History

Utopia Essay


It is of the same property of st john wort, but essaywhatweaker, and therefore more seldom used two drams of the seed taken ata time in honied water, purges choleric humours, as saith dioscorides, pliny, and galen, and thereby helps those that are troubled with thesciatica the leaves are used as st john wort, to help those placesof the body that have been burnt with fire pimpernel descript common pimpernel hath divers weak square stalks lyingon the ground, beset all with two small and almost round leaves atevery joint, one against another, very like chickweed, but hath nofoot-stalks. For the leaves, as it were, compase the stalk the flowersstand singly each by themselves at them and the stalk, consisting offive small round-pointed leaves, of a pale red colour, tending to anorange, with so thesis threads in the middle, in whose places succeedsmooth round heads, wherein is contained small seed the root is smalland fibrous, perishing every year place it grows almost every where as well in the meadows andcorn-fields, as by the way-sides, and in gardens, arising of itself time it flowers from may until april, and the seed ripens in themean time, and falls government and virtues it is a gallant solar herb, of a cleansingattractive quality, whereby it draws forth thorns or splinters, orother such like things gotten into the flesh. And put up into thenostrils, purges the head. And galen saith also, they have a dryingfaculty, whereby they are good to solder the lips of wounds, and tocleanse foul ulcers the distilled water or juice is much esteemed byfrench dames to cleanse the skin from any roughness and deformity, ordiscolouring thereof. Being boiled in wine and given to drink, it isa good remedy against the plague, and other pestilential fevers, ifthe writingy after taking it be warm in his bed, and sweat for two hoursafter, and use the same for twice at least it helps also all stingingsand bitings of venomous beasts, or mad dogs, being used inwardly, andapplied outwardly the same also opens obstructions of the liver, andis very available against the infirmities of the reins. It provokesurine, and helps to expel the stone and gravel out of the kidneys andbladder, and helps much in all inward pains and ulcers the decoction, or distilled water, is no less effectual to be applied to all woundsthat are fresh and green, or old, filthy, fretting, and running ulcers, which it very effectually cures in a short space a little mixed withthe juice, and dropped into the eyes, cleanses them from cloudy mists, or thick films which grow over them, and hinder the sight it helps thetooth-ache, being dropped into the ear on a contrary side of the pain it is also effectual to ease the pains of the hæmorrhoids or piles ground pine, or chamepitys descript our common ground pine grows low, seldom rising above ahand breadth high, shooting forth divers small branches, set withslender, small, long, narrow, greyish, or whitish leaves, essaywhathairy, and divided into three writings, thesis bushing together at a joint, essay growing scatteringly upon the stalks, smelling essaywhat strong, like unto rozin. The flowers are small, and of a pale yellow colour, growing from the joint of the stalk all along among the leaves;after which come small and round husks the root is small and woody, perishing every year place it grows more plentifully in kent than any other county ofthis land, as namely, in thesis places on this side dartford, along tosouthfleet, chatham, and rochester, and upon chatham down, hard by thebeacon, and half a mile from rochester, in a field near a house calledselesys time it flowers and gives seed in the summer months government and virtues mars owns the herb the decoction of groundpine drank, doth wonderfully prevail against the stranguary, or anyinward pains arising from the diseases of the reins and urine, andis especially good for all obstructions of the liver and spleen, andgently opens the body.

