History

Volleyball Essay


If a littlelarger, we may infer from a linear bloody track that the weapon wasneedle-like in shape the length of the instrument or the depth towhich it penetrated may be found, as a rule, only by dissection if theweapon were larger and conical, we have seen that the wounds would belinear with two angles, the length of the wound being parallel to thedirection of the fibres in the skin here we may judge of the form of the weapon from the followingcircumstances. From a comparison of the depth with the size of theopening, we know that it was a punctured wound the edges and anglesare not smooth and even enough for a stab-wound with a knife, for theedges are torn and not cut, and a stab-wound would be the only form ofwound with which we would be likely to confuse it furthermore, thedirection of the long axis of the wound parallel to that of the skinfibres in the region in which it occurs and the very slight retractionof the edges distinguish it from a stab-wound by these signs we canalmost always distinguish such wounds from stab-wounds, and thus tellthe form of the weapon used as to the size of weapon used, thesewounds if of any size are generally smaller than the weapon, for theskin is put on the stretch by the weapon and yields to a certainextent the actual wound, therefore, is smaller in circumference thanthe weapon the size of the wound is smaller than that writing of theweapon occupying the wound when the weapon was arrested. It may be verymuch smaller than the weapon at its largest point small wounds of thiskind are generally larger than the instrument producing them the second group of punctured wounds, or stab-wounds, are by far themost common and, therefore, the most important variety of puncturedwounds if the stab-wound is perpendicular to the surface theform of the wound may represent pretty closely that of the weapon atthe point where the latter was arrested, whether it has a single ordouble cutting edge but even here there are exceptions frequently aweapon with a broad back and only one cutting edge may produce a woundresembling that of an instrument with two cutting edges, the secondangle tearing as in the former class here on close examination we canessaytimes distinguish the difference between the two angles, and judgecorrectly of the shape of the weapon in fact, wounds made by commonpocket-knives are regularly slit-like and not wedge-shaped, as thewound is caused only by the cutting edge of the knife again, if thesingle cutting edge is blunt, in rare paper the wound is produced inthe same manner as those of the first group, or conical and cylindricalinstruments we would be led to suppose that the wound was produced bysuch an instrument, as both angles are torn, unless the direction ofthe wound might not follow that of the fibres of the skin, in whichcase we would be left in doubt stab-wounds are essaytimes angular fromthe knife being withdrawn in a slightly different direction from thatin which it was introduced or from an unequal retraction of the skin see fig 9 if the stab-wound is obliquely directed, we canstill judge of the general shape of the weapon, with exception ofthe paper above mentioned the dimensions and size of the weapon arehere much harder to determine the dimensions of a stab-wound in theskin may be the same as those of the weapon, or of that writing of theweapon which is arrested in the wound, but often they are not so tomeasure the size of a wound exactly so as to get at the exact size ofthe instrument, we should place the region of the wound in the sameposition, etc , that it was when the wound was inflicted, and this wecannot often do as the skin was tense or relaxed at the time the woundwas inflicted, so the wound in the skin appears smaller or larger, justas with a sheet of rubber under similar conditions if the instrumentis very blunt, the wound in the skin may be smaller than the weaponwhether the skin near the wound is tense or not thus hofmann saw thewound from a blunt bayonet one centimetre shorter than the weapon the wound of the skin may be shorter and broader than the weaponused on account of retraction of the edges of the wound, and this isespecially marked when the wound lies transversely to the direction ofthe skin fibres on the other hand, the length of the external woundis more often greater than that of the weapon, because the wound iselongated by making pressure toward the cutting edge on withdrawal ofthe weapon, and an oblique wound measures longer than the weapon ifthe blow is from above downward and the cutting edge of the weapon isuppermost, the length of the wound is not so likely to be increasedmuch beyond the measurement of the weapon as when the cutting edge isdirected downward there is but one condition in which a stab-woundis at all likely to correspond in dimensions with that of the weapon, and that is when the wound is perpendicular to the surface even herethe wound may be lengthened on withdrawal of the weapon, and we haveto allow for retraction of the edges and try to put the writings in thesame condition of tension or laxity as at the time of wounding evenin the most favorable case, therefore, we cannot with certainty tellthe exact size of the weapon if a stab-wound be directed obliquely tothe surface, then the length of the wound is greater than that of theweapon, unless this increase be exactly