History

War On Drugs Essay


But it seemsto be clear that the right to object differs from the right to waivein that the latter is necessarily and logically dependent upon therelation between the patient and his representative, while the formeris obviously suggested as the best method of enforcing the law inindiana it has been said that the statute gives to the representativeof a deceased patient the right to object;297 but that this is notby reason of the relationship appears from another case in the samestate, where on an application for a new trial the court voluntarilyrefused to grant one for newly discovered evidence disclosed to itby a physician affidavit, on the ground that if the patient shouldobject in the new trial the evidence would be excluded 298 in thisstate it has been held that the widow of the patient cannot object tothe disclosure, if his administrator with the will annexed waives theprivilege 299in michigan it has been said that the physician cannot avail himselfof the statute for his own benefit. But that was in a case where thecommunication was not really of the privileged class 300 in newyork, in proceedings to which a physician was a writingy an examinationof his books of account before trial has been refused on the ground ofprivilege, and for the same reason a motion to direct a physician toturn his books of account over to a receiver has been denied 301in montana it has been said that when the patient consents no one elsecan object to the reception of the physician testimony 302in new york it has been said that the benefits of the law are to bedispensed alike to those familiar with and those ignorant of itsexistence and applicability, and it is therefore no reason to refuseits enforcement, that the patient did not know that his communicationwas privileged 303but, as in other paper of the receipt of improper evidence, it wouldseem that the objection should be made at the time it is offered, andif the objection is not then made, it will not avail to raise it lateror on appeal 304 it should not be prematurely made 305 in newyork where in pursuance of a special feature of practice in probateproceedings, 306 certain witnesses are regarded as the surrogatewitnesses though produced at the instance of the contestant, and thecontestant, after giving notice that the evidence of physicians as suchwitnesses was material, refused to examine them, and the surrogaterequired the proponent to suggest a line of examination, it was heldthat it did not lie with the contestant to object to the physicians’testimony as privileged, because she had lost her right to object bygiving notice that the evidence of those witnesses on these points wasmaterial 307objection cannot be raised in the progress of an examination after theforbidden testimony has been in writing received without objection. Forthat would unjustly enable a writingy to open the door and get in all hedesired and then to close it to the disadvantage of his adversary. Whenthe door is once properly opened the examination may be continued untilit is complete, despite the objection of the writingy at whose instance itwas begun 308in indiana, where there was no objection, it was held that the evidenceshould not be withdrawn from the consideration of the jury or itsweight diminished by comments on its value as matter of law 309but when such evidence has already been admitted in the face ofobjection, it is not necessary for the writingy to object again, asnothing is waived by conforming with a rule already laid down 310where it is apparent that no harm is done to the objecting writingy by animproper ruling on the receipt of privileged communications, no weightwill be given to an exception to such ruling 311what constitutes a waiver of the privilege - the statutory provisionsas to what constitutes a waiver have been set forth above 312 incalifornia it has been held that cross-examination of the physicianby the patient, calling for privileged matter, is a waiver ofprivilege 313 in indiana it has been held that consent to disclosurecannot be inferred from the patient simply giving the name of hisfamily physician in applying for a policy of insurance on his life, and that a waiver in such an application should be evidenced by astipulation too plain to be misunderstood 314 and a physicianstatements of the cause of his patient death, furnished to aninsurance company, in pursuance of a stipulation of a policy thatsatisfactory proof of death shall be submitted to the company, are notrendered admissible by that stipulation 315it has also been held that consent to the evidence of one physicianis no consent that another physician may divulge confidentialcommunications;316 and that the physician cannot testify that hefound no evidence of injury on the examination of his patient, inorder to contradict her;317 the patient had already testified asto her condition and what the physician had done, but not as toanything said to her by her physician. She had expressly declinedto testify concerning communications except as to his prescriptionfor her injury, and without asking him to disprove her assertionsthe trial court permitted him to say that he had found no evidenceof injury. This was held to be error it has also been held that thetaking of a physician deposition and filing it, for the purposeof breaking the force of his testimony in a deposition taken by theopposite writingy, is no consent in itself to the reading of the otherwritingy deposition 318 but when, in an action against a physician formalpractice, the patient testifies as to the manner of treatment, thephysician is then at liberty to introduce the testimony of himself oranother physician as to the facts thus put in issue by the patient 319in iowa it has been held that the testimony of a patient regarding thecondition of his health is not a waiver of privilege, so as to allowhis opponent to introduce the testimony of his physician to contradicthim 320in michigan a physician has been allowed to contradict his patient asto the time when her trouble commenced, but on the ground that it hadnot been shown that the information was necessary to enable him toprescribe 321 but it has been held that waiver as to one physician isnot waiver as to another regarding a different time 322in missouri, the calling of a physician by the patient as a witnessto testify as to information acquired while attending, is awaiver 323 but offering one physician as a witness is not a waiverof the privilege with reference to another 324 an applicant forinsurance may, by an express waiver in his application, make anefficient waiver, binding upon any one claiming under the contract ofinsurance 325in nevada a waiver has been implied from the testimony of the patientand her mother, where the patient was an infant seven years ofage 326 and it was said that the parents of such an infant may makethe waiver in new york it has been held that reference to a family physicianwhen answering questions on an application for insurance, is not awaiver;327 nor is the presence of a third person, in aid of thepatient;328 nor is the bringing of an action for damages for aninjury;329 nor is the examination of the physician in a former trialby the opposing writingy;330 but where the ban of secrecy is onceremoved in an action and the information once lawfully made public, atthe instance of the patient, it cannot be restored, and the disclosuremay then be compelled in any subsequent action;331 it would seem, too, that a physician who becomes a witness to his patient lastwill and testament at the patient request is then subject to athorough examination on all points involving the patient testamentarycapacity 332where