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The “american association for the study of spondylotherapy ”later dr abrams was made honorary president whether the organizationis still viable we do not know electronic reactions of abramsin addition to “spondylotherapy, ” dr abrams has also evolved what hecalls the “electronic reactions of abrams ” these are said to makepossible long-distance diagnoses, it being necessary only to send afew drops of blood taken from the patient and allowed to dry on aslide there are, it seems, certain instruments and devices used inthe performance of these diagnostic feats by means of the “electronicreactions” dr abrams while admitting the protective factor ofvaccination against smallpox has discovered that practically all thevaccines obtained from reliable firms yield the reaction “electronictests” of congenital syphilis, and that thesis of them also yieldthe reaction of tuberculosis and of streptococci and staphylococci further, “from the cicatrices of all vaccinated persons, one canalways elicit a reaction of congenital syphilis and in websites that will do your homework early scars atuberculous reaction ” dr abrams also declares that exposing vaccinevirus for ten minutes to blue light will destroy the syphilitic, streptococcic and staphylococci reactions and exposing it for the sameperiod to yellow light will destroy the tuberculous reaction one of dr abrams’ disciples-- sir james barr-- frequently quoted withevident satisfaction, declares that from a fresh sample of blood spreadover four square inches of white blotting paper, “dr abrams candiagnose the sex, race and disease of the patient ” however, there arecertain precautions that must be taken. The patient should face west, “the blood should be taken in a subdued light and there should be nostrong red or yellow coloring material in the room ”in various places dr abrams has asseverated that “ifsplancho-diagnosis is approached with a prejudiced mind, it is betternot to attempt it, for there are ‘none so blind as those that will notsee ’”dr abrams founded and edits physico-clinical medicine it ispublished by “physico-clinical co ” at 2135 sacramento st , sanfrancisco-- the address, according to the telephone directory, of dr abrams’ residence it is a quarterly “devoted to the study of theelectronic reactions of abrams and the visceral reflexes of abrams, inthe diagnosis, treatment and pathology of disease ” single copies, onedollar. By the year, two dollars the publication is, apparently, notentered as second class matter, in fact, presumably, it could not be, as it seems obviously to be an advertising affair each issue containsmaterial dealing with “spondylotherapy, ” “splanchno-diagnosis, ”“electronic reactions” and other discoveries and theories of dr abrams in it also is published a list of “essay recent visitors atdr abrams’ laboratory, ” the names and addresses of the “lessees ofoscilloclast” about which more later, testimonials for dr abrams, etc of course, it carries advertisements of dr abrams’ “physico-clinicallaboratory” also at 2135 sacramento st and his “practical coursesin spondylotherapy and electronic diagnosis and treatment” $200 inadvance essay of the devices of dr abrams are also advertised “noapparatus sold on credit terms cash ” among these are. “dr abrams’ electrodes for electronic diagnosis $ 6 00 “biodynamometer 36 00 “dr abrams’ reflex set 36 00 “dr abrams’ electro-concusser 120 00” the oscilloclastbut what seems to be the outstanding piece of apparatus, devisedor invented by dr abrams, the pièce de resistance, as it were, ofphysicoclinical diagnosis and treatment, is the “oscilloclast ”this device is not for sale it can be had only on lease the firstpayment is $200 or $250, according to whether it is wired foralternating or direct current then there is a monthly payment of$5 dr abrams publishes a list of more than 130 men who have leasedone or more “oscilloclasts ” sir james barr name heads the list according to dr abrams, the “oscilloclast” owes its conception to thetherapeutic principles he advocates these, in writing, are. “1 physiologic phenomena are manifestations of electronic energy “2 pathologic phenomena are manifestations of perturbed electronic energy “3 the energy in health and disease has an invariable and definite rate of vibration determinable by the electronic reactions “4 specific drugs possess a like vibratory rate as the diseases for which they are effective “these like vibratory rates hemovibrations of drugs owe their efficiency to their inherent radioactivity thus, an obsolete drug like gamboge painted on the chest in incipient tuberculosis will effect a symptomatic cure within a few weeks gamboge possesses the same vibratory rate as tuberculosis our conception that drug action is dependent on direct cellular contact is thus demolished “5 all forms of energy whether derived from heat, electricity or magnetism may be made to yield different rates of vibration and these rates corresponding to the diseases are utilized for their destruction ”if one accepts one of dr abrams’ theories, the possibilities ofsuch a piece of machinery as the “oscilloclast” would seem to loomlarge, not only in therapeutics, but also in economics all one needsto do, according to dr abrams, is to ascertain “the vibration rateof a drug” and then to substitute the same vibration as produced bythe “oscilloclast ” thus, if one substitutes the “vibratory rate ofatropin” for the drug itself “the mouth dries or the subject feels asif it were puckered ” conversely, if you switch the “oscilloclast” tothe pilocarpin vibratory rate, there is a copious flow of saliva therapeutic results with oscilloclastwhat essay of the lessees of the oscilloclast are accomplishing if weare to believe the clinical reports published in physico-clinicalmedicine may be gathered from the following quotations. “woman, age 52 -- diagnosis of acquired syphilis made by one of our most eminent clinicians ?.

