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At least, it is reported by theroman author, cincius, that such nails could be seen in the temple ofthe etruscan goddess nortia this nail therapy was resorted to by theromans, for instance, during the terrible plague which raged in thefifth century, b c , and of which the celebrated furius camillus died wonderful as all the described procedures seem to us, and closelyas they may conform to the modern conception of superstition, at thetime they originated they were considered as quite removed from thatsuperstition with which we so closely identify them to-day for theperiod which saw the above events was an era of exclusive theism, andfor that reason divine sleep, divine feasts, the sacred performances, and all usa essay writing service the other peculiar means which were employed to secure medicalaid of the gods, were well-established features of religious worship the stigma of superstition was not set upon them as yet and this stateof things naturally persisted so long as the theistic theory of lifestood unchallenged this absolute reign of theistic theory dominating human life throughthe above-described therapeutic ideas was followed by an epoch in whichtheism was forced to divide its authority with a powerful rival namely, the physico-mechanical theory of life the struggle between both thesesystems was ushered in, for the hellenic as well as for the occidentalworld of civilization, by the appearance of ionian philosophy even inour own day this struggle is still going on in thesis minds this much, at least, is certain. That superstition has always been especiallyactive in medicine in areas of civilization where the theistic ideahas gained the ascendency the deadly struggle between theistic and physico-mechanical theories oflife in the realm of medicine has found no place in the experience ofhellenic and roman antiquity the change in opinion was rather wroughtby a gradual recession from the idea that the gods interfered with theproper course of man bodily functions this conviction resulted froma progressive growth of his physico-mechanical knowledge, and becameestablished at least as far as the thoughts and the opinions of thephysicians were concerned that the other classes, in writingicular therepresentatives of religion, did not so peaceably acquiesce in thismechanical conception of life we shall soon explain in chapter iii it was different, however, with the art of healing itself even thecorpus hippocraticum reveals to us a medicine which had been purifiedfrom all theistic admixtures, and from the publication of this work i e , from about the fifth century, b c , up to the overthrow of theancient period i e , until about the fifth or sixth century, a d no further attempt to refer the cause of disease and the treatment ofdisease to the gods of the ancient heavens is noticed in medical works on the contrary, that great efforts were made to look for the natureof disease in the mechanical conditions of the body is proven by anumber of the most various medical doctrines the extensive work ofgalen, that antique canon of medicine, which dates back to the secondcentury, a d , disavows all theism and all theurgy, and relies solelyupon physico-mechanical methods. Observation, experiment, dissection antique religion and antique medicine had effected a reconciliation areconciliation, however, in which neither writingy was to acknowledgea complete defeat. But the result was an amicable settlement, inwhich their just dues were given both to the theistic and to thephysico-mechanical theories of life the point of agreement upon whichthis settlement, or, to express it better, compromise, was made wasteleology by teleology we understand the conception that all earthly existenceis created by a supreme power in accordance with a preconceived plan, and that, accordingly, all organic life, in form and action, is mostperfectly adapted to the task prescribed for it by this power thisconception was absolutely indispensable to antique medicine. For itallowed the adherents of the theistic theory without hesitation toconsider man as a product of the creator, which was distinguished inall directions and which bore witness of the wisdom of god, a positionwhich precluded the assumption, which was impossible according to theantecedent medical observations, that disease came from god for itseemed quite plausible, according to the physico-mechanical theory oflife, that disease might be a product of a number of adverse, purelyearthly conditions, an assumption not involving the slightest doubt ofthe wisdom and creative power of the gods this teleological doctrine, which runs like a red thread through all ancient philosophy, becomesconspicuously prominent in galen every section of the powerful workof galen anatomy, as well as physiology, pathology, and therapy bearwitness to the most confident teleological conception, a conceptionwhich in the end culminates in the verdict “use of the writings, ” book11, chapter xiv.