the patient testified herself and called an attending physicianto prove her physical condition, this was not a consent to theexamination of another attending physician, and it was said that theopposite writingy by tactics on cross-examination could not compel thepatient to abandon a privilege which she refused to waive 333 fish, j , in delivering the opinion of the court in the last-mentioned case, said of the operation of the statute, that it allows the patient touse the testimony of the attending physician if he thinks his evidencewill benefit his case, and to object and exclude it in case he thinksit will not benefit him. He may call to his aid the testimony of anyone whose views he approves and exclude that of another whose testimonymight tend to controvert that given with the consent of the patient;that in this case the excluded witness was the best witness and couldtell nothing else than the patient had disclosed if she had told thetruth and it would relate solely to what she and the other physicianhad described, but that the court could not consider whether thestatute tended to promote the cause of justice, and he distinguishedmckinney v grand street railroad company, 334 on the ground thatthere the consent had been that the same physician should disclose whathe knew, while here the waiver of the excluded physician testimonyhad been constantly withheld a decision which seems to be at variance with record v village ofsaratoga springs is treanor v manhattan railway company, 335 whereit was said that the patient cannot promulgate and uncover his maladiesand infirmities in court and keep his physician under obligations tosilence, and that he cannot, to mulct another in damages, inflame ajury with a false or exaggerated story of his injuries and sufferingsand preclude the physician from making a truthful statement of the case but where the patient testifies as to what passed between him and hisphysician, the physician may testify on the same subject, as a waiveris inferred from the circumstances. For the reason, that the patient, having gone into the privileged domain to get evidence on his ownbehalf, cannot prevent the other writingy from assailing such evidenceby the only testimony available, and the rule is no longer applicablewhen the patient himself pretends to give the circumstances of theprivileged interview 336 the requirement that a physician file witha board of health a certificate of the cause of death does not abrogatethe privilege in a judicial proceeding 337the evidence excluded “information ” in arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, northdakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin theprivileged matter is characterized as information 338in arkansas it seems that the information must be a confidentialcommunication;339 but in the other states where it has beennecessary to construe the word it has received a broader interpretation in michigan information is not confined to confidentialcommunications made by the patient, but includes whatever in order toenable a physician to prescribe was disclosed to any of his senses andwhich in any way was brought to his knowledge for that purpose;340it covers a letter written to a physician, 341 and matters observedby him;342 but it does not include information acquired by a thirdperson. For instance, the time when a physician saw his patientmay be disclosed by her mother;343 and the fact of treatment ornon-treatment is not information;344 nor are the facts that thephysician was the patient family physician, and that he attended himprofessionally. Nor are statements of the dates of such attendance andthe number of such visits;345 nor the facts that the physician hasbeen called upon to examine and prescribe for a person and that hispatient had told him that she would want him to testify for her in alawsuit 346in missouri the statute protects information received from thepatient.

Andthough galen commended garden carrots highly to break wind, yetexperience teaches they breed it first, and war on drugs essay we may thank nature forexpelling it, not they. The seeds of them expel wind indeed, and essaynd what the root marrs carraway it is on account of the seeds principally that the carraway iscultivated descript it bears divers stalks of fine cut leaves, lying upon theground, essaywhat like to the leaves of carrots, but not bushing sothick, of a little quick taste in them, from among which rises up asquare stalk, not so high as the carrot, at whose joints are set thelike leaves, but smaller and finer, and at the top small open tufts, orumbels of white flowers, which turn into small blackish seed, smallerthan the anniseed, and of a quicker and hotter taste the root iswhitish, small and long, essaywhat like unto a parsnip, but with morewrinkled bark, and much less, of a little hot and quick taste, andstronger than the parsnip, and abides after seed-time place it is usually sown with us in gardens time they flower in june and july, and seed quickly after government and virtues this is also a mercurial plant carrawayseed has a moderate sharp quality, whereby it breaks wind and provokesurine, which also the herb doth the root is better food than theparsnip. It is pleasant and comfortable to the stomach, and helpsdigestion the seed is conducing to all cold griefs of the head andstomach, bowels, or mother, as also the wind in them, and helps tosharpen the eye-sight the powder of the seed put into a poultice, takes away black and blue spots of blows and bruises the herb itself, or with essay of the seed bruised and fried, laid hot in a bag or doublecloth, to the lower writings of the belly, eases the pains of the windcholic the roots of carraway eaten as men do parsnips, strengthen the stomachof ancient people exceedingly, and they need not to make a whole mealof them neither, and are fit to be planted in every garden carraway comfits, once only dipped in sugar, and half a spoonful ofthem eaten in the morning fasting, and as thesis after each meal, is amost admirable remedy, for those that are troubled with wind celandine descript this hath divers tender, round, whitish green stalks, with greater joints than ordinary in other herbs as it were knees, very brittle and easy to break, from whence grow branches with largetender broad leaves, divided into thesis writings, each of them cut in onthe edges, set at the joint on both sides of the branches, of a darkblueish green colour, on the upper side like columbines, and of a morepale blueish green underneath, full of yellow sap, when any is broken, of a bitter taste, and strong scent at the flowers, of four leavesa-piece, after which come small long pods, with blackish seed therein the root is essaywhat great at the head, shooting forth divers longroots and small strings, reddish on the outside, and yellow within, full of yellow sap therein place they grow in thesis places by old walls, hedges and way-sidesin untilled places. And being once planted in a garden, especially essayshady places, it will remain there time they flower all the summer, and the seed ripens in the meantime government and virtues this is an herb of the sun, and under thecelestial lion, and is one of the best cures for the eyes. For, allthat know any thing in astrology, know that the eyes are subject to theluminaries. Let it then be gathered when the sun is in leo, and themoon in aries, applying to this time. Let leo arise, then may you makeinto an oil or ointment, which you please, to anoint your sore eyeswith i can prove it doth both my own experience, and the experience ofthose to whom i have taught it, that most desperate sore eyes have beencured by this only medicine.

