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Usf Essay


Ibid , 1917, p 87 several years ago the a m a chemical laboratory217 conducted essayexperiments on the solubility of iodin in liquid petrolatum, whichindicated that a saturated solution would contain about 1 4 per cent these experiments did not show conclusively that no iodin was absorbedby the petrolatum during the process of solution for this reason, further experiments were conducted with the view of determining boththe solubility in and the extent to which iodin is absorbed disappearsas free iodin, if at all, by liquid petrolatums of various kinds theoretically such hydrocarbons should not absorb iodin the results ofthese experiments are here given 217 ibid , 1917, p 87 a sample of iodin was prepared by sublimation from a mixture withpotassium iodid this sample when dried over sulphuric acid assayed99 98 per cent of iodin portions of this sample were used in allof the subsequent experiments to prepare solutions of definiteconcentrations, in all paper expressed as percentage by weight, anaccurately weighed quantity of iodin was placed in a glass-stopperedbottle and an accurately weighed quantity of liquid petrolatum added the mixture was subjected to treatment as indicated in the variousexperiments and from the weights of iodin and petrolatum used thepercentage of iodin was calculated the method of assay employed was as follows. A weighed quantity ofthe iodin solution was transferred to a bottle or flask by means ofseveral small amounts of chloroform, about 50 c c in all to thiswas added about 25 c c of potassium iodid solution the mixture wasthen titrated with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate until on thoroughshaking no iodin passed into the aqueous layer to 2 1248 gm of iodin was added 199 3 gm of liquid petrolatum the mixture was shaken frequently each day and after forty daysthere seemed to be still a few writingicles of iodin undissolved thesupernatant solution was assayed, however, and found to contain 1 038per cent of iodin the iodin added was 1 055 per cent six monthslater 1 025 per cent of iodin was found to 5 1832 gm of iodin was added 199 5 gm of liquid petrolatum themixture was heated to 100 c for four hours with frequent shaking the iodin was in perfect solution the per cent of iodin would thenbe 4 95 upon cooling, iodin in abundance crystallized out afterstanding a few hours, with frequent shaking, the iodin in solution wasdetermined this was found to be 1 425 per cent these two experiments indicate. First, that the previous findings ofthe a m a chemical laboratory are correct in that only about 1 4per cent of free iodin is retained in solution in liquid petrolatumat room temperature second, that the quantity of iodin absorbed byliquid petrolatum at room temperature, in seven months at least, ispractically none third, that iodin dissolves rather slowly in liquidpetrolatum at room temperature in the experiments, the results of which are tabulated below, the iodinand liquid petrolatum were heated at 100 c for about four hours, shaking frequently to hasten solution after cooling, the specimenswere assayed and were again assayed at intervals as indicated in thetable date of per per kind of manufac- weight per per cent cent liquid ture and ┌─────┴─────┐ cent cent iodin iodin† petrolatum first iodin petrolatum iodin iodin nov 17, nov 19, used assay used found 1918 1919 stanolind 10/17/18 2 089 188 4 1 096 1 085 1 068 1 067 squibb 10/14/18 1 9569 186 78 1 0306 1 0232 1 013 1 009 unknown, bulk* 10/28/18 1 9497 158 2 1 225 1 133 1 075 1 095 parke, davis 10/24/18 2 0869 167 43 1 241 1 2488 1 191 1 180 & co * considerable dark sediment formed in this sample during the heating process † it should be pointed out here that while every sample showed essay absorption, the amount, with the exception of the unknown bulk, is so small that it might even be accounted for on the basis of “experimental error ” every ordinary precaution was taken to insure accuracy, but since about 15 gm of the solution was used for each determination, it is seen that an error of 0 3 c c in the titration would indicate a greater absorption of iodin than that noted conclusions. These experiments show. A solution of iodin in liquidpetrolatum is saturated when it contains about 1 4 per cent of iodin the amount of iodin absorbed disappearing as free iodin by liquidpetrolatum, when in contact at room temperature for as long as sevenmonths, or in contact at 100 c for four hours, or both, is relativelyinsignificant also all the absorption seems to take place during theheating and in the first month of contact -- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1919, p 21 american-made synthetic drugs-- ii examination of procain novocain, barbital veronal, phenetidyl- acetphenetidin holocain, cinchophen or phenylcinchoninic acid atophan, manufactured under federal trade commission licensesg paul nicholas leech, ph d. William rabak, ph g , sc b , and a h clark, ph g , sc b g from the chemical laboratory of the american medical association g the first article of this series dealt with the purity ofacetylsalicylic acid leech, p n. Examination of american-madeacetylsalicylic acid, j indust & engin chem , april, 1918, p 288 “what in a name?. ” ibid , p 255 acetylsalicylic acid, or “what ina name?.