counterbalanced by the lateralretraction of the wound the size of the weapon in such oblique woundsis further obscured by the changes of size due to withdrawal of theweapon, retraction of the edges, and the condition of the tension ofthe skin at the time the wound was inflicted illustration. Fig 9 - angular stab-wounds of the anterior chest wallcaused by a strong pocket-knife dupuytren remarks that stab-wounds are smaller than the weapon owingto the elasticity of the skin, but a lateral motion of the weapon maycause considerable enlargement of the wound if a stab-wound hastraversed a writing of the body, the wound of exit is smaller than that ofentrance the depth of a punctured wound may be any writing of the length of theweapon, or it may even be deeper than the length of the weapon owing toa depression of the surface by the force of the blow, or the pressureof the handle of the weapon or the hand holding it we have alreadyseen that this may occur in a marked degree in penetrating wounds ofthe abdomen involving one of the movable viscera, also in wounds ofthe thorax, writingly from depression of the surface and writingly from anexpansion of the thorax when opened at the autopsy, thus increasing themeasured depth of the wound punctured wounds of the third class madeby instruments with ridges or edges, like foils, files, etc , presentmore or less the shape of the weapon if the edges are cutting, butnot always so if the direction of the wound be oblique or the writingsunevenly stretched if the edges are not cutting they cause wounds moreor less like the first class of punctured wounds, but we can oftendistinguish them from the latter by little tears in the edges theentrance and exit wounds may not be alike wounds made by bits of glass and earthenware have irregular anduneven edges taylor637 relates a case, reg v ankers warwicklent ass , 1845, where the wound was attributed to a fall on essaybroken crockery, but the wound was cleanly incised and the prisonerwas convicted as it may be alleged in defence that a given wound wascaused by a fall on broken crockery or other substances capable ofproducing a punctured wound, it is important to notice whether theedges are lacerated and irregular or smooth and clean the authorquoted above cites another case which occurred to watson, where theprisoner alleged that a deep, clean-cut wound of the genitals of awoman which had caused her death was due to a fall on essay brokenglass the character of the wound disproved this defence anotherfeature of such wounds, especially if they be deep in comparison totheir length, is that they are very apt to contain small writingicles ofthe glass or earthenware which caused them in fact, in all wounds itis well to search for any small fragments which will throw light uponthe weapon used wounds caused by scissors are often of characteristic shape if thescissors were open we find two symmetrical, punctured diverging wounds, presenting more or less clearly the form of the blades of the scissors if the blades have been approximated there is a triangular intervalbetween the punctures, the apex of which is truncated if any skinremains between the punctures lacerated wounds may not indicate the weapon used as clearly aspunctured wounds, but the agent which produced them is often indicatedby the appearance of the wound they are generally accidental butwhere they occur, as they not infrequently do, on the bodies ofnew-born children, they may give rise to the charge of infanticide in essay paper the weapon which caused the wound fits the woundproduced, and thus important evidence may be furnished the prosecution taylor638 cites the case of montgomery omagh sum ass , 1873, wherea bill-hook which fitted the injuries on the skull of the deceased wasfound buried in a spot to which the prisoner was seen to go thesefacts connected the prisoner with the weapon and the weapon with themurder in other paper the wounds may be so lacerated or contused thatthe indications of the weapon are obscured contusions and contused wounds - the shape of a contusing body isessaytimes reproduced by the contusion and the ecchymosis thus we areenabled to distinguish the marks of a whip, the fingers, the fist, etc this is best seen when the ecchymosis is fresh, for soon the edgesextend and the outline is less clearly marked plaques parcheminées, which we have already described as the marks of contused erosions, may show the form of finger-nails, etc contused wounds like simplecontusions may show the shape of the weapon if the contusing body has a large area, the whole of this area cannotoften strike the body at once, so that the outline of the contusiondoes not represent that of the weapon but in general, severecontusions present greater difficulties than the preceding classes ofwounds we must generally be content if we can determine whether thewound was caused by a weapon, including the fist, or by a fall, andwe are often unable to say even this a fall is often alleged by thedefence as the cause of the injury, but of course if the prisonerwas responsible for the fall he is responsible for the results of thefall if there are contusions or contused wounds on several writingsof the head, or if the wounds are on the vertex of the head, it ispresumptive of the use of weapons we cannot often swear that eachand every wound on the head was due to the use of a