Forthat would unjustly enable a writingy to war on drugs essay open the door and get in all hedesired and then to close it to the disadvantage of his adversary. Whenthe door is once properly opened the examination may be continued untilit is complete, despite the objection of the writingy at whose instance itwas begun 308in indiana, where there was no objection, it was held that the evidenceshould not be withdrawn from the consideration of the jury or itsweight diminished by comments on its value as matter of law 309but when such evidence has already been admitted in the face ofobjection, it is not necessary for the writingy to object again, asnothing is waived by conforming with a rule already laid down 310where it is apparent that no harm is done to the objecting writingy by animproper ruling on the receipt of privileged communications, no weightwill be given to an exception to such ruling 311what constitutes a waiver of the privilege - the statutory provisionsas to what constitutes a waiver have been set forth above 312 incalifornia it has been held that cross-examination of the physicianby the patient, calling for privileged matter, is a waiver ofprivilege 313 in indiana it has been held that consent to disclosurecannot be inferred from the patient simply giving the name of hisfamily physician in applying for a policy of insurance on his life, and that a waiver in such an application should be evidenced by astipulation too plain to be misunderstood 314 and a physicianstatements of the cause of his patient death, furnished to aninsurance company, in pursuance of a stipulation of a policy thatsatisfactory proof of death shall be submitted to the company, are notrendered admissible by that stipulation 315it has also been held that consent to the evidence of one physicianis no consent that another physician may divulge confidentialcommunications;316 and that the physician cannot testify that hefound no evidence of injury on the examination of his patient, inorder to contradict her;317 the patient had already testified asto her condition and what the physician had done, but not as toanything said to her by her physician. She had expressly declinedto testify concerning communications except as to his prescriptionfor her injury, and without asking him to disprove her assertionsthe trial court permitted him to say that he had found no evidenceof injury. This was held to be error it has also been held that thetaking of a physician deposition and filing it, for the purposeof breaking the force of his testimony in a deposition taken by theopposite writingy, is no consent in itself to the reading of the otherwritingy deposition 318 but when, in an action against a physician formalpractice, the patient testifies as to the manner of treatment, thephysician is then at liberty to introduce the testimony of himself oranother physician as to the facts thus put in issue by the patient 319in iowa it has been held that the testimony of a patient regarding thecondition of his health is not a waiver of privilege, so as to allowhis opponent to introduce the testimony of his physician to contradicthim 320in michigan a physician has been allowed to contradict his patient asto the time when her trouble commenced, but on the ground that it hadnot been shown that the information was necessary to enable him toprescribe 321 but it has been held that waiver as to one physician isnot waiver as to another regarding a different time 322in missouri, the calling of a physician by the patient as a witnessto testify as to information acquired while attending, is awaiver 323 but offering one physician as a witness is not a waiverof the privilege with reference to another 324 an applicant forinsurance may, by an express waiver in his application, make anefficient waiver, binding upon any one claiming under the contract ofinsurance 325in nevada a waiver has been implied from the testimony of the patientand her mother, where the patient was an infant seven years ofage 326 and it was said that the parents of such an infant may makethe waiver in new york it has been held that reference to a family physicianwhen answering questions on an application for insurance, is not awaiver;327 nor is the presence of a third person, in aid of thepatient;328 nor is the bringing of an action for damages for aninjury;329 nor is the examination of the physician in a former trialby the opposing writingy;330 but where the ban of secrecy is onceremoved in an action and the information once lawfully made public, atthe instance of the patient, it cannot be restored, and the disclosuremay then be compelled in any subsequent action;331 it would seem, too, that a physician who becomes a witness to his patient lastwill and testament at the patient request is then subject to athorough examination on all points involving the patient testamentarycapacity 332where the patient testified herself and called an attending physicianto prove her physical condition, this was not a consent to theexamination of another attending physician, and it was said that theopposite writingy by tactics on cross-examination could not compel thepatient to abandon a privilege which she refused to waive 333 fish, j , in delivering the opinion of the court in the last-mentioned case, said of the operation of the statute, that it allows the patient touse the testimony of the attending physician if he thinks his evidencewill benefit his case, and to object and exclude it in case he thinksit will not benefit him. He may call to his aid the testimony of anyone whose views he approves and exclude that of another whose testimonymight tend to controvert that given with the consent of the patient;that in this case the excluded witness was the best witness and couldtell nothing else than the patient had disclosed if she had told thetruth and it would relate solely to what she and the other physicianhad described, but that the court could not consider whether thestatute tended to promote the cause of justice, and he distinguishedmckinney v grand street railroad company, 334 on the ground thatthere the consent had been that the same physician should disclose whathe knew, while here the waiver of the excluded physician testimonyhad been constantly withheld a decision which seems to be at variance with record v village ofsaratoga springs is treanor v manhattan railway company, 335 whereit was said that the patient cannot promulgate and uncover his maladiesand infirmities in court and keep his physician under obligations tosilence, and that he cannot, to mulct another in damages, inflame ajury with a false or exaggerated story of his injuries and sufferingsand preclude the physician from making a truthful statement of the case but where the patient testifies as to what passed between him and hisphysician, the physician may testify on the same subject, as a waiveris inferred from the circumstances. For the reason, that the patient, having gone into the privileged domain to get evidence on his ownbehalf, cannot prevent the other writingy from assailing such evidenceby the only testimony available, and the rule is no longer applicablewhen the patient himself pretends to give the circumstances of theprivileged interview 336 the requirement that a physician file witha board of health a certificate of the cause of death does not abrogatethe privilege in a judicial proceeding 337the evidence excluded “information ” in arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, northdakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin theprivileged matter is characterized as information 338in arkansas it seems that the information must be a confidentialcommunication;339 but in the other states where it has beennecessary to construe the word it has received a broader interpretation in michigan information is not confined to confidentialcommunications made by the patient, but includes whatever in order toenable a physician to prescribe was disclosed to any of his senses andwhich in any way was brought to his knowledge for that purpose;340it covers a letter written to a physician, 341 and matters observedby him;342 but it does not include information acquired by a thirdperson. For instance, the time when a physician saw his patientmay be disclosed by her mother;343 and the fact of treatment ornon-treatment is not information;344 nor are the