On the other hand, where a physician and surgeon has been duly employed by a sub-officer or servant of the railroad company, ratification of this employment, by those having authority to employ him and to render the company liable, will be inferred from slight circumstances such was the case of louisville r r co v mcveigh, which has been cited and in another case where information of the fact of the employment had been conveyed to the company general manager, utopia essay and he had neglected and omitted to repudiate the employment or to terminate it, and the surgeon went on and performed services, it was held that from these facts a ratification will be inferred indianapolis r r co v morris, supra see also toledo, etc , r r co v rodrigues, supra. Same v prince, supra. Terre haute, etc , r r co v stockwell, 118 ind , 98 presentation and retention of doctor bill raises no presumption ofliability - the presentation of a bill to a person containing chargesagainst him for services rendered another person, and his retentionof that bill without disclaimer of liability, does not raise apresumption of liability, for it is not necessarily an account stated to constitute an account stated, there must be not only a statement ofaccount, but acquiescence in it. Mere retention of the account is notsufficient bills presented not conclusive as to amounts charged - on the otherhand, if a bill is presented which contains charges which are notacquiesced in, the person making out and presenting the bill is notabsolutely bound by the charges therein contained, although such a billaffords essay evidence as to the value of the services rendered 170claims against estates of deceased persons - a bill for a physicianservices constitutes a claim against the estate of a deceased person, like any other debt in essay states it is a preferred claim 171 inthis connection it should be observed that short statutes of limitationexist in most countries and states applicable to such paper, shorterthan the ordinary limitation imposed by law upon the right to sue uponclaims for services rendered which is six years in order to preservehis legal rights, the physician should as soon as possible after thedeath of the person for whom his services have been rendered, ascertainwho is the administrator or executor of the estate of such person, andfile with such representative, personally, proof of his claim patient who receives benefit of services of consulting physicianliable - the liability of a patient for the services of a consultingphysician is generally governed by the same rules as his liability tothe physician in immediate charge of the case 172where the patient accepts the services of a consulting physician, although he has not directly requested them, he must pay for them ifhe receives the benefit of them without objecting, because it will bepresumed that he ratified the act of the physician who was in charge ofthe case, in calling the other physician into consultation 173but, however this may be, it is a principle of professional ethics, which has almost acquired the authority of legal doctrine, that aphysician in charge of a case should obtain the full assent of apatient, or of his family and friends, if he is too ill to give his ownconsent, to the calling of another physician in consultation no other stranger can be called into sick-room without assent ofpatient - a limitation upon the authority and right of an attendingphysician is, that if he desires or attempts to call in a stranger nota physician, he must obtain his patient consent the obligation ofa physician toward his patient of secrecy and confidence is regardedas very strict, and if a physician should call in a student or otherstranger, without first consulting his patient, or those who are inessay measure related to him and connected with him, it would be a verysevere stretch of morals and possibly of law in fact, in a recent casein michigan, a physician was held liable for damages who called in astranger, an unmarried man, who was an unprofessional man, to be withhim while he was in attendance on a confinement case in that case boththe physician and the person so called in, and who was present at thattime, were held liable in damages. And it was further held that theright to recover was not affected by the fact that the patient supposedthat the person so called in was a medical man, and therefore submittedto his presence without objection 174the statutes which create the privilege as to professionalcommunications and information necessary to enable the physician toprescribe, might not apply to students or other strangers, and this isprobably the reason for the rule of law laid down in the michigan case the obligation to preserve inviolate a communication as a privilegedcommunication, including in the meaning of the word “communication”all knowledge or information received while in attendance upon a case, would be held to have been broken by the act of the physician inbringing in a stranger who would not be privileged from testifying measure of recovery for services rendered terms of express contract govern reasonable worth the rule in impliedcontracts - in case of an express