While the relations of aperson with essay writingicular act is known as relative identity the great number and variety of facts concerned in the investigationof questions of identity are of considerable gravity and importance intheir juridical bearing, and at the same time they are among the mostinteresting and most useful of the applications of modern medicine tothe purposes of the law 569among the varied researches of legal medicine looking to aninterpretation of facts, no other question occurs in which the solutiondepends more upon morphological and anatomical knowledge, and none ismore dependent upon purely objective, visible, tangible facts personal identity often constitutes the entire subject-matter ofdispute in a civil case upon it may depend the question of absence orof marriage, of kinship or of filiation involving the possession ofan estate, in which case the court often requires the most subtle ofscientific evidence to assist in its decision thesis anthropologicaland medical facts, now appropriated by criminology and penal science, are useful in proving not only the present but in attesting futureidentity, thereby preventing in great measure the dissimulation ofprisoners, deserters, false claimants to life insurance, fraudulentpensioners, and the like such matters are of daily occurrence the special agents of the u s pension office detect and cause the punishment websites that will do your homework of thesis fraudulentclaimants stratagems and conspiracies to defraud life-insurancecompanies go much further than mere substitution instead of a“fraudulent” a positive death may come up for investigation, and inorder to defraud an insurance company of a large amount, a body mayeven be procured by homicide to consummate the deception, as was donein the goss-udderzook tragedy near baltimore in 1872 a celebrated case now before the supreme court of the united states andinvolving the question of personal identity is that of the mutual lifeinsurance company of new york, the new york life insurance company, andthe connecticut mutual life insurance company of hartford, connecticut consolidated, plaintiffs in error, vs sallie e hillmon it is pre-eminently in criminal trials that the personal identity ofthe victim often constitutes an essential connecting link before itcan move, the law requires, at the outset, proof of the individualityof both the author of a crime and of the victim i shall, therefore, not touch upon such elusive individuals as charlie ross and jackthe ripper, but limit my remarks to a synthetical exposition of thebest-known facts regarding identification of the dead body and theinterpretation of its organic remains the identity of a living person, or even our own identity, is often adifficult point to establish it may also require medical evidence, oftentimes of a most involved character, to establish the fact ofdeath hence the medico-legal process of connecting a dead body, orthe remains or traces of the same, with a human being once known tohave lived and moved on earth, is beset with difficulties that may giverise to still greater antagonisms of evidence the question of personalidentity is one of the hardest that could possibly come before a court celebrated paper and judicial errors have given it great notoriety there are consequently few questions in forensic medicine that requiremore attention and sagacity, and none upon which the medical legistshould pronounce with more reserve and circumspection medical men areabsolutely the only persons qualified to assist in resolving thereally delicate question of personal identity. Yet the physician andthe lawyer pursue the same line of logic and of inquiry as the formermust have a subject to dissect or to operate upon, so must the lawyerin pursuing a criminal investigation first prove a visible materialsubstance known in legal phraseology as the corpus delicti, which hemust connect with essay personality, with essay human being once knownto have lived in this important process the physician testimonybeing the indispensable guide of the court inference, he should limithimself to purely anatomical and material knowledge the medical experthas absolutely nothing to do with guilt or innocence, as that is aquestion for the jury he should, above all things, be absolutely freefrom prejudice, suspicion, or undue suggestion, and should rememberthat in thus sinking his personality his sole function as a skilledwitness in paper of identity is to furnish testimony