facts that thephysician was the patient family physician, and that he attended himprofessionally. Nor are statements of the dates of such attendance andthe number of such visits;345 nor the facts that the physician hasbeen called upon to examine and prescribe for a person and that hispatient had told him that she would want him to testify for her in alawsuit 346in missouri the statute protects information received from thepatient. But this is not confined to oral communications, and includesknowledge gained by inspection of the patient person 347 in lunzv massachusetts mutual life insurance company protection was said notto extend to information of this sort apparent on casual inspection, which any one might make, nor to symptoms which are obvious beforethe patient submits himself to any examination, such as an inflamedface, a bloodshot eye, alcoholic fumes, or delirium. Nor to factsso superficial that in regard to them no confidence could have beenreposed but this distinction between hidden and patent facts isdisapproved in kling v city of kansas, 348 and the statement ismade that the law does not rest on the confidence imposed knowledgeor communications concerning the cause of a patient condition andthe extent of his injuries have also been held to be included in theterm information, because the disclosure of these matters involvedthe indirect disclosure of the condition;349 but it was said thatthe physician may testify as to knowledge acquired independent ofcommunications from the patient and of examination or inspectionmade by the witness for the purpose of treatment 350 as divulgingprivileged information, a physician has not been allowed to answerwhat his patient hurts were, why he left a hospital, or whetherhe required longer treatment;351 and it has also been held that aphysician cannot give his opinion as to the mental condition of hispatient based upon privileged knowledge 352in new york information comprehends all knowledge acquired by thephysician by communication, observation, or inspection;353 ithas been said to extend to all facts which necessarily come to theknowledge of the physician in a given professional case;354 and itincludes as well the opinion of the physician based upon his knowledgeas the knowledge itself 355the physician cannot disclose the nature of his patient disease, whether he learned it by observation or examination or from what hispatient told him;356 nor can he testify as to what he told hispatient 357 in edington v ætna life insurance company358 itwas said by judge earl that the statute was aimed at confidentialcommunications and secret ailments, and that it did not extend tomatters superficially apparent, such as a fever, a fractured legor skull, or raving mania apparent to all;359 but this view wasdisapproved expressly in the later case of renihan v dennin 360the privileged information has been said to include knowledge acquiredthrough the statements of others surrounding the patient 361 butit would seem that the fact that a third person was present during aphysician visit may be shown by the physician, as well as what passedbetween the patient and the third person, if it was such informationas a layman would have gathered 362 the information from the thirdperson regarding the patient is protected even though the patient beabsent;363 but not if the third person does not employ the physician, and the information thus acquired is not necessary to enable thephysician to act in a professional capacity 364 it is suggested inone case, but not determined, that it would be improper for a physicianto state the value of the services of a nurse in attendance upon hispatient, as that would involve a consideration of the condition of hispatient;365 but it has been held that a physician can testify to thefact of a nurse services 366but it is information regarding the patient that is privileged, andtherefore a physician may disclose what his patient told him aboutanother, even though the subject of inquiry be the attitude of thepatient toward the other;367 and likewise the physician may disclosewhat he told his patient about a third person;368 so also thephysician may testify as to family events in no way connected withphysical complaints 369 it has been held, too, that admissionsmade by a patient to his physician, tending to show contributorynegligence on the writing of the patient, at a time when the communicationcould not well have been made to enable the physician to prescribe, namely, on the physician third and last visit, may be proven by thephysician 370the physician may properly testify that he did attend asphysician, 371 and that the patient was sick, and he can state whenand how often he attended him, 372 and whether his knowledge wasacquired while in professional attendance, 373 but it is open to thecourt to determine from the evidence whether it was so acquired 374“matter committed ” in indiana the protection covers mattercommitted it would seem that the use of the word committedimplies confidence and that the protected matter is only confidentialcommunications. But an earlier statute in that state applied to“matters confided, ” and it was held to cover matters learned byobservation or examination, or by communication from the patient, whether learned under an injunction of secrecy, express or implied, or not;375 and it has been held that the present law forbids thedisclosure of matters learned in a sick-room, no matter how theknowledge may have been acquired 376“confidential communications ” the laws of iowa and nebraska protectconfidential communications properly intrusted the constructionput upon the word confided in indiana has been shown in iowa ithas been said that a confidential inquiry for advice to facilitatethe commission of a crime or the infraction of law, is not properlyintrusted and is not privileged;377 but where the advice is soughtfor a purpose which may or may not be lawful, the presumption is thatit is lawful, and the communication is privileged 378 it has beensaid that whether or not a physician treated a person for a writingiculardisease, is not a confidential communication 379the word confidential is not narrowly construed, for a physician hasbeen prevented from disclosing whether his patient said that a carwas in motion when he was injured, because the injury would be moresevere if in motion;380 and the fact that the physician writingner waspresent does not remove the seal of secrecy, or permit the writingner totestify 381“communications ” in ohio and wyoming communications areprivileged.

Itmay, as in the case of kemmler, have a horizontal arm which projectsforward and from which the head-electrode may be suspended the chairis also furnished with broad leather straps firmly attached, two ofwhich pass around the body, one around each upper arm, one around eachlower arm, and one around each leg there is also a broad conjoinedor compound strap which passes over the head, encircling the foreheadand the chin and securing the head firmly to the head-rest whenthese straps are properly adjusted and fastened, any marked degree ofmovement is impossible the adjustment and fastening of these strapscan be performed very rapidly, in practiced hands taking not more thanforty seconds the electrodes used have varied slightly in different paper in thecase of kemmler war on drugs essay they each consisted of a bell-shaped rubber cup aboutfour inches in diameter, with a wooden handle through which passedthe wires into the bell to end in a metallic disk about three inchesin diameter, faced with sponge the upper electrode was so arrangedas to rest firmly on the top of the head, where it was held closelyby means of a spiral spring. It was attached to the horizontal arm ofthe head-rest, a sliding arrangement shaped like a figure 4 the lower electrode was in this case attached to the lower writing of theback of the chair, and projected forward at a level with the hollow ofthe sacrum there was also connected with it a sliding arrangement, and a spiral spring which in connection with a broad strap around theprisoner lower abdomen rendered contact secure in the later executions these electrodes have been essaywhat modifiedand differently applied the head-electrode is now so formed as tocover the forehead and temples, and can be easily fastened in thisposition without a spring the lower electrodes have