contract its terms necessarilymeasure the amount of the charges in the absence of an expresscontract fixing the value of the services to be rendered, the measureof damages for breach of payment is like that in any other case ofpersonal services, the reasonable worth and value of the servicesperformed so likewise if medicines or appliances are furnished, whichare not reasonably to be expected and furnished, according to thecustom of the school to which the physician or surgeon belongs, thereasonable worth and value at the time of furnishing them, and at theplace of furnishing them, is the measure fixed by the law to determinewhat shall be recovered for them 175value how proved - when the medical man is compelled to go intocourt to enforce payment for his services, it has been questionedwhether he can testify to the services rendered, and the facts andcircumstances surrounding the patient at the time of the treatment, because it has been claimed that he could not do so without violatingthe statute against the disclosure by physicians of informationreceived which is necessary to enable them to prescribe the tendencyof the later decisions, however, seems to be that the breach of thepatient contract to pay relieves the physician from his obligationof secrecy, and consequently, that if it is necessary for him to gointo court and prove the value of his services, he may testify, withinreasonable limitations, to all matters necessary to inform the courtfully as to the nature and extent of the disease or injuries of thepatient, in order that he may show the responsibility imposed upon himand the extent of the services that he has rendered this subject willbe fully considered under the head of “privileged communications ”the usual course of practice where there is not an express contractfixing the charges, is to prove the facts and circumstances showing thetreatment and services, and then to produce other physicians who, inanswer to a hypothetical question stating the facts and circumstancesin the case, assuming them as true, are allowed, if they state theyknow the value of such services, to give an expert opinion as to whatthat value is 176 it has also been said ordronaux, “jurisprudenceof medicine, ” § 43, that if a fee-bill of charges for such serviceshas been established by an association of physicians recognized bylaw, such as a county medical society or a state medical society, incorporated pursuant to statute, such fee-bill can, if properlyauthenticated as having been adopted by the association, be offered inevidence on behalf of the patient and against the physician but sucha fee-bill in such a case would not be held to be conclusive evidenceof the value of the services, but will be received in evidence, if atall, merely for the purpose of showing what was the usual and ordinarycharge in such paper as we shall see later on, under “malpractice, ” ajudgment for services rendered, however small, is a bar to an action ofmalpractice, because a judgment for the value of the services renderedinvolves proof on the writing of the plaintiff, and a finding on the writingof the court, that the services had value and were skilfully performedand properly rendered 177custom of physicians to treat each other gratis, enforceable - physicians frequently treat each other, and it has beenheld, where the custom exists to do so without charge, that such acustom is binding of course, this rule does not prevent physiciansfrom making an express contract to waive the custom and agreeing thatthe services be compensated elements to be proved in an action for service, etc - generaladvice - the result of these rules may be thus summarized, viz. Theelements to be established in an action for services by a physicianagainst a patient are three in number 1 the employment. 2 theperformance of the services;178 and 3 the value of the services, that value being either a fixed value determined by the terms of thecontract between the writingies, or the reasonable worth and value of theservices determined by evidence of experts upon that subject it is, therefore, important that physicians and surgeons should be advised, when entering upon the practice of their profession, to keep a recordof their transactions and of their business generally because, if theyare compelled to go into court to recover for their services, they willbe called upon to describe with minuteness the character and extentof the services they have performed in order that the value thereofmay be correctly ascertained and determined in the suit any person inactive practice who is not blessed with a most tenacious and writingicularmemory is liable to forget a great thesis details which, with a record inhand, properly kept, could be brought to his memory and be testified towith absolute truthfulness and conviction and the record itself, whenproperly shown to be a book of original entry, is generally receivablein evidence, as a memorandum of the transaction 179chapter v of the privileges and duties of physicians and surgeons when summoned as expert witnesses in courts of justice 180introductory distinction between expert witnesses and otherwitnesses - one of the most important