufficient to make it into troches according to art culpeper they open obstructions of the liver, and that very gently, and therefore diseases coming thereof, help quartan agues you canscarce do amiss in taking them if they please but your palate trochisci diarhodon mesue college take of the flowers of red roses six drams, spikenard, woodof aloes, of each two drams, liquorice three drams, spodium one dram, saffron half a dram, mastich two drams, make them up into troches withwhite wine according to art culpeper they wonderfully ease fevers coming of flegm, as quotidianfevers, agues, epiatos, &c pains in the belly trochisci de lacca mesue college take of gum lacca cleansed, the juice of liquorice, maudlin, wormwood, and barberries, all made thick, rhubarb, longbirthwort, costus, asarabacca, bitter almonds, madder, annis, smallage, schænanth, of each one dram, with the decoction of birthwort, schænanth, or the juice of maudlin, or wormwood, make them into trochesaccording to art culpeper it helps stoppings of the liver and spleen, and feversthence coming, it expels wind, purges by urine, and resists dropsies pastilli adronis galen college take of pomegranate flowers ten drams, copperas twelvedrams, unripe galls, birthwort, frankincense, of each an ounce, alum, myrrh, of each half an ounce, misy two drams, with eighteen ounces ofaustere wine, make it into troches according to art culpeper this also is appropriated to wounds, ulcers, and fistulas, it clears the ears, and represses all excressences of flesh, cleansesthe filth of the bones trochisci musæ galen college take of alum, aloes, copperas, myrrh, of each six drams, crocomagma, saffron, of each three drams, pomegranate flowers half anounce, wine and honey, of each so much as is sufficient to make it upinto troches according to art culpeper their use is the same with the former crocomagma of damocrates galen college take of saffron an hundred drams, red roses, myrrh, of eachfifty drams, white starch, gum, of each thirty drams, wine, so much asis sufficient to make it into troches culpeper it is very expulsive, heats and strengthens the heart andstomach trochisci ramich mesue college take of the juice of sorrel sixteen ounces, red roseleaves, an ounce, myrtle berries two ounces, boil them a littletogether, and strain them, add to the decoction, galls well beaten, three ounces, boil them again a little, then put in these followingthings, in fine powder. Take of red roses an ounce, yellow sanders, ten drams, gum arabic an ounce and an half, sumach, spodium, of eachan ounce, myrtle berries four ounces, wood of aloes, cloves, mace, nutmegs, of each half an ounce, sour grapes seven drams, mix them alltogether, and let them dry upon a stone, and grind them again intopowder, and make them into small troches with one dram of camphire, and so much rose water as is sufficient, and perfume them with fifteengrains of musk culpeper they strengthen the stomach, heart, and liver, as also thebowels, they help the cholic, and fluxes of blood, as also bleedingat the nose if you snuff up the powder of them, disburden the body ofsalt, fretting, choleric humours you may carry them about you, andtake them at your pleasure troches of roses mesue college take of red roses half an ounce, wood of aloes twodrams, mastich, a dram and an half, roman wormwood, cinnamon, indianspikenard, cassia lignea, schœnanth, of each one dram, old wine, anddecoction of the five opening roots, so much as is sufficient to makeit into troches according to art culpeper they help pains in the stomach, and indigestion, theilliac passion, hectic fevers, and dropsies, in the beginning, andcause a good colour trochisci diacorallion galen college take of bole-ammoniac, red coral, of each an ounce, balaustines, terra lemnia, white starch, of each half an ounce, hypocistis, the seeds of henbane, opium, of each two drams, juice ofplantain so much as is sufficient to make them into troches accordingto art culpeper these also stop blood, help the bloody flux, stop themenses, and are a great help to such whose stomachs loath theirvictuals i fancy them not trochisci diaspermaton galen college take of the seeds of smallage, and bishop weed, of eachan ounce, annis and fennel seeds, of each half an ounce, opium, cassialignea, of each two drams, with rain water, make it into trochesaccording to art culpeper these also bind, ease pain, help the pleurisy hæmoptoici pastilli galen college take of white starch, balaustines, earth of samos, juiceof hypocystis, gum, saffron, opium, of each two drams, with juice ofplantain, make them into troches according to art culpeper the operation of this is like the former troches of agarick college take of choice agarick three ounces, sal gem six drams, ginger two drams, with oxymel simplex, so much as is sufficient, makeit into troches according to art oils simple oils by expression oil of sweet almonds college take of sweet almonds not corrupted, as thesis as you will, cast the shells away, and blanch them, beat them in a stone mortar, beat them in a double vessel, and press out the oil without heat culpeper it helps roughness and soreness of the throat and stomach, helps pleurisies, encreases seed, eases coughs and hectic fevers, by injection it helps such whose water scalds them. Ulcers in thebladder, reins, and matrix you may either take half an ounce of it byitself, or mix it with half an ounce of syrup of violets, and so