been applied tothe leg in each case, essaytimes apparently to the calf and essaytimesmore to the outer side, where they are securely strapped they aremade of such a shape as to cover a considerable portion of the surfacein this region it is not a matter of importance to which leg theindifferent electrode is attached, but they have actually been appliedin most paper to the right leg, though in essay they were attached tothe left they are thoroughly moistened, usually with a solution ofsalt and water, and a drip may be arranged so as to keep them wetduring the passage of the current or other means employed to thiseffect the electromotive pressure, as shown by readings of the voltmeter byprofessor laudy, in the paper of slocum, smiler, hood, jugigo, andloppy, varied from 1, 458 to 1, 716 volts the ammeter showed a variationof from two to seven amperes the alternating current in the case of mcelvaine made roughly 150periods per second the number of contacts made in each case and the duration of eachcontact were as follows. ═══════════════════╤════════════╤═════════════════════════════════════ │ │ time, seconds │ number of ├─────────┬────────┬────────┬───────── │ contacts │ 1st │ 2d │ 3d │ 4th ───────────────────┼────────────┼─────────┼────────┼────────┼───────── kemmler │ 2 │ 17 │ 70 │ │ slocum │ 2 │ 27 │ 26 │ │ smiler │ 4 │ 10 │ 10 │ 10 │ 19 hood │ 3 │ 20 │ 20 │ 20 │ jugigo │ 3 │ 15 │ 15 │ 15 │ loppy │ 4 │ 15 │ 11 │ 15½ │ 10½ mcelvaine │ 2 │ 50 │ 36 │ │ tice │ 4 │ total time, 50 ───────────────────┴────────────┴─────────────────────────────────────in the case of mcelvaine, the first contact of fifty seconds was madethrough the hands, the second contact of thirty-six seconds from thehead to the leg the hands were immersed in cells containing tepidsalt water, connected respectively with the opposite poles of thedynamo kennelly states that in this case, with the hands immersedand the electromotive force at 1, 600 volts, the current began at 2 0amperes, and in fifty seconds had increased to 3 1 amperes, indicatinga resistance between the electrodes of from 800 ohms at the beginningto 516 ohms at the end in the second application from the foreheadto the leg with an electromotive force of 1, 500 volts, the currentamounted to 7 0 amperes during the thirty-six seconds contact, indicating a resistance practically steady at 214 ohms alternating currents of from 1, 600 to 1, 700 volts and upward may beconsidered fatal currents, and as capable of producing death whencontact is perfect dr macdonald goes so far as to say. No human beingcould survive the passage through his body of an alternating currentof more than 1, 500 volts for a period of even twenty seconds, contactbeing perfect ”the physical phenomena caused in the body by electrocution as atpresent conducted are comparatively simple, and such as we shouldlogically expect the instant the body of the patient enters into thecircuit of the current, all the voluntary muscles appear to be throwninto a condition of violent contraction which continues so long asthe current lasts, and on cessation of the current is replaced bya condition of extreme muscular relaxation all consciousness isapparently lost immediately on the application of the current thisprobably has never returned in any case, but on the removal of the bodyfrom the circuit of the current the relaxation of the muscles causesmovement, and essaytimes, as in the case of kemmler, slight spasmodicmovements of the chest have occurred the pupils in this case weredilated the condition of contraction and rigidity is renewed at eachnew application of the current, to cease immediately when the currentis removed in kemmler chest movements and possibly heart-beat occurred after thefirst contact, the former perhaps half a minute after the cessation ofthe current in slocum there were chest movements and radial pulsation after thefirst contact in smiler no movement of the chest, but radial pulsationafter the third contact in jugigo a slight fluttering of the radialpulse when final contact was broken, which rapidly ceased in hood nomovement or pulse-beat in essay of the patients superficial burns have been caused by imperfectcontact of the electrodes, either on the head or at the position of thelower electrode in kemmler case the cerebral cortex was essaywhataffected under the head-electrode the practical effect of the application of the current to the criminalfastened in the death-chair, as seen by the bystander, is thatimmediately on its reaching him the whole body is straightened andrendered rigid in extension, the extremities tend to straighten out, and the face may grow red and turgid there is reported at timesswelling and turgidity of the neck the whole body remains in thistetanic, stiffened condition until the removal of the current, when allthe muscles relax and the body sinks back into the chair in a state ofcomplete muscular collapse mental or psychical symptoms the third class of results which are found after electrical shocksfrom high-tension currents are the mental or psychical by the use ofthese terms we do not wish to imply that they are voluntary they are, however, so far as our present knowledge of pathology reaches, largelyfunctional this is precisely the class of paper which, when resultingfrom railway accidents, are placed under the head of railway-brainor railway-spine they may be considered in the present state of ourknowledge as traumatic functional neuroses, though it is probable thatwhen our means of examination and investigation are more completewe may succeed in discovering a visible or perceptible lesion thesymptoms affecting motion and sensation in these paper are frequentlyaccompanied by others of an emotional character, and in thesis paperthere seem to be writingially or wholly voluntary conditions and symptomswith the involuntary there is in thesis paper a characteristic loss ordiminution of the force and power of volition, but in others this isnot perceptible these conditions are so well known when produced by other causes thatwe do not consider it proper to enter into a full consideration of themhere, but we cannot leave this important subject without a few generalremarks no form of affection or disease has caused more discussion among themedical profession or figured more prominently in the courts than this, and even now there are thesis questions in relation to these conditionsstill under dispute our own view, confirmed both by observation andexperience, is that the tendency in new england, at least, has beenon the whole to underrate the severity, the duration, and the amountof suffering caused by these conditions that because there havebeen paper of malingering, of deception, and of rapid cure afterthe receipt of damages, and because in addition to this a certainvisible emotional and at times apparently controllable element exists, the profession, and above all the laity, are led to conclude thatthis forms the essential condition and basis of the disease on thecontrary, in a very large proportion of paper the symptoms are such ascannot possibly be voluntarily assumed. They produce extreme discomfortand often much suffering for the patient, and frequently last foryears, rendering their victims incapable of carrying on their formeroccupations fortunately in the patients suffering from electric shock theseverer forms of these affections are not so common in most of thepaper reported recovery has been more or less rapid paper in whichprevious hysteria or neurasthenia have existed are more liable tothese manifestations than persons of a previously equable nervousconstitution, but these latter are by no means wholly exempt toconsider these conditions, as is essaytimes done, as the fault of thepatient seems to us both unwarrantable and unjust lightning we now come to the consideration of the action of electricity inanother form, that of natural electricity or lightning the effectsof this are practically the same as those of the forms previouslydescribed, except such differences as seem to be fairly accounted forby the vastly greater force of the currents with which we have todeal injuries and deaths from lightning stroke have been recognizedand described for thesis centuries, and we have now a large collectionof careful observations on them they occur in most temperate regionswith comparative frequency in france the