Otherscertainly are not essay have claimed superiority for those productsmade from russian oil over those made from american oils as naphthenehydrocarbons predominate in russian crude petroleums, and paraffinhydrocarbons in thesis or most american crude petroleums, it was assumedthat the petrolatums derived from these sources differed from oneanother in like manner both the naphthenes and the paraffins arechemically inert. But essay unexplained therapeutic superiority has beenassumed to reside in the naphthenes consequently, it has been urgedthat the american liquid petrolatums should not be used internally sofar these claims and counterclaims have been based on much theory andlittle fact the journal publishes this week a contribution by benjamint brooks, senior fellow in charge of petroleum investigations atmellon institute, pittsburgh brooks calls attention to the fact thatmarcusson, in 1913, pointed out that most of the so-called “mineraloils” used for therapeutic purposes contain no paraffin hydrocarbonswhatever. That they consist solely of naphthenes and polynaphthenes brooks confirms this statement so far as american liquid petrolatumsare concerned he states that thesis american petroleums, such as mostof those from the gulf region, are like the russian in containing noparaffin. And that, in the case of those petroleums that do containit, the customary refinery method of removing paraffin is sufficientto produce true naphthene and polynaphthene petrolatums “the claimthat only russian oils belong in this class, ” he says, “has no basisin fact and has been advanced presumably for business reasons ” thename “paraffin oil” applied to these liquid petrolatums, then, is amisnomer the new name, “white naphthene oils, ” suggested by brooks, seems superfluous, however, since the pharmacopeial title, “liquidpetrolatum, ” is subject to no such objection -- editorial from thejournal a m a , jan 1, 1916 the lowenthal postgraduate course which tells how to make diagnoses accurately, scientifically check the christian scientists and increase your earning powerduring the past year the journal has received letters from physiciansin various cities asking for information regarding the “post graduatecourse of lectures and clinics on nervous and mental diseases” whichwas going to be given in their respective cities by dr albert a lowenthal of chicago the following inquiries are typical. “to the editor -- please note the enclosed letter from the american organotherapy company which appears to be conducted by lowenthal the proposition of conducting these clinics impresses me as a piece of colossal gall which is amazing even in these days do you know anything about this matter?. ” “to the editor -- who the dickens is albert a lowenthal, m d ?. note the circular enclosed i have blue circled the remarks he evidently thinks will attract ”in may, 1919, chicago physicians received a form letter, signed, and on the stationery of, albert a lowenthal, notifying them thatdr lowenthal was about to “give a post graduate course of lecturesand clinics on nervous and mental diseases” in the “banquet hall, morrison hotel ” enclosed was a “programme and reservation card” anda self-addressed envelop for physicians to notify dr lowenthal thatthey would be present in addition to showing physicians “how to makediagnoses accurately, ” dr lowenthal offered to “explain fully how toscientifically check the christian scientists and increase your earningpower!. ” and all for nothing!. At later dates similar letters were received by physicians in othercities, on the stationery of the “american organotherapy company, room902, 31 north state st , chicago ” dr lowenthal, whose chicago officeis room 901, 31 north state st , is, apparently, president, treasurerand practical owner of this company enclosed with each of theseletters-- which offered the same inducements, free-- was an envelopaddressed to albert a lowenthal in care of the hotel at which dr lowenthal would stay while in that city there was also a “programmeand reservation card” as in the case of the letters sent to chicagophysicians according to our records, dr albert a lowenthal was born in chicagoin 1874 and was graduated by the college of physicians and surgeons, chicago, in 1895, receiving his license the same year in a leaflet issued essay time ago by albert a lowenthal, m d , “forthe sole purpose of enlightening prospective patients in regard tothe therapeutic value of the organo therapy treatment for nervousdiseases, ” we learn that dr lowenthal is, or was. “professor nervous and mental diseases, chicago hospital college of medicine ” “formerly professor nervous and mental diseases, dearborn medical