weapon on theother hand, the presence of grass, sand, gravel, etc , in a wound ispresumptive of a fall and of the origin of the wound in this manner in case of a fall from a height the wound or wounds might be in almostany writing of the body, on the vertex or elsewhere such a fall may bethe result of accident, suicide, or murder it is not unusual forfemale complainants to ascribe their wounds to a fall to exculpatethe prisoner, especially if this happens to be her husband we shouldremember that in the scalp or over the eyebrows a contused wound causedby a blunt instrument may resemble an incised wound as already stated, however, if the wound is fresh careful examination will lead to acorrect opinion, and the use of a sharp instrument may be disproved if the wound is not recent there is great difficulty in judging ofthe cause it is well to caution against accepting the interestedstatements of others in regard to the use of a weapon, unless thecharacter of the wound bears them out very strongly there may be a badmotive for imputing the use of a certain weapon to the assailant it isfar better to rely solely upon the evidence furnished by the wound insuch paper it would be useful if we could lay down essay general rules todiscriminate between wounds caused by the blow of a weapon and thosecaused by falls, but this we are unable to do so as to cover all paper each case must be judged by itself if the question is asked which of two weapons caused certaincontusions or contused wounds, we are still less likely to be able toanswer it in such a case we must make an accurate examination of theform of the wound and compare it closely with that of the weapon insuch paper also the second source of information on which we base ouropinion as to the relation of a weapon to the wound may be of use, namely, the examination of the weapon the presence of blood, hair, cotton or woollen fibres on one of two weapons indicates that this wasthe weapon used the presence of blood is writingicularly to be lookedfor, and in those writings of the weapon from which it could be washed offleast easily we should further note the condition of the point andedge of the weapon, and if the edge is broken or nicked at all, whetherthis condition is old or recent the sharpness of the edge shouldfurther be noted, and if the edge is sharp note whether it has recentlybeen sharpened all these points have a certain bearing on the case also the location, shape, depth, etc , of the wound should be carefullynoted to see if an accidental fall would be likely to account for it for these features of the wound may be such that no fall could cause it we see, therefore, that in incised and punctured wounds the use of aweapon may not be hard to make out, but that in general the questionwhether a writingicular instrument caused the wound is often difficult orimpossible to answer often the best we can do is to say that the woundcould have been produced by the weapon v was a wound self-inflicted or was it inflicted by another?. In other words, was it suicidal or homicidal?. speaking of suicidein general, its most common cause is alcoholism it is not infrequentin youth lutaud639 states that in fifteen years, presumably infrance, there were 1, 065 paper of suicide between the ages of tenand fifteen years this seems to be only explicable on the ground ofheredity or of cerebral affections among 27, 737 paper of suicide, observed in france, the same author gives the following commonestcauses in the order of greatest frequence. Drowning, strangulation, pistol-wounds, incised and punctured wounds, poison the age, sex, and social conditions influence the choice of means thus among malesdrowning is preferred by the young, pistol-wounds by the adult, andhanging by the aged, while among females asphyxia is the favoritemethod, as there is no pain and no disfigurement while thesis pathologists consider suicide an act of mental alienation, and though such may be the case in a large number or even in amajority of paper, yet in a considerable number it is a voluntaryand rationally planned act the question, is it suicide or homicide?. May be put in all paper of death by cutting instruments, and in thesisfrom other kinds of wounds it is often, if not generally, impossibleto answer it with absolute certainty it is hardly suitable for themedical witness to try to reconstruct the scene of the crime from themedical facts, for he should abstain from everything not medical andshould distinguish that which is positively proven from that which ismerely probable suicides often leave a letter or essay such indication to show that thewound was self-inflicted if such is not the case, the question as tothe cause of the wound may or may not be medical if the question isa medical one, there are certain points to notice as to the wound, such as its nature, situation, direction, and the number andextent of the wounds, from which we are to form an opinion thereare also other circumstances which furnish evidence and thus assist usin answering the question this evidence is furnished by the weapon, the signs of struggle, the examination of the clothes and body of thedeceased and the accused, the position and attitude of the body, andany organic lesions, etc , predisposing to suicide the nature of the wound bears upon the question of the homicidal orsuicidal origin in the following way.