number of deaths from 1835to 1852 inclusive eighteen years was 1, 308 in england, includingwales, there were in twenty years, 1865 to 1884 inclusive, 416 deaths in 1846 mr eben merriam, of brookline, wrote to mr arago that in thethree last years about 150 persons had been killed by lightning in theunited states in thirty years, from 1855 to 1884 inclusive, we find101 deaths in massachusetts from this cause exposure - injuries and deaths from lightning may occur in variousplaces and under various conditions the severe lightning strokes arepopularly supposed to occur only during thunder-storms, and in thislatitude this is undoubtedly, as a rule, true, but lightning strokesare reported to have occurred, writingicularly in the south, from a clearsky, and there seems no reason to doubt that this may happen it issaid also that dangerous discharges from the earth to the atmospheremay take place at a considerable distance from an atmospheric storm as a rule, the lightning is more likely to strike essay tall object, as a tree or a tower or steeple, and for this reason, and to avoidinjury from falling branches, the shelter of trees should not be soughtduring thunder-storms if lightning stroke be dreaded ships at sea arefrequently struck by lightning, writingly perhaps on account of the heightof the masts and writingly on account of the metal in or on them lightning obeys the same general laws as the other forms ofelectricity and naturally follows the paths of least resistance persons, therefore, who are in the neighborhood of or in contactwith good conductors are in more danger of injury by lightning thanwhen surrounded by or in contact with poor conductors the proximityor contact of a large metallic object exposed in a thunder-storm isconsequently more or less dangerous on the other hand, the absenceof tall objects or of specially good conductors of any kind does notinsure safety in thesis paper persons in fields are struck, and paperare related of persons struck on the prairies in the west in fredetcase a shepherd was found dead in the midst of the barren moors landes in southern france more accidents appear to occur directly to persons out-of-doors thanto those in houses or other buildings when inside buildings, personsstruck are usually near an open door or window through which thelightning enters, and they are more exposed to danger from this sourceif there be essay metal object or good conductor in the vicinity persons carrying or wearing metallic objects render themselves therebymore liable to be injured in this way not only does the liability to injury from lightning vary essaywhataccording to the exposure or position of the person, both in relationto the free access of the atmospheric air and to the contact with orneighborhood of metallic objects or other good conductors, but alsothe severity of the injuries may be largely dependent upon what theyare wearing or carrying and the condition of their clothing at thetime if the clothing be wet it will act as a good conductor, as willalso any metallic object about the person we have already referred tothe action of metallic objects upon the passage of the electricity toand from the body and to the condition of the skin in relation thereto the laws of conduction and resistance are precisely the same for theelectricity of lightning as for the other forms hence the greater theresistance to the electricity at the points where it enters or leavesthe body, the deeper will be the burn thus we find not infrequentlythat the lightning, in its course from the head to the feet, meets witha chain or a truss, and almost invariably at least a portion of thecurrent follows this, causing a deep burn where it again passes intothe skin all the external burns of the lightning, except the initialone, are determined by the position and conditions of the body, theclothing, and the conductors near all electricity obeys the same lawand, roughly speaking, follows the path or paths of least resistance the clothing worn by a person when struck by lightning may be actedupon in the most various ways essaytimes it is wholly stripped off theunfortunate sufferer, who, as in a case reported by cook and boulting, may have to be protected with sacks or other hastily improvisedcoverings in a case reported by nason, a girl of thirteen was struckwhile in the street and most of her clothes stripped off and torn toshreds, and the top of her hat, which contained steel wires, was tornfrom the brim in the case of wilks the body was stripped entirelynaked and absolutely nothing left on except a portion of the left armof the man flannel shirt the clothing is essaytimes torn to thefinest shreds, like those of a mouse nest, as described by van horn, and in another case claes, where the patient was struck while onboard ship, his woollen jacket was torn into fine bits, which stuckto the ropes, and the deck was covered with fibres of wool as fine asthose of cotton-wool in this case the woof of the trousers was said tohave been wholly destroyed, while the web was untouched the clothing is also often burnt not only are holes burnt in it as isusually the case at the point where the lightning strikes and at thepoint where it leaves the body, but it may be set on fire it may befound smoking or in flames of all portions of the clothing injured, perhaps the coverings of thefeet are the most frequently so, as the electricity is very apt toleave the body through the feet, and the resistance opposed is great hence the boot or shoe is frequently injured essaytimes it is piercedas by a bullet, or a large hole is torn in it, or it may be torn topieces or reduced almost to lint, while the foot remains uninjured itmay be torn, shrivelled, and burnt in one case the soles of the shoeshad disappeared. In another the leg of the boot was clearly dividedfrom the sole and both straps were torn out. While again in another theshoe was carried wholly off the amount of injury to the clothing does not necessarily correspond tothe amount done to the body a person may be killed by lightning whilethe clothing is uninjured on the other hand, the clothing may be tornto pieces, carried away, or even writingially burnt, while the portion ofthe body underneath remains unhurt symptomatology - the symptoms of stroke by lightning resemble, in ageneral way, those due to high-tension currents of electricity as inthe case of the latter, they can be divided into the direct, producedimmediately by the lightning itself, and the indirect, or secondary, produced through the medium of other factors in the milder paper the person struck feels dazed and benumbed andmay or may not lose consciousness for a short time at the momentstruck they may have the sensation of a blow, and they often see ablinding flash on recovery of their faculties there may be a temporaryanæsthesia or weakness of one or more extremities, which rarely lastsmore than twenty-four hours there is a general shock to the system, essaytimes slight loss of memory for a time, and occasionally nauseaand vomiting there are often discolorations of the skin of mediumextent, and frequently burns and blisters these persons have usuallyreceived the stroke on one extremity or have escaped the full force in the more severe paper the patient loses consciousness immediatelyand may continue unconscious for essay hours he passes into a conditionof collapse with rapid, feeble pulse and cold extremities, and thepupils are dilated on recovery of his senses the same symptoms as inthe less severe paper, only more pronounced, are found the loss ofmemory may be marked and the intellect temporarily weakened, while theweakness and anæsthesia of the extremities persist longer the externalinjuries, burns, and wounds are liable to be more severe in the fatal paper where death is directly due to the electricity it isusually instantaneous or at least without recovery of consciousness itmay be caused by shock or by apoplexy, i e , intracranial hemorrhageor by the direct effect of the electricity on the brain of coursedeath is often due to burns or to indirect traumatic injuries the indirect traumatic injuries caused by lightning are due either tothe loss of consciousness of the patient, which causes him to fall andthus sustain injury, or to the direct action of the electricity uponhim, knocking him down or throwing him to essay distance, essaytimeswith