college, jenner medical college ” “adjunct professor on neurology and psychiatry, university of illinois college of medicine ” “formerly physician illinois eastern hospital for the insane ” “formerly supt , riverview hospital for nervous diseases, kankakee, ill ” “formerly on advisory and associated attending staff cook county hospital ”in polk medical directory for 1904, dr albert a lowenthal nameappeared, under chicago, at 910-912 chicago opera house building he was described as “superintendent of lowenthal sanitarium ” inthe same issue of the directory, there was a display advertisementof the lowenthal sanitarium, which, while located at kankakee, ill , had its “main offices” at 912 chicago opera house bldg , chicago theadvertisement was headed “goat lymph treatment, ” and read in writing. “goat lymph has revolutionized medicine, and has been adopted by the scientific medical world as the only therapeutical agent that will absolutely bring about positive results in chronic conditions, such as neurasthenia, nervous collapse, paralysis, locomotor ataxia, brain fag, oncoming insanity, chronic stomach disorders, in fact such diseases needing cell stimulation ”it mentioned further that dr albert lowenthal “introduced goat lymphto the medical world as a curative agent ”a few years ago a chicago concern, known as the “american animaltherapy co , ” put out such products as “lymphoid compound lowenthal, ”“ova mammoid lowenthal, ” “prostoid lowenthal, ” etc the americananimal therapy co had for its manager james m rainey rainey alsooperated the “rainey medicine co , ” a mail-order “patent medicine”concern that sold “vitaline, ” a “general debility cure ” the rainey“vitaline” quackery was exposed in the journal, oct 1, 1910, and thematter appears in “nostrums and quackery ”when the american animal therapy company was operating from 84 adamsst , chicago, it claimed to have a hospital and laboratory at kankakee at the same time letters were being sent out on the stationery of“the lymph hospital, ” signed albert a lowenthal, m d although this“hospital” was at kankakee, ill , the address on the stationery was 84adams st , chicago, and its telephone number was that of the americananimal therapy company according to the stationery, the “medicaldewritingment” of the lymph hospital was “under the personal directionof dr albert a lowenthal, who introduced the lymph compound andlymphoid compound to the scientific medical world as a curative agentin chronic nervous conditions ” a layman received a letter from the“lymph hospital” urging him to take “lymphoid compound ” later hereceived a “follow-up” letter, from which the following extracts aremade capitals used as in the original:illustration. Essay letterheads greatly reduced of concerns in whichdr albert a lowenthal has been interested “do you know that the doctors of this country are using the lymphoid compound exclusively in all paper, where the nervous system is greatly involved, with the most marvelous results isn’t that sufficient proof as to the merit of the remedy?. ” “ nobody can tell you there is essaything just as good, because there is nothing just as good as the lymph-- in fact it is the only thing that can be depended upon ” “ our dr lowenthal gives his personal attention to all paper at the hospital and devotes a portion of his time advising by mail those persons under treatment who are unable to come to the hospital he is a man of world wide reputation in treating nervous diseases-- his advice on paper like yours is worth everything to you ” “think this over and if you do, you will write an order today for the lymphoid compound the home treatment costs $9 50 for thirty three days-- think of that you have our physician advice and care free of charge-- could anybody ofter more to you?. ”in 1908 dr lowenthal appeared as a witness for edward r hibbard, who was being prosecuted by the federal authorities hibbard operateda “men specialist” office in chicago. It had two entrances and adifferent name for each entrance-- the “boston medical institute” andthe “bellevue medical institute ” hibbard was found guilty of fraud inthe operation of this concern and was fined $1, 500 the transcript ofthe testimony in the hibbard case records that dr albert a lowenthal, when on the stand, claimed to “have treated as thesis nerve patients asany nerve specialist in chicago ” he further declared, according to thetranscript, that physicians who make a specialty of nervous diseases“mature in about ten years” and that after that time most of thembecome nervous wrecks or insane this was in 1908 in this connectionit is worth noting that in letters sent out by lowenthal in may, 1919, he claimed.