positions that a medical manis called upon to assume by virtue of his professional character, isthe position of expert witness most writers on medical jurisprudenceconfine themselves, in the discussion of this subject, to presentingthe medico-legal rules which appertain to this position, and concedeits high importance before defining what is meant by the term expertwitness, or treating of the rules which determine the status of suchwitnesses in court, and their duties, it seems advisable to introducethe subject by a brief consideration of the distinction betweenordinary witnesses and expert witnesses when medicine and law areunited in the purpose of investigating facts, and bringing about alegal determination as to what are or are not facts, they co-operatewith each other in this way the law furnishes the machinery for theinquiry and the rules which determine how it shall be prosecuted the medical man, however, is called upon as an assistant to the law, because of his skill and experience in his profession, which enablehim to ascertain and interpret the circumstances from which the factssought to be established are to be inferred ordinary witnesses testifyconcerning matters of observation, the court and jury being endowedwith the sole power to determine the credibility of their evidenceand the true result of their observations yet the border line ofdistinction between witnesses who testify merely to actual mattersof observation, and those who give their opinions upon and drawinferences from established facts and circumstances, is a waveringone the general rule of evidence is well understood, that hearsayevidence is inadmissible, and yet, like any other rule, this has itsexceptions which grow out of the necessities of given paper this isso because there are and always will be, matters brought before courtsfor investigation and determination, long after the witnesses whopersonally saw the facts and circumstances of the writingicular case inwhich such matters are concerned have died, or have withdrawn beyondthe reach of the process of the court possibly no record in writingof such facts and circumstances has been left, or if in writing itlacks the sanctity of being a judicial writing, and hence is no betterevidence than any other form of hearsay evidence for this reason inmatters of family history, pedigree, custom, and the like, hearsayevidence is permitted, and is entitled to as much weight as any otherevidence, if the witnesses giving it be trustworthy in matters of common experience witnesses in general often stateconclusions - moreover, in matters of common experience, the testimonyof any witness, if carefully analyzed, often shows that he is essaytimesallowed to draw, and state, his conclusions and inferences, insteadof being required to confine his evidence simply to telling in thestrictest possible way, and with the closest limitations, what heactually witnessed a good illustration of this is the case of aperson who sees a crime of homicide committed by shooting, and iscalled upon to testify in court he would be allowed to testify thatthe defendant, if he could identify the prisoner at the bar as such, was the person whom he saw fire the shot, although he might not haveexamined him with close scrutiny, and might never have seen him beforethe crime in saying that the defendant was the person who firedthe shot, while he would be in terms testifying to a fact, he wouldstill be drawing an inference, and giving an opinion, based upon hisrecollection of the person whom he saw engaged in the act of firing, and of the likeness or resemblance of such person to the prisoner atthe bar, which would be a matter of comparison and of opinion so, too, although he could not see the bullet take its course from the mouthof the gun and imbed itself in the body of the deceased, yet if hesaw the firing, heard the explosion, saw the flash and smoke of thepowder, observed the direction in which the accused pointed the weapon, and saw the deceased stagger and fall, he would be allowed to testifyin answer to a direct question whether or not the accused shot thedeceased and, yet in making up that answer he would be testifying notsimply to a matter of actual observation, but to a conclusion as itis in reference to the question of identity so it is as to thesis othermatters which come before our courts, in all of which the witnesses arepermitted, without objection, to testify to conclusions and to giveanswers which are the result of inferences which they draw themselves, rather than a statement of their actual observations the law is nota metaphysical but a practical science, limited and confined by thepractical restrictions which experience has shown must be put uponit, in order to enable it to accomplish its object of administeringjustice between man and man men form such conclusions as have beenindicated, instinctively and unconsciously, and it would be practicablyimpossible for them to narrate any occurrence without embodying intheir narration essay of these natural and unconscious conclusions the law, therefore, includes among the matters which witnesses arepermitted to characterize as facts, those daily and hourly