great violence, or lastly, and perhaps the most frequent cause, to the impact or pressure of objects which are torn or cast down bythe electricity and by striking or falling on a person produce greatinjury thus persons have been killed by the fall of buildings, sheds, or trees which were struck by the lightning, or their branches ofcourse all kinds of traumata may be produced thus the direct external injuries caused by lightning are burns, subcutaneous hemorrhages, discolorations and markings of the skineither dendritic or metallic, lacerations or wounds burns occur in nearly all, perhaps all, severe paper of lightningstroke they may be of any or all degrees, and may extend over verysmall points or over the whole or nearly the whole body they mayconsist in a simple singeing of the hair, or they may be very deep andextend to the bone as before stated, the deep burns are found at thepoints of resistance to the current, at its points of entrance and exitfrom the body, and, to a lesser degree, at all points where its courseis impeded this occurs wherever the clothes are fastened tightly orpressed against the body, hence especially at the neck, waist, knees, and essaytimes at the ankles the position of the burns is determined, therefore, by the point at which the lightning strikes the person, theposition at the moment, and by the arrangement of the dress and thepresence of metallic substances in the large majority of paper theupper portion of the body is the writing first touched by the lightning, and thence it descends along the body to the ground we are apt, therefore, to find a severe burn about the upper portion of the body, the head, neck, or shoulders. Then a scorching, singeing, or burning, more or less severe, in the form of a stripe or stripes more or lessbroad down the body. The burns being deeper where the clothes aretighter or where metallic objects come into contact with or are nearthe body. And finally a deep burn at the nearest point of contact withthe ground, usually the heel or essay portion of the foot the burns, however, vary greatly the eyes may be burnt and severelyinjured or destroyed the lightning has been known to enter the mouthand burn the mucous membrane within the deeper burns not infrequentlyassume the form of holes in heusner paper about twenty whitish-grayspots, varying from the size of a lentil to that of a pea, were foundon the soles of the feet the hair is usually singed and may be burntoff in large areas, or wholly as in a case reported by bernard wounds - these may be direct or indirect we shall speak here onlyof the first like burns they occur usually at the points of greatestresistance, that is, the places of entrance and exit, but they maybe found in any writing of the body they may be clean-cut, as if madeby a sharp knife, or they may be lacerated and ragged with the edgescontused or burnt they may consist of holes which look as if they hadbeen punched out contusions or ecchymoses these may also be produced directly by thelightning, and like burns and wounds are most apt to occur where theresistance is greatest they may be of considerable importance in amedico-legal sense, as in fredet case, where there were ecchymoseson the neck similar to those produced by the fingers of a hand appliedfor strangulation in the case related by cook and boulting the rightside of the body appeared like an exaggerated example of post-mortemstaining there are essaytimes found also dark-brown spots, small orlarge, which may be soft and, when cut, containing fluid blood, or theymay be hard and like parchment, dry, and bloodless on section closely connected with these are the so-called dendroid or dendriticmarks, which are dark-colored reddish bands or stripes, often more orless dichotomously branched, not disappearing under pressure, found onthe bodies of those struck by lightning though usually of the formmentioned, they may assume other shapes, as that of an irregular starwith zig-zag rays balfour has figured an excellent example of these metallic staining of the skin has been known to occur where metalswere in contact with it at the time of the lightning stroke thesestains may be permanent and are due to the introduction of the finelydivided metal richardson has succeeded in producing this artificiallyin animals he found two conditions required, that the metallicconductor should be sufficiently fine to offer resistance to thecurrent and that the current itself should be an electric discharge oflow tension loss of hair is said to have occurred from lightning, though the hairwas not burnt one case has been reported where after a severe strokeall the hair on the body is said to have fallen out symptoms under this heading we shall consider only such symptoms as are, so faras can be ascertained, the direct result of the electricity and notthose secondary to injuries we will consider first those relating to the nervous system loss of consciousness - this occurs to a greater or less extent inall but the very mildest paper it varies throughout all degrees froma slight momentary benumbing of the faculties to the most profoundstupor or coma it may then last hours or even days on recoverythe patient is apt to have essay loss of memory, to be dazed andconfused for essay time, and a certain obtuseness or blunting of theintellectual faculties may persist for a considerable period thisloss of consciousness is often accompanied by flushing of the face anddilatation of the pupils, or on the other hand the patient may presentall the symptoms of collapse loss of memory in regard to the lightning stroke after recovery ofconsciousness is not rare it is frequently complete so far as anyrecollection of the lightning goes, and there may be no remembrance ofthe thunder-storm essaytimes a defective memory persists together withgeneral mental impairment james mental disease - a condition of mental impairment lasting at leastweeks or months may occur mania and the delirium of terror are said tohave occurred various symptoms of the disturbance of the nervous equilibrium are notuncommon among these we may mention tremor, insomnia, and nervousdread of thunder-storms and of electricity there is no doubt that essaypersons who have been exposed to lightning stroke do, at least for atime, become unusually susceptible to the influences of atmosphericelectricity loss of motion paralysis - this is a very frequent result of astroke from lightning hemiplegia is not uncommon in bonnet casethe patient was struck on the head by the lightning, which caused alacerated wound in the left temple, but did not injure the aponeurosis on recovery of consciousness the patient was found to have a lefthemiplegia involving the face and both extremities accompaniedby a diminution of sensation over the left half of the body thesensation became normal in two days, but a writingial hemiplegia remainedpermanently in the case of durand there was a nearly complete righthemiplegia with accompanying hyperæsthesia and essay affection ofspeech deglutition and mastication were difficult, and there waspersistent hiccough there was photophobia and hyperæsthesia thepatient improved in two weeks and finally recovered there is often atemporary hemiplegia nearly all forms of paralyses of the extremities may occur we mayhave paralysis of all the extremities or of both arms or legs, ormonoplegias paraplegia occurs not very rarely it is usually of shortduration it may be accompanied by paralysis of the bladder singlemuscles or muscle groups only may be affected ptosis may occur with paralysis of other branches of the third nerve, causing diplopia facial paralysis occurs also alone. In one case itlasted only twenty-four hours, in another one month difficulty in mastication is essaytimes found, but much more frequentlydifficulty in deglutition is reported retention of urine, dysuria, or incontinentia urinæ may all occur, andthere is essaytimes a paralysis of the rectum, usually temporary, andessaytimes obstinate constipation, which in one case was combined withparalysis of the bladder and monoplegia aphasia in various degrees and various forms of dysphasia or difficultyin speech are not uncommon they are apt to be temporary loss of co-ordination in the lower extremities with writingial paralysisof bladder and rectum is reported convulsions - epilepsy may be brought on by lightning.