which, when takenin connection with other evidence in the case, may establish such acorpus delicti as would justify the inference of a crime a nice point may arise as to dispensing with the proof from the bodyitself, when the substantial general fact of a homicide is provedaliunde, as in the case of a criminal causing the disappearanceof his victim body by means of its decomposition in lime or otherchemical menstrua, or by submerging it in an unfathomable spot in thesea under circumstances such as the following. A person is seen toenter a building and is not seen to leave it, although all means ofegress therefrom are watched. Another person is seen to ignite thebuilding, which thereupon burns down, and the charred remains of ahuman body are found in the ruins. The proof of identity from the bodyitself might be dispensed with in view of the substantial general factof a homicide having been committed in a delicate case where the manof art hesitates and finds no corpus delicti, the investigation ofimprints and stains may give a clew of great value to the expert yetit is only upon absolute evidence, and in the strongest possible case, that the fundamental principle of the corpus delicti is disregarded in the case of ruloff, the child body was not produced and no traceof it could be alleged to have been found. Nevertheless the prisonerwas found guilty of murder this case was speedily overruled 18 n y , 179, on the ground that a dangerous precedent had been pronounced so indispensable is the showing of the corpus delicti in paperof recognition that lawyers have come to regard even the judicialconfession of an accused as often the flimsiest and most unsatisfactorykind of evidence numerous paper of demonstrated fallibility ofconfessions are cited in the books, where the statement was utterlylacking in anything except motive or hallucination in the proceedingsof the new york medico-legal society, december 6th, 1876, mr jamesappleton morgan mentions the case of a german servant-girl whoassured her mistress, whose little boy, a child of seven, had justdied and been buried, that she the servant had poisoned the boy the servant swore to her crime and was taken into custody, and it wasonly when no poison was discovered upon exhuming the child body andexamining its stomach that against her own protest she was acquittedof the possibility of the crime another case of the kind that hashad medico-legal notoriety was tried a few years ago before a courtin brittany the accused declared that he had killed his servant andthrown the body in a pond his guilt seemed certain, when the allegedvictim put in an appearance, thus reducing the evidence to the strangehallucination that had prompted the confession but the most wonderful of these is the celebrated case of boorn, inwhich medico-legal evidence took no writing in view of the seeminghopelessness of his case, the accused confessed to murder inexpectation of mercy from the court, but was finally acquitted on thealleged victim walking into court and confronting the man who had swornto having killed him although wisdom and experience point to the necessity of showingessaything corporal and material in paper involving questions of lifeand death, yet very small traces or minute remains of a human body may, in certain circumstances, constitute a corpus delicti that may leadto trial if not to conviction in 1868 the lambert case, for murder onthe high seas, was tried before judge benedict in the united statescourt, the only corpus delicti alleged being a large pool of bloodand brains found on the forecastle of a ship at sea, out of sight ofland or other vessel circumstances, acts, and words pointed stronglyto the murder of one of the crew, who was believed to have been brainedwith an axe and thrown overboard notwithstanding the fact thatanimosity was known to exist between the accused and the missing man, it further appeared that the accused, in a state of great excitement, had followed the missing man forward and returned alone with a hatchetin his hand, yet the jury in this instance were not satisfied as tothe establishment of a corpus delicti beyond a reasonable doubt andaccordingly failed to convict two classical paper, that of gardelle and of dr webster, mentionedin thesis of the books, stand forth as instances of conviction wherefragments of the human body were recognized after attempts to destroythem by intense heat the conviction of dr webster rested almostentirely upon medico-legal evidence.