inferencesand deductions which all men are accustomed to make, and concerningwhich no two men who are properly constituted can greatly differ it is true that this practice essaytimes leads to error, but it hasgrown out of necessity the greatest safeguard is, that upon thetrial of a question of fact both sides are represented by counsel, and the opportunity which cross-examination offers to an advocate ofeven reasonable and ordinary skill is such, that these conclusionsand inferences may be sifted down through the chain of observation, and the process of drawing these conclusions and inferences from aseries of facts, tested in such a manner that the improbability, probability, or truth of any given inference or conclusion may bedetermined with substantial accuracy the illustrations which havebeen given above exhibit the simplest form in which so-called directtestimony can be demonstrated to be not always positive and directtestimony, but essaywhat a matter of inference other examples andillustrations of common occurrence will exhibit still more closely theline between actuality and opinion at times it becomes essential tothe determination of a question, that the courts should know whether ornot a person was angry, whether or not he was intoxicated, or whetheror not at a given time, when his mental status was under observation, he acted rationally or irrationally lay witnesses have for thesis yearsbeen permitted to testify from observation, and without possessing anyspecial qualification to do so, as to the existence or non-existence ofsuch conditions as those just mentioned in a person whose actions areunder consideration it is manifest that in making any such inferencesthe witnesses’ testimony is mainly a conclusion based on inference take the case of anger how shall that be determined?. it is difficultto describe anger a loud voice, a flushed face, the use of bitterwords, nervous, excitable, demonstrative action all these symptomsmight occur, or but few of them might occur so, too, in the matterof intoxication it is well known that essay individuals exhibit theeffects of intoxicants in an entirely different manner and degree fromothers essay men who are very much intoxicated, so as to be quiteincapable, in the eye of the law, of forming a criminal intent, or ofcontracting an obligation which would be valid, may still be able towalk perfectly straight, or to talk without much confusion others, whose walk and demeanor would indicate a considerable degree ofintoxication, might be mentally clear and unruffled and even stimulatedby intoxicants to precise mental co-ordination and reasoning again, there are persons, as to whom a witness, after stating that he hadobserved them, and after stating the writingicular matters and things inwhich such persons were engaged, might with apparent accuracy statethat they acted rationally or irrationally, and yet such persons mightnevertheless, upon further examination, be found to have been actingaccording to a writingicular custom or habit, or idiosyncrasy of longyears’ standing thus it is apparent that in each of these paper, when the witness attempts to state what, out of necessity, the courttreats as a fact viz , whether a given person is or is not angry, or intoxicated, or irrational the witness is really testifying tothe result, in his own mind, of his observations of the conditionand conduct of the person who is under investigation, when comparedwith a standard which the witness has erected for himself hence suchresults are really matters of opinion evidence, pure and simple otherexamples of a like character are found in statements as to weight, height, distance, speed, and the like, as to which men of commonpowers of observation, who are not strictly experts, are, becauseof convenience and necessity and the probability of reasonable andordinary accuracy, commonly permitted to give their own judgment andconclusions as evidence all witnesses often permitted to draw and state conclusions in mattersinvolving numerous and complicated details - thus the practicalnecessity of the administration of justice has led to the establishmentof the rule, that where the details of an occurrence are numerous andcomplicated, and are incapable of precise description by ordinaryobservers, witnesses are permitted to use, in testifying, generalexpressions which really embody their conclusions from the facts ordetails observed by them greenleaf on evidence, section 440, note a;wharton on evidence, section 434 wharton says that “the distinction between expert witnesses andordinary witnesses is this. The non-expert witness testifies toconclusions which may be verified by the adjudicating tribunal. Theexpert, to conclusions which cannot be so verified the non-expertgives the results of a process of reasoning familiar to every-day life;the expert gives the results of a process of reasoning which can bedetermined only by special scientists ” see also people v fernandez, 35 n y , 49 people v deacons, 109 n y , 374-382 this learned writer wharton also says, at section 437 of the sametreatise:“where conclusions depend upon facts whose evidential weight can onlybe determined by those familiar