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“leave the war on drugs essay earth!. go heavenward!. ” with these sounds andwords apollonius disappeared forever thus his last medical act was asleight-of-hand performance, in that he even snapped his fingers atdeath the grateful heathen world of antiquity rendered divine honors toapollonius in his birth-place, tyana, a temple was erected in hishonor at imperial expense, and the priests everywhere erected statuesto a philosopher who had left this world without dying. In fact, eventhe emperor alexander severus set up an image of apollonius in hislararium, or domestic chapel and thus to medical superstition wasaccorded a triumph which no legitimate practitioner of any age has everenjoyed these theosophic vagaries reached their climax in neo-platonism, whichwas founded toward the end of the second century of the christian eraby the alexandrian porter, ammonius 175 to 242, and was furtherelaborated by plotinus 204 to 269 this religious, philosophicalsystem is of very writingicular interest in the history of medicinein that, in the first place, it stands in direct opposition to thephysico-mechanical conception of disease, and, explaining sickness froma theistic standpoint as a logical consequence, rejects the treatmentof disease by professional physicians now this theistic conception of disease was based primarily upon theassumption that the universe is filled with countless demons, spiritswhich, altho essentially superior to man, are inferior to god sucha demon was supposed to be the “spiritus rector” of all terrestrialoccurrences, especially all evil events were attributed to him ὂτιαὐτοὶ αἳτιοι γιγνόμενοι τῶν περὶ τὴν γῆν καθημάτων, οἷον λοιμῶν, ἀφοριῶν, σεισμῶν, αὐχμῶν καἳ τῶν ὁμοίων porphyrius de abst , lib 2, 40 as the demons played havoc with the condition of the humanbody, protection against them could not be expected from a professionalphysician, but only from essay one well versed in all their tricks anddevices, and, therefore, alone able to punish them thoroughly for theirmischievous behavior this taming of the demon could be accomplishedin various ways porphyrius enumerates three methods of gaining aninfluence over the host of demons the first and principal method theosophy attempted to attain themost intimate union with god prayer, abstraction of all thought fromthings earthly, and absorption in god were supposed to be the means ofwritingicipation in certain divine powers an individual thus favored wasenabled in a trice to restore health to incurable patients, such as theblind, the deaf, and the lame, and even the power of raising the deadwas conferred upon him however, the acquisition of such extraordinarypowers demanded certain qualifications of a rather exacting andterrestrial character it was incumbent upon such an applicant forthese special gifts to abstain from the use of meat, and, above all, from the society of women how thesis were deterred by these fastidiousrequirements from choosing the career of a famous man of miracles wedo not know nothing is reported on this subject by the pillars ofneo-platonism as, plotinus, porphyrius, damascius, jamblichus, nor dothey state whether they themselves absolutely abstained from meat andfrom the society of women theurgy was the second method of counteracting the evil influence ofdemons in this way good demons were urged by prayer and offerings toward off disease or other misfortune by the third method goety attempts were made to dispel the evildemons by conjurations and various kinds of mystical mummery thesemysterious accessories consisted mostly in muttering any number ofwords as meaningless as possible the more meaningless and the moreunintelligible were these words the more efficacious according to theassurance of jamblichus they would prove, especially when they weretaken from oriental languages for, as jamblichus says, the orientallanguages are the most ancient therefore, the most agreeable to thegods in such a manner words utterly nonsensical were drawled out atthe bedside, and, for greater security, written on tablets to be hunground the neck of the patient the magic word “abracadabra” enjoyedespecial respect to render its power certain it was written as thesistimes as it has letters, omitting the last letter each time until onlyone remained, and placing the words in such a succession as to forman equilateral triangle a tablet thus inscribed was worn around theneck of the sufferer as an amulet it may be that this wonder-workingword has arisen from the word “abraxas, ” with which the gnosticbasilides meant to designate the aggregate of the three hundred andsixty-five forms of revelation of divinity which he assumed to exist numerous other explanations are in vogue, however, with regard tothis medical, magic term compare häser, vol i , page 433 veryancient magic words which had originated in the earliest periods ofhellenism were revived thus, to banish disease, certain words wereemployed which were said to be derived from the temple of artemisin ephesus, and which read. Ασχι, κατάσχι, λίε, τετράε, δαμναμενεύς, αἲσσον the meaning of these words, according to the explanation of thepythagorean, androcydes, was. Darkness, light, earth, air, sun, truth besides, the attempt was made to obtain directly from the demons suchmagic words as were endowed with curative power for such purposessmall children were employed, in whom it was supposed that the demonspreferred to be present, and expressed themselves through their mouths such children, therefore, played a similar writing as does a medium withmodern spiritualists the senseless stuff babbled by such a child wasconsidered the immediate manifestation of a demon, and was accordinglyutilized to banish the demons which brought on disease moreover, the nonsensical practise which was carried on by the neo-platonistsby letter and word was to a certain extent accepted by professionalphysicians it had become a very common custom with physicians toapply various kinds of bombastic names to all their various plastersand ointments, powders, and pills it is necessary only to cast aglance upon the ancient pharmacopœia to find the most curious names galen mentions disapprovingly the fact that egyptian and babylonianexpressions were preferred in the nomenclature of medicine de simpl medicamentorum facult lib sic preface such were the methods with which the neo-platonists did not hesitateto treat the sick. And not only minor practitioners, but even theleaders of the entire movement, preferred banishing disease by meansof various kinds of magic formulæ to all other specially medicalmethods of treatment thus, for instance, eunapius of sardis about400 recounts how plotinus, one of the most gifted of the neo-platonicschool, repeatedly proved himself to be a medical miracle-worker, mostconspicuously during the sickness of porphyrius when the latter, afavorite disciple of plotinus, was traveling through sicily he becamedangerously ill in fact, according to the description of eunapius, he was actually breathing his last then plotinus appeared, and bymagic words cured the dying man instantly it appears, moreover, that plotinus did not only operate with wonder-working words, but heemployed still other agencies as, for instance, mysterious figures ὁχήματα villoison, anecd græca, vol ii , page 231 plotinus waseven said to possess his own demon, who was at his disposal alone, andby the aid of whom he performed other wonders as, for instance, that ofprophesying porphyrius, probably the most notable disciple of the neo-platonicschool after plotinus, claimed even that the demons personally taughthim to expel, with certainty and despatch, those pathogenic demons it was claimed by him that chaldean and hebrew words and songs werethe promptest means of turning out all these evil spirits. In fact, the philosopher, alexander of abonoteichos, in paphlagonia, was of theopinion that a pestilence, which was devastating italy, could not bechecked by any better means than that of affixing to the doors of theinfected towns and villages the sentence. “phœbus, the hair unshorn, dispels the clouds of disease ”thus the last great system into which the ancient philosophy developedwas attended by the unfortunate result of a very material increaseof superstition in the healing art this recrudescence of medicalsuperstition was by no means a transitory one, but proved exceedinglypersistent. In fact, we may unhesitatingly maintain that from thattime superstition never again disappeared from our science this isprincipally the fault of the position which christianity took withregard to demonology and the other fantastic ideas of neo-platonism early christianity, from the outset, was subjected to the influenceof ancient false ideas on the subject of demons without making anymodifications whatever, it had appropriated this false doctrine, andhad deduced from it the same medical notions as paganism had done the new testament exhibits numerous examples of a prevailing beliefthat supernatural beings i e , demons were frequently the cause ofbodily ailments.