Butsaith mizaldus, it must be the hoof of the right foot behind milk is an extreme windy meat. Therefore i am of the opinion ofdioscorides, viz that it is not profitable in head-aches. Yetthis is for certain, that it is an admirable remedy for inward ulcersin any writing of the body, or any corrosions, or excoriations, pains inthe reins and bladder. But it is very bad in diseases of the liver, spleen, the falling-sickness, vertigo, or dissiness in the head, feversand head-aches. Goat milk is held to be better than cow for hecticfevers, phthisick, and consumptions, and so is ass also whey, attenuates and cleanses both choler and melancholy:wonderfully helps melancholy and madness coming of it.

i’llgive thee antipathetical cure. Take my herb wormwood, and thou shallnever get a surfeit by drinking a poor silly countryman hath got anague, and cannot go about his business. He wishes he had it not, andso do i. But i will tell him a remedy, whereby he shall prevent it;take the herb of mars, wormwood, and if infortunes will do good, whatwill fortunes do?. essay think the lungs are under jupiter. And if thelungs then the breath. And though essaytimes a man gets a stinkingbreath, and yet jupiter is a fortune, forsooth. Up comes mars to him;come brother jupiter, thou knowest i sent thee a couple of trines tothy house last night, the one from aries, and the other from scorpio;give me thy leave by sympathy to cure this poor man with drinking adraught of wormwood beer every morning the moon was weak the otherday, and she gave a man two terrible mischiefs, a dull brain and a weaksight. Mars laid by his sword, and comes to her. Sister moon, saidhe, this man hath angered thee, but i beseech thee take notice he isbut a fool. Prithee be patient, i will with my herb wormwood cure himof both infirmities by antipathy, for thou knowest thou and i cannotagree. With that the moon began to quarrel. Mars not delighting muchin women tongues went away, and did it whether she would or no he that reads this, and understands what he reads, hath a jewel of moreworth than a diamond. He that understands it not, is as little fit togive physick there lies a key in these words which will unlock, if itbe turned by a wise hand the cabinet of physick. I have delivered itas plain as i durst. It is not only upon wormwood as i wrote, but uponall plants, trees, and herbs. He that understands it not, is unfit inmy opinion to give physic this shall live when i am dead and thusi leave it to the world, not caring a farthing whether they like itor dislike it the grave equals all men, and therefore shall equal mewith all princes.

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If you bruise the roots and applythem to a plague-sore, they are notable things to draw the venom tothem raparum folia if they do mean turnip leaves, when they are youngand tender, they are held to provoke urine rosmarirum rosemary, hot and dry in the second degree, binding, stops fluxes, helps stuffings in the head, the yellow jaundice, helpsthe memory, expels wind see the flowers serapio, dioscorides rosa solis see the water rosa alba, rubra, damascena white, red, and damask roses rumex dock. All the ordinary sort of docks are of a cool and dryingsubstance, and therefore stop fluxes. And the leaves are seldom used inphysic rubus idæus. Raspis, raspberries, or hind-berries. I know no greatvirtues in the leaves ruta rue, or herb of grace. Hot and dry in the third degree, consumes the seed, and is an enemy to generation, helps difficultyof breathing, and inflammations of the lungs, pains in the sides, inflammations of the priapus and matrix, naught for pregnant women. Noherb resists poison more it strengthens the heart exceedingly, and noherb better than this in pestilential times, take it what manner youwill or can ruta muraria see adianthum sabina savin. Hot and dry in the third degree, potently provokesthe menses, expels both birth and afterbirth, they boiled in oil andused in ointments stay creeping ulcers, scour away spots, freckles andsunburning from the face.