Lungs congested liver pale in color spleen very dark red kidneys normal other organs normal b chlorlyptus experiments experiment 1 -- 1 56 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Rather restless for an hour active during next four hours and following twenty-four eats well, reflexes good acts normal on vii 1 19 and since vi 26 19 experiment 2 -- 3 75 c c. Injected vi 24 19. More quiet. Active during next twenty-four hours reflex all right eats well. Normal vii 1 19, since vi 26 19 experiment 3 -- 5 c c. Injected vi 24 19.

Lebensohn, j e , and pearlman, websites that will do your homework s j. Hassecretin a therapeutic value?. j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 178 reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 98 105 so-called secretin preparations, j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 208. Reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 96 the g w carnrick company has replied to the publication of thisreport in the letter printed below a portion of this letter, whichconsists of a communication from an unnamed correspondent of the g w carnrick company and the company comment thereon, has been omitted the council offered to publish this if the carnrick company wouldfurnish the name of the writer this it has not done as will be seen, the company now shifts ground, abandoning entirely the claim thatsecretogen contains secretin the council has authorized publicationof the letter omitting the writing just mentioned, together with thecomment that follows w a puckner, secretary “the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medicalassociation “gentlemen:-- the opinion of the council and the contribution byprofessor carlson which appeared in the journal of the american medicalassociation for jan 15, 1916, have been read by us with interest the column of current comment dealing with ‘tiger-bone therapy andclinical experience’ has appealed to our good nature and, under thecircumstances, our sense of humor “professor carlson seems to have quite well established that theso-called secretin preparations do not contain secretin to anyappreciable extent, and that they are inert in laboratory experimentson normal animals at the same time, to do away with an apparentdiscrimination on the writing of the management of the council, it wouldhave been well if professor carlson had included the so-called secretinpreparations belonging to another well-known firm which markets such aproduct this discrimination has already been referred to by us “had professor carlson stopped at the determination of the therapeuticavailability of secretin given by mouth, his work might have beenaccepted without comment, even if we should have thought it advisableto object to the matter published by the council but the professorwent beyond his province entirely when, in commenting on the findingsobtained by using secretogen clinically, he said. ‘it is, perhaps, impertinent for laboratory men to comment on these clinical results ’it is his point was well taken and it is a profound pity thatprofessor carlson did not observe his own ruling “in the words of a correspondent of the journal of the american medicalassociation, in discussing professor carlson criticism of dr crile‘kinetic drive, ’ ‘it behooves the laboratory man to be circumspect inhis criticism of clinical theories, since going beyond the bounds ofwell-established things weakens his position, not merely with referenceto the writingicular subject under discussion, but with reference toclinical phenomena in general ’ clinical results have definitelyestablished the value of secretogen as the matter now stands thisstatement is beyond criticism “when secretogen was first introduced we assumed that it depended onsecretin for results produced in this assumption we were in goodcompany, as witnessed by the testimony of moore, edie and abram when, in the course of their investigations as to the value in diabetesof a secretin-bearing extract given by mouth, 106 they said. ‘inthe majority of these paper there has been no appreciable fallin the output of sugar in essay of these negative paper there hasbeen noted, however, improvement in the digestion and, in certainpaper, the patient weight has increased ’ they also state thatthe secretin-bearing product ‘appears to stimulate the functionalactivity of the duodenum ’106 they give a most significantreport 107 we quote from the paper as follows:106 all italics are ours g w carnrick company 107 bio-chem jour 1:28, 1906 “‘the patient had been under observation for six months beforetreatment and the sugar was not reducible by diet almost at once thedyspepsia from which he was suffering was relieved and his generalnutrition improved to such an extent that he regained over eighteenpounds in weight, which he had previously lost, and this improvementwas accompanied by complete recovery of his physical and mentalenergies ’106“inasmuch as this improvement could not have been due to the containedsecretin it must have been due to essay other principle containedin the extract our experience and that of the physicians who haveused secretogen establish the fact that moore, edie and abram madeno mistake when they came to the conclusion that what they termed asecretin-bearing extract stimulates the functional activity of theduodenum and improves the digestion “when professor carlson was investigating secretogen he must haverealized that he was dealing essentially with an extract of theduodenal mucosa it is, therefore, all the more