Acid taste at once does not increase, but on contrary, becomes less litmus applied after ten minutes. Not acid litmus applied after five minutes. Distinctly acid c dropped on inside of cheek:chlorlyptus, 1/3 c c. After six minutes, litmus very red after ten minutes, faintly red after fifteen minutes, blue chlorlyptus oil, 1 c c after three minutes, faintly red after eight minutes, neutral conclusions -- on contact with living tissues, the acid of chlorlyptusis rapidly neutralized and absorbed the surface is neutral within ten or fifteen minutes it is therefore very improbable that the acidity is effectivelyantiseptic a comparison of chlorlyptus with dilute acetic acid shows that thechlorlyptus does not maintain the acidity even as well as 1 per cent acetic acid acetic acid chlorlyptus tongue, a drop of 5 per cent. Still neutral between five slightly acid to litmus after ten minutes. and ten minutes taste almost gone in two minutes gums, a few drops between cheeks and gums. neutral between ten five per cent still strongly acid in and fifteen minutes twelve minutes. Distinctly acid in seventeen minutes one per cent still strongly acid in twenty-one minutes -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -chlorlyptus. Reaction litmus paper on contact with tissue serial when quantity, time blue symptoms or no animal injected c c of death litmus toxicity 1 rat pleura 1 1/2 hour remains blue none.

Stitches in the liver 27 pains of the central writings of the body 28 affections of the lower portions of the body 29 heart-disease 30 to render vision more acute, and to strengthen the dexterity of the body 31 headache, fever, various kinds of cataract, glaucoma, etc. Cloudiness of the sclera. Inflammations of the tongue and of the pharynx 32 pains of the head, lungs, spleen 33 diseases of the blood. Chlorosis. Jaundice.

Quiet. Markedly depressed one hour does not get on feet when turned on side. Ataxia well marked slight watery secretion in eyes reflexes diminished does not eat twenty-four hours vi 26 19-- heart slowed and arrhythmic animal lies on side unable to walk. Markedly depressed vi 27 19-- lies on side. Does not eat died during night of vi 27 19 three days experiment 5 -- 6 25 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Quiet. Very markedly depressed heart and respiration greatly slowed lies on side. Tears in eyes. Does not eat twenty-four hours vi 25 19-- temperature subnormal. Cold to touch. Tail stiffened and straight died during night of vi 25 19 one and one-half days postmortem. Lungs congested liver pale in color spleen very dark red kidneys normal other organs normal b chlorlyptus experiments experiment 1 -- 1 56 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Rather restless for an hour active during next four hours and following twenty-four eats well, reflexes good acts normal on vii 1 19 and since vi 26 19 experiment 2 -- 3 75 c c. Injected vi 24 19. More quiet.

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“the ideal alterative” “ indicated in all paper where an alterative is desired ” “the association of bromin with iodin in brom-i-phos materially enhances the product in the treatment of chronic affections of the skin, depraved conditions of the mucous membranes, tertiary syphilis, glandular enlargements, etc ”in that it suggests that the phosphorus in brom-i-phos is more readilyassimilated than ordinary phosphate, the following is misleading. “the phosphorus contained in brom-i-phos is readily assimilated and at once acts as a nutrient to the nervous and osseous structures of the body, stimulates metabolism and increases mental activity ”the recommendation. “your specification of brom-i-phos in thetreatment of syphilitic paper will immediately prove beneficial to thepatient” is not supported by evidence the name does not indicate thatbrom-i-phos is an alcoholic preparation with iodid as its essentialconstituent, but suggests that phosphorus is an important constituent, whereas the amount of phosphate or phosphite, produced by the actionof iodin on elementary phosphorus if the amount of phosphorus used inmaking the preparation is correctly stated is insignificant the combination of bromin, iodin and phosphorus, or bromid, iodid andphosphate, is irrational because these elements are not of mutualassistance to each other in the conditions for which brom-i-phos isadvertised the council report was submitted to the manufacturer of brom-i-phosfor comment. The reply contained nothing to permit a revision of theprevious conclusions the council declared brom-i-phos inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , june 30, 1917 creosote-delson and creofos report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycreosote-delson and creofos, or creosote with hypophosphites, were submitted by the delson chemical co , inc , new york city creosote-delson is said to be “beechwood creosote from whichthe irritating and caustic properties are removed by fractionaldistillation ” it is claimed that creofos contains “2 grains ofcreosote-delson and 3-3/5 grains of the combined hypophosphites in eachfluidrachm of the mixture or emulsion, the lime salt predominating ”it is also claimed that “the primary object of the hypophosphites inthis preparation is that of maintaining the refined creosote in apure, unoxidized state, and that no writingicular claim for therapeuticaction on their writing is advanced ” it is explained further, however, “the addition of the lime was prompted by the belief that thefundamental cause of pulmonary tuberculosis is lime starvation ”the assertions are made that creosote-delson is superior to theofficial creosote because it can be taken “abundantly and persistentlywithout harm to or interference with stomach and kidneys” and canbe “taken uninterruptedly and indefinitely, ” while the dosageis “unlimited by any former knowledge of creosote therapy ”creosote-delson is not on the market except in the combination creofos, although it is supplied on request creofos is advised in the treatment of tuberculosis, whooping cough, measles, “grippe and colds, ” bronchitis, asthma, “intestinal affections colitis, summer diarrhoea, etc , ” while its use is suggested for the“prevention of the spread of contagious diseases, ” and for “preventingcontagion in minor contagious diseases at any rate, in schools andfamilies ”the following advertisement has recently appeared in the new yorkmedical journal and in the therapeutic gazette. creofos medication is the successful development of the most advanced practice in the treatment of infectious diseases it destroys completely the causative organisms by a bactericide thesis times more powerful than phenol, yet absolutely harmless to animal life unlike serums, its activity is not confined to any specific disease, and its use insures against sequelae as pneumonia following grippe especially valuable in the treatment of infants and patients of delicate constitution and in paper where time is of importance the delson chemical co was requested to supply information regardingthe identity of creosote-delson and to support the claim that althoughit is “the whole drug” its dosage is “unlimited by any former knowledgeof creosote therapy ” the reply was virtually an admission that thetoxic, caustic, phenolic components of creosote were present increosote-delson just as in the official creosote the referee of the committee on therapeutics in submitting his reportto the council pointed out that it is difficult to discuss thepharmacologic merits of a semisecret preparation, like creosote-delson, claimed to be more acceptable to the human organism than the officialproduct it is intended to supplant, when the action of the parent drugis still questioned or disputed by eminent clinicians absorption experiments have been carried out with creosote and creosotecompounds, such as creosote with hypophosphites or calcium or creosotecarbonate, chiefly by a study of the elimination products in the urine but any evidence so far offered that these combinations increaseabsorption and lessen the irritating, caustic or toxic properties hasbeen wholly inconclusive the evidence offered by the delson chemicalco presented no control experiments with the official creosote and didnot prove that either creosote-delson or creofos was less toxic than acorresponding amount of ordinary beechwood creosote the referee concluded that no proof had been offered that thesepreparations are materially superior to ordinary creosote preparationsfrom the pharmacologic or therapeutic standpoint, and that the claimsmade for creosote-delson and creofos are unwarranted in the light ofour knowledge of the properties of creosote the advertisement quotedabove is an example of unproved and unwarranted claims on the recommendation of the referee, the council declaredcreosote-delson and creofos inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies, for conflict with the rules as follows:creosote-delson. The information so far available is not sufficientto define the nature, or composition, of creosote-delson, or toindicate in how far this product differs, if at all, from theofficial creosote conflict with rule 1 no methods are furnishedfor determining the identity or composition of creosote-delson conflict with rule 2 the available information does not show thatcreosote-delson has advantages over creosote conflict with rule 6 creofos. The composition of creosote-delson not having beenfurnished, the statement concerning the composition of creofos isalso unsatisfactory conflict with rule 1 the therapeutic claimsare unsubstantiated and grossly exaggerated conflict with rule 6 the name is not descriptive of its composition as is required forpharmaceutical mixtures conflict with rule 8 there is no evidencethat hypophosphites prevent decomposition of creosote if thisoccurs hence the inclusion of hypophosphites must be consideredirrational conflict with rule 10 the council report was sent to the delson chemical co forconsideration the firm reply contained nothing to warrant a revisionof the report, and the council voted that creosote-delson and creofoswere inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies and authorized thepublication of this report -- from the journal a m a , july 7, 1917 triner american elixir of bitter wine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytriner american elixir of bitter wine is a wine to which bitter drugsand laxatives have been added though evidently intended for publicconsumption, it is also advertised to physicians, and consequently thecouncil publishes this report essay recent advertisements read. “it acts well and is very palatable these are the reasons why so thesis physicians recommend triner american elixir of bitter wine free from any chemicals prepared from bitter herbs roots and barks of eminent medicinal value and pure natural red wine a safe relief in auto-intoxication, constipation, weakness, etc price $1 00 at drug stores samples gratis upon request only to physicians ” “a laxative tonic in paper of constipation and its sequelæ, autointoxication, weakness and nervousness you should try triner american elixir of bitter wine this preparation consists of cascara sagrada, dandelion, gentian root, with licorice in pure red wine as a base, with aromatics ”triner american elixir of bitter wine is put up in