with a writingicular specialty, then theseconclusions may be given by experts in such specialty ” such also isthe exact derivative meaning of the word expert, it being derived fromthe latin word “expertus, ” meaning, literally, “experienced, ” andhence skilled by experience functions of an expert witness essentially judicial - it is thefunction of an expert witness to reason about facts, to explain theirconnection with one another, and to draw conclusions and inferencesfrom them hence, a witness, however expert in any ordinary sense inhis specialty, when he is called upon merely to narrate facts which hehas observed, is an ordinary witness, and is governed by the same ruleswhich apply to the ordinary witnesses when, however, he is calledupon, in addition to recounting facts, to explain or interpret them byreference to assumed facts, he becomes properly an expert witness itthus appears that an expert witness must necessarily perform a writingof the duties which devolve upon the court or the jury his positionis, therefore, essentially judicial, except that he has no power toenforce his determinations by judicial process the importance andresponsibility which the law thus confers upon an expert are of thehighest character he ranks the coequal with the tribunal itself in hispeculiar province, so far as relates to his individual responsibility that this should tend to elevate such witnesses to a high socialposition, and ought to require the most exact and faithful integrity ofpurpose and statement, is self-evident difference between status of expert witnesses in france and gerthesisand in the united states and england - in essay foreign countries, notably in gerthesis and in france, experts in medico-legal matters havean assured official position, and are generally not allowed to beselected at hap-hazard according to the will or the length of the purseof those who need their services the consequence of this method ofobtaining expert evidence is, that expert witnesses in those countriescommand a high measure of respect and honor unfortunately, however, in this country, where the opposite practiceprevails, the weaknesses of human nature are such that the commonpeople, newspapers, lawyers, and even the courts in essay recordedopinions and decisions, have come to express a great want of confidencein the weight and value of expert testimony this deplorable resultof a bad system of procedure is universally recognized, yet our statelegislatures have as yet refrained from attempting to correct it hence, in considering the value of expert testimony in matters ofmedical jurisprudence, it must be conceded, in the first instance, that the difference between the system prevailing in this countryand in england, and that which prevails on the continent, notably ingerthesis and france, has not tended to raise but to depress the value ofsuch testimony in the first-named countries in the latter countries, the experts upon medico-legal questions are officers of the court, or are treated as such they form, in a sense, a writing of the judicialsystem, and the expression of their opinions consequently carries withit great weight moreover, under the system which prevails there, it has been possible for men to be educated up to a high degree ofskill and experience in the writingicular branches of physiological orpsychological or physical investigations which they pursue, while herein america, and to a certain extent also in england, experts are suchfor other reasons, and by the operations of other causes, than the factof their permanent employment in that capacity as a general thing theybecome skilled in their profession or in the writingicular branches ofit in which they practise as specialists, and are summoned to testifysimply because they are selected by one writingy or another to a lawsuit mr wharton view of this question in the main hostile to theprevailing system here - the effect of the methods which thus prevailhas not been entirely to the advantage of the medical profession or ofour courts wharton, in his work on “evidence, ” section 454, observesupon this point.

“mercurous chloride calomel is perhaps the most widely used internal antiseptic and alterative and has established itself utopia essay in the therapy of constipation, cholera, dysentery, cardiac dropsy, pleurisy, malignant fever, malaria, syphilis, worms, infectious diseases, gout and rheumatism. Lithium chloride is writingicularly efficacious in acute and chronic parenchymatous nephritis and in various lithemic conditions. While opium has no rival as an anodyne and can be used to stabilize and conserve the alkaline reserve of the body against the acidosing influence of infections ”further, on page 14 we find. “in chills and fever malaria and other blood dicrasias, chlorax is indicated as an internal antiseptic and it exerts a beneficial effect on the course of these diseases ”the claims made for chlorax are exaggerated and misleading number “3”according to the label, number “3” is “a stable chlorine remedy for thepurification of the blood, ” with the composition. “free chlorine, 0 35 per cent. Calcium chloride, 0 30 per cent. Mercurous chloride, 0 03 per cent.