surprising, consideringhis extensive researches into the literature, that he should haveignored the testimony of essay of his own authorities, writingicularlyhallion, as to the value of extracts of the duodenal mucosa in duodenalinsufficiencies the meticulous carefulness with which this evidencewas avoided is hardly worthy of the best traditions of physiology, ascience which has truth for its first and last aim “hallion in his ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ says that the ‘aims ofduodenal opotherapy are. 1, to supply deficient duodenal juice 2, above all to stimulate and to relieve this organ-- notably to aid theproduction of secretin4-- and so profit by the stimulating actionwhich duodenal extract exercises on the duodenal mucosa which actionwe, enriquez and myself, believe and have experimentally proved, conforms to the general principles of opotherapy 3, by means of theproduction of secretin, to reinforce the biliary, pancreatic andintestinal secretions 4, to stimulate intestinal peristalsis “‘principal indications. Intestinal dyspepsias, intestinalautointoxications, certain forms of constipation and duodenalinsufficiency ’“at the international congress of medicine, madrid, 1903, hallionsaid that he felt justified in stating that duodenal opotherapycorrectly carried out must be classed under the very best methods oftreating dyspepsia 106 the results had been satisfactory and, inthesis paper, remarkable it had been nil in a few paper but it hadnever been harmful in any degree he pointed out that marfan was thefirst to employ this substance clinically marfan had had writingicularlyexcellent results in children of 15 months to 4 years suffering withmarked malnutrition, anorexia and constipation marfan prescribedthe duodenal extract given in milk 106 hallion further remarks that, as he is not a practitioner, he had had only one opportunity to testduodenal opotherapy clinically the case was that of a man of 26 yearswith obstinate intestinal dyspepsia and severe constipation which hadpersisted from childhood this patient had been treated by enemas, laxatives, diet, etc treatment with duodenal extract resulted ina complete cure 106 hallion points out that the most satisfactoryaspect of duodenal opotherapy is the permanent effect produced, 106which bears out his statement that these extracts have the power to aidin the restoration of function and structure of an organ “this has been so well established that the principle is now embodiedin a law which is frequently referred to as ‘hallion law’. ‘extractsof an organ exert on the same organ an exciting influence which lastsfor a longer or shorter time when the organ is insufficient it isconceivable that this influence augments its action and, when it isinjured, that it favors its restoration ’“in ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ hallion points out that ‘theopotherapeutic product which corresponds to the affected organrepresents in essay way the stimulating and elective food for thatorgan, and if we supply the organ with a food which is more completethan it necessarily needs, the affected organ can exercise its electiveaction and take up only those substances of which it is in need ’“hallion observations on this point are beautifully borne out bythe classic work of j w draper, as reported in the journal of theamerican medical association, sept 26, 1914 this report gives resultsin both laboratory and clinical experiments “in order to show that fed jejunal and ileac epithelium exerciseessay special detoxicating power, not yet understood but definitelyrecognizable, draper fed a control series of dogs with intestinalobstruction, experimentally produced, on emulsified cells of liver, spleen, pancreas and muscle tissue these animals lived a few hourslonger than not-fed controls, but draper says that it is evidentthat these cells had either no detoxicating action, or a very feebleone compared with intestinal epithelium he used jejunal and ileacepithelium clinically in two instances. 1st, in a female dog which hadhad ‘chronic stomach trouble’ for six months when draper saw her shehad had complete intestinal obstruction for five days, with symptoms oftachycardia, extreme nervousness and great weakness in the hind legs draper removed a pebble from her intestine but her condition was stillgrave “she was immediately put on small-intestine epithelium derived fromtwo dogs of different breed draper says that from a long experiencewith duodenally obstructed dogs, he should not have expected her torecover, but the symptoms gradually subsided and she lived the secondinstance in which he used the epithelium therapeutically was in thecase of a man who suffered from an annular cancer of the intestine withdefinite symptoms of obstruction after the operation, and realizingthat the patient was in a desperate condition, he fed him an emulsionof intestinal epithelium from a dog the pulse improved and the patientlived “essay of draper conclusions are as follows:“‘autotoxemia in intestinal obstruction undoubtedly arises from aninterference with cellular reactions of the intestinal epithelium when small-intestine epithelial cells of healthy animals are placedin the stomach106 of duodenally obstructed animals, such animals havelived nearly twice as long as not-fed controlled animals this evidenceis strongly opposed to the bacterial theory of origin of toxins ’“the point to be emphasized is this. If this emulsion of intestinalepithelium had been fed to a normal dog and a normal man, what wouldhave happened?.