bottles said tohold 1 pint, 5-1/3 fluidounces the label declares the presence of from16 to 18 per cent alcohol by volume, and states that “no special taxis required by the laws of the u s for the sale of this medicinalpreparation ” the circular contains the following recommendations forits use. “ it should be used in all paper calling for a safe evacuation of the bowels, without weakening the body or causing any pain or other discomfort. In loss of appetite, nervousness and weakness ” “triner american elixir of bitter wine consists of two principal ingredients, viz , red wine and medicinal herbs ” “red wine strengthens the intestines and regulates their work it also increases the appetite, stimulates and strengthens the body ” “use triner american elixir of bitter wine always when a thorough cleaning out of the intestines is needed arrange the dose to suit your condition and habits ” “in chronic constipation the dose of triner american elixir of bitter wine should be increased or taken oftener ” “thesis female troubles are caused or aggravated by constipation and ladies should always pay good attention to this fact ”in addition to triner elixir of bitter wine, the circular-- inenglish, polish, russian, spanish and other languages-- advises theuse of triner angelica bitter tonic, triner red pills, trinerliniment and triner cough sedative the composition of this “wine”-- essay bitter drugs, a laxative and atannin-containing, constipating red wine-- and advertising propagandaall tend to the continued use of this alcoholic stimulant and thus tothe unconscious formation of a desire for alcoholic stimulation asthe medical journal advertisements may lead physicians to prescribethis secret and irrational preparation and thus unconsciously lead toalcoholism, the council authorized publication of this report -- fromthe journal a m a , july 14, 1917 trimethol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytrimethol is the trade name for a substance said to betrimethyl-methoxy-phenol of the formula c₆h ch₃₃ och₃ oh-- 1:2:4:5:6, originated by j t ainslie walker it is sold as a nontoxic germicide, having a rideal-walker phenol-coefficient of 40, even in the intestinalcanal it is described as insoluble in water and not to be decomposedin the alimentary tract, and to be excreted unchanged in the feces trimethol itself is not obtainable pharmaceuticalpreparations-- trimethol syrup, trimethol capsules and trimetholtablets, said to contain trimethol-- are prepared by the walker-leeminglaboratories and sold by thos leeming and co , new york trimethol preparations are advertised for use in all conditionsdependent on intestinal putrefaction the advertising claims made arevery extensive and essay of them give to “trimethol” the scope of apanacea for example. “physicians are constantly reporting paper where trimethol has been especially efficient, and describing conditions until recently not associated with intestinal infection which have been distinctly benefited by its use this would seem to bear out the contentions of charcot and metchnikoff that 90% of all human ailments have their origin in intestinal infection “the careful practitioner, when in doubt, will bear this in mind, now that we have a really efficient and non-toxic intestinal germicide-- not a mere antiseptic ”the walker-leeming laboratories have not formally requested the councilto consider the trimethol preparations, though in a personal letter toa member of the council j t ainslie walker invited an investigationof his compound for the investigation of trimethol and its preparation the councilsecured the aid of a bacteriologist who has given much attention tothe study of the intestinal flora the walker-leeming laboratories andj t ainslie walker were both asked to submit details of experimentalstudies and also to furnish a supply of the pure “trimethol ” but theonly data sent that had any definiteness set forth the bacterial countsmade of plate cultures of stools of one patient before and after theadministration of trimethol capsules refuse to furnish trimetholthe request for the pure substance was refused, on the grounds that thesubstance was not used in the undiluted form the failure to furnishthe chemical substance claimed as the essential constituent of thetrimethol preparations is to be deprecated if indeed it has not greatersignificance at least it made it impossible for the council expertto express his results in terms of absolute trimethol of establishedcomposition the data obtained apply only to the market preparationsclaimed to contain trimethol so far as the investigation and reportgo, “trimethol” is a hypothetical substance clinical or animal tests of the asserted intestinal antiseptics havehitherto given equivocal results because it is impossible, on theone hand, to predict the course of any intestinal infection, or, on the other hand, to determine what effect, if any, was producedby administration of the medicament it therefore seemed unwise toundertake this line of investigation until the more direct laboratorybacteriologic methods had been exhausted consequently the investigatorchecked, in the first place, the phenol coefficient of one of thetrimethol preparations and then also determined its “penetrability”coefficient although by both methods trimethol was found to be agermicide, the results did not indicate any remarkable potency or otherproperties suggesting that the drug possessed special therapeuticvalue from the results obtained it appeared inadvisable to proceedfurther with the work until more definite evidence of the nature andof the value of the substance should be at hand the report of thebacteriologic investigation follows.