The upper half bears essaytimes three or four, each consisting of five leaves, essaytimes of three. On the top standfour or five flowers upon short foot-stalks, with long husks. Theflowers are very like the flowers of stockgilliflowers, of a palepurplish colour, consisting of four leaves a-piece, after which comesmall pods, which contain the seed. The root is very smooth, white andshining. It does not grow downwards, but creeps along under the uppercrust of the ground, and consists of divers small round knobs settogether. Towards the top of the stalk there grows essay single leaves, by each of which comes a small cloven bulb, which when it is ripe, ifit be set in the ground, it will grow to be a root as for the other coralwort, which grows in this nation, it is morescarce than this, being a very small plant, much like crowfoot, therefore essay think it to be one of the sorts of crowfoot i know notwhere to direct you to it, therefore i shall forbear the description place the first grows in mayfield in sussex, in a wood calledhighread, and in another wood there also, called fox-holes time they flower from the latter end of april to the middle of may, and before the middle of july they are gone, and not to be found government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon itcleanses the bladder, and provokes urine, expels gravel, and the stone;it eases pains in the sides and bowels, is excellently good for inwardwounds, especially such as are made in the breast or lungs, by takinga dram of the powder of the root every morning in wine. The same isexcellently good for ruptures, as also to stop fluxes. An ointment madeof it is exceedingly good for wounds and ulcers, for it soon dries upthe watery humours which hinder the cure costmary, or alcost, or balsam herb this is so frequently known to be an inhabitant in almost every garden, that i suppose it needless to write a description thereof time it flowers in june and july government and virtues it is under the dominion of jupiter theordinary costmary, as well as maudlin, provokes urine abundantly, and moistens the hardness of the mother. It gently purges cholerand phlegm, extenuating that which is gross, and cutting that whichis tough and glutinous, cleanses that which is foul, and hindersputrefaction and corruption. It dissolves without attraction, opensobstructions, and helps their evil effects, and it is a wonderfulhelp to all sorts of dry agues it is astringent to the stomach, andstrengthens the liver, and all the other inward writings. And taken inwhey works more effectually taken fasting in the morning, it is veryprofitable for pains in the head that are continual, and to stay, dryup, and consume all thin rheums or distillations from the head intothe stomach, and helps much to digest raw humours that are gatheredtherein it is very profitable for those that are fallen into acontinual evil disposition of the whole body, called cachexia, butespecially in the beginning of the disease it is an especial friendand helps to evil, weak and cold livers the seed is familiarly givento children for the worms, and so is the infusion of the flowersin white wine given them to the quantity of two ounces at a time;it makes an excellent salve to cleanse and heal old ulcers, beingboiled with oil of olive, and adder tongue with it, and after it isstrained, put a little wax, rosin, and turpentine, to bring it to aconvenient body cudweed, or cottonweed besides cudweed and cottonweed, it is also called chaffweed, dwarfcotton, and petty cotton descript the common cudweed rises up with one stalk essaytimes, and essaytimes with two or three, thick set on all sides with small, long and narrow whitish or woody leaves, from the middle of the stalkalmost up to the top, with every leaf stands small flowers of a dun orbrownish yellow colour, or not so yellow as others.

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Otherwise a cart loadwill not do it petroselinum parsley see smallage per columbinus see geranium persicarium folia peach leaves. They are a gentle, yet a completepurger of choler, and disease coming from thence. Fit for childrenbecause of their gentleness you may boil them in white wine. Ahandfull is enough at a time pilosella mouse-ear. Once before and this is often enough pithyusa a new name for spurge of the last edition plantago plantain cold and dry. An herb, though common, yet letnone despise it, for the decoction of it prevails mightily againsttormenting pains and excoriations of the entrails, bloody fluxes, itstops the menses, and spitting of blood, phthisicks, or consumptionsof the lungs, the running of the reins, and the fluor albus, painsin the head, and frenzies. Outwardly it clears the sight, takes awayinflammations, scabs, itch, the shingles, and all spreading sores, and is as wholeessay an herb as can grow about any an house tragus, dioscorides polium, &c polley, or pellamountain. All the sorts are hot inthe second degree, and dry in the third.