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2 as 3 per cent sterile solution in ampoules;137 3 tablets websites that will do your homework 137 an ampoule labeled as follows. “coagulen-ciba, 20 c c in sterile solution ready for use to be shaken importé de suisse op no 968” was found to measure only 15 c c another ampoule with the same label and op no 9641 contained considerable sediment methods of study. The alleged thromboplastic activity was tested by the method of howell and a modification of this method by fenger as described in “new and nonofficial remedies ” in the howell method dog or cat blood is used, while beef blood at body temperature is used in fenger method in other respects the methods are essentially the same briefly these consist of noting the acceleration of coagulation time in a mixture of equal writings of serum and the thromboplastic agent to which about an equal writing of oxalate plasma is added under these conditions cephalin causes clotting in about 1 minute or even less as compared with 20 to 30 minutes or more of the control the effects were compared with freshly prepared cephalin and other thromboplastic agents, using saline 0 9 per cent nacl as control the effect of different concentrations was also studied the literature of the manufacturers claims that coagulen is harmless this was tested by making intravenous and subcutaneous injections into guinea-pigs, using saline and cephalin as controls bloods of 4 different species were used, namely, cat, dog, beef and human dog peptonized blood and plasma were also tried the 15 different tests that were made in vitro were carried out with 3 different samples of fresh dry coagulen from manufacturer, 2 old samples one from council on pharmacy and chemistry and one of our own, 3 fresh specimens of sterile solution in ampoules from manufacturer, one old specimen and 4 small ampoules council on pharmacy and chemistry the tablets were not tested since these are made from dry coagulen and the results would hardly be expected to show anything different results. The results obtained may be briefly summarized as follows. 1 0 1 per cent to 5 per cent coagulen did not accelerate the coagulation time of blood and oxalate plasmas in the majority of tests any more than the controls of saline, while 0 1 per cent cephalin was found to shorten the coagulation time from 1/3 to 1/2 2 there was no difference between the behavior of old and fresh specimens 3 no acceleration of coagulation in vitro was observed even with the highest concentrations tried, namely 25 and 50 per cent 4 irrigations made with fresh dry coagulen in solution and sterile solution in ampoules on superficial bleeding from the foot-pads of 3 normal and peptonized dogs and local application to hemorrhages from dissected femoral arteries and bone and liver wounds of 3 dogs showed that coagulen was no more active than normal saline toxicity. Subcutaneous and intravenous injections of different doses of coagulen solutions fresh ampoules and dry coagulen in solution in 8 guinea-pigs produced definite anaphylactoid symptoms with injury to the circulatory and respiratory systems as indicated by cardiac dilatation, abdominal congestion and pulmonary hemorrhages, congestion, distention and essaytimes thrombi on the other hand, the control animals injected with saline and cephalin remained practically unharmed conclusions. The results obtained justify the following conclusions. 1 coagulen is entirely inactive as a thromboplastic and hemostatic agent 2 coagulen is distinctly injurious when injected systemically 3 the claims of hemostatic efficiency and harmlessness for coagulen by the manufacturer appear exaggerated and unjustified recommendations.