takea spoonful at a time, still shaking them together when you take them:only take notice of this, if you take it inwardly, let it be new drawn, for it will be sour in three or four days oil of bitter almonds college it is made like oil of sweet almonds, but that you need notblanch them, nor have such a care of heat in pressing out the oil culpeper it opens stoppings, helps such as are deaf, being droppedinto their ears, it helps the hardness of the nerves, and takes awayspots in the face it is seldom or never taken inwardly oil of hazel nuts college it is made of the kernels, cleansed, bruised, and beat, andpressed like oil of sweet almonds culpeper you must put them in a vessel viz a glass, or essay suchthing and stop them close that the water come not to them when you putthem into the bath the oil is good for cold afflictions of the nerves, the gout in the joints, &c college so is oil of been, oil of nutmegs, and oil of mace drawn oleum caryinum college is prepared of walnut kernels, in like manner, save onlythat in the making of this essaytimes is required dried, old, and ranknuts oleum chryessaylinum college is prepared in the same manner of apricots, so is alsooils of the kernels of cherry stones, peaches, pine-nuts, fisticnuts, prunes, the seeds of oranges, hemp, bastard saffron, citrons, cucumbers, gourds, citruls, dwarf elder, henbane, lettuce, flax, melons, poppy, parsley, radishes, rape, ricinum, sesani, mustard seed, and grape stones culpeper because most of these oils are out of use, i took not thepains to quote the virtues of them. If any wish to make them, let themlook to the simples, and there they have them. If the simples be not tobe found in this book, there are other plentiful medicines conducing tothe cure of all usual diseases. Which are oil of bays college take of bay-berries, fresh and ripe, so thesis as you please, bruise them sufficiently, then boil them in a sufficient quantity ofwater till the oil swim at top, which separate from the water, and keepfor your use culpeper it helps the cholic, and is a sovereign remedy for anydiseases in any writing of the body coming either of wind or cold college common oil of olives, is pressed out of ripe olives, notout of the stones oil of olives omphacine, is pressed out of unripeolives oil of yolks of eggs college boil the yolks till they be hard, and bruise them withyour hand or with a pestle and mortar. Beat them in an earthen vesselglazed until they begin to froth, stirring them diligently that theyburn not, being hot, put them in a linen bag, and sprinkle them witharomatic wine, and press out the oil according to art culpeper it is profitable in fistulas, and malignant ulcers, itcauses the hair to grow, it clears the skin, and takes away deformitiesthereof, viz tetters, ringworms, morphew, scabs simple oils by infusion and decoction oil of roses omphacine college take of red roses before they be ripe, bruised in a stonemortar, four ounces, oil omphacine one pound, set them in a hot sun, in a glass close stopped, a whole week, shaking them every day, thenboil them gently in a bath, press them out, and put in others, use themin like manner, do so a third time. Then keep the oil upon a pound ofjuice of roses oil of roses complete, is made in the same manner, with sweet and ripe oil, often washed, andred roses fully open, bruised, set in the sun, and boiled gently in adouble vessel, only let the third infusion stand in the sun forty days, then keep the roses and oil together in the same manner is made oil of wormwood, of the tops of commonwormwood thrice repeated, four ounces, and three pounds of ripe oil;only, the last time put in four ounces of the juice of wormwood, whichevaporate away by gentle boiling oil of dill. Of the flowers and leaves of dill four ounces, completeoil, one pound, thrice repeated oil of castoreum. Of one ounce of castoreum oil one pound, wine fourounces, which must be consumed with the heat of a bath oil of chamomel which more than one call holy of complete oil, and fresh chamomel flowers, the little white leaves taken away, cut, bruised, and the vessel covered with a thin linen cloth, set in thesun, pressed out, and three times repeated oil of wall-flowers, as oil of dill oil of quinces. Of six writings of oil omphacine, the meat and juiceof quinces one writing, set them in the sun fifteen days in a glass, andafterwards boil them four hours in a double vessel, press them out, andrenew them three times oil of elecampane. Of ripe oil, and the roots of elecampane bruised, and their juice, of each one writing, and of generous wine half a writing, which is to be evaporated away oil of euphorbium. Of six drams of euphorbium, oil of wall-flowers, and sweet wine, of each five ounces, boiling it in a double vessel tillthe wine be consumed oil of ants.

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As an ointment and as an emulsion the ointment, so declarethe manufacturers, “is always required”. The emulsion may be used“as an auxiliary treatment ” the dionol “literature” when stripped ofthe verbal camouflage with which it abounds may be said to propoundthe following theories and propositions. First, that the nerves of thebody are electric conductors insulated from the surrounding tissues bythe nerve sheaths. Second, that inflammation breaks down the insulationwith the resultant escape of the current and an interference with thenormal metabolic action of the cells.