But as a sign of such a faith this method is actually pathetic no taint of superstition could be found in it at the early periodreferred to it was still the pure and unadulterated expression of thegenerally prevailing conception that human art is to no purpose in anycase of disease, and aid must be found with the gods with those godswho regulate and personally execute all terrestrial phenomena down tothe minutest details temple sleep was not degraded into superstitionuntil medicine had come to the conclusion that the phenomena of diseasewere not evidence of an interference by supernatural power in thefunctions of the body, but disturbances of the function of the bodycaused exclusively by natural causes in accordance with this view, which first found its fullest and clearest exposition in the corpushippocraticum, it would seem absolutely necessary for temple sleep tolose all recognition from the art of healing however, this not beingthe case, it was bound to deteriorate into an act of superstitiousmummery, and the principal blame for this sad decadence is to be laidprimarily upon the priests it was their duty especially to lead intothe path of truth the patients who persisted in crowding into thetemples in the spirit of naive and childlike piety they sealed theirown condemnation as fosterers of superstition when they failed todo this duty, and endeavored rather, by every means in their power, to confirm the multitude in their ancient belief that the gods werepractising medicine non-christian as well as christian priests playedthis rôle for thesis centuries with equal ability and equal perseverance, as will be seen from the following brief history of temple sleep the belief in the efficacy of temple sleep had already been thoroughlyshaken during the time of the great hippocrates. Therefore, inthe sixth century, b c , the laughing philosopher of hellenism, aristophanes, the satirical contemporary of hippocrates, in act ii , verses 654 to 750, of his comedy πλοῦτος, severely criticizes themanner and method in which temple sleep was employed let us listento the words in which the poet describes what happened in the templeduring the observance of this rite the god æsculapius, accompanied by his daughter panakeia, appears inthe temple to examine in person the patients gathered there the firstone he meets is a poor wretch, neokleides, who, being blear-eyed, expects cure from the god the medically skilled æsculapius smearsupon the inverted lids of this patient a salve which causes such painthat the poor fellow will probably never seek his help again thesecond patient met by the god is the blind god, πλοῦτος i e , wealth personified here the conduct of æsculapius is entirelydifferent from that which he adopted when treating poor neokleides now he carefully strokes the head of the patient, then produces alinen cloth and carefully touches the lids with it he then callshis daughter panakeia, who winds a red cloth round the head of blindwealth now æsculapius whistles, and two mighty serpents appear, glideunder the purple cloth, and lick the eyes of the patient shortlyafterward the god regains his sight this passage is a cutting satire on practises which undoubtedlyprevailed in the greek temples as early as the sixth century, b c but, nevertheless, it took a long time before the patients losttheir belief in the miraculous efficacy of temple sleep, and thepriesthood continually strove to revive, by the mysterious storiesof various kinds they recounted to doubters, the belief in templesleep the sixth of the marble votive tablets which were found inthe temple of æsculapius at epidaurus shows the kind of miraculousreports invented by the priests the latter were in the habit ofinscribing upon these tablets reports of cures that had occurred intheir sanctuary, for the benefit of the visitors of the temple and forthe still greater benefit of the medical historians. But it is quiteprobable that the priesthood, intent upon curing, were encouraged intheir medico-literary attempts only by the silent hope of creatingan abundant supply of patients by such miraculous reports the abovetablet, no 6 which probably dates from the third century, b c - tellsus that a blind man by the name of hermon, a native of thasos, hadrecovered his sight by sleeping in the epidaurean temple of æsculapius however, it appears that this man hermon had been a miserable wretch, for he disappeared without having expressed his thanks in hard cash naturally such ingratitude provoked the god, and summarily he blindedthe thankless individual again it required a second temple sleepbefore the god condescended to become helpful once more but our tabletdoes not mention anything about the amount of the remuneration paid byour friend hermon who had been twice cured of blindness. Neither isthis at all necessary the miraculous tablet, even without stating theprice, doubtless made sufficient impression upon the minds even of themost parsimonious of future patients altho, therefore, the more enlightened among the greeks recognized, as early as in the sixth century, b c , the futility of temple sleepas a means of healing, the ancient world never relinquished itentirely we encounter it again in the later periods of antiquity thus, for instance, suetonius and other ancient authors tell us thattwo patients, one blind, the other lame, one day approached theemperor vespasian, who happened to be in alexandria, asking him tospit into the eyes of the one and to stroke the paralyzed limbs ofthe other. For they had been notified in temple sleep that they wouldbe restored to health if only the emperor would deign to perform theabove-mentioned manipulations but vespasian was an enlightened rulerwho, in spite of his imperial dignity, did not have much confidence inthe medical qualities of his saliva and of his hands, and accordinglyunceremoniously dismissed both supplicants this caused great terroramong the priests of serapis and among the courtiers, for obviouslythey had interpreted this affair solely as intended in majoremvespasiani gloriam the emperor was importuned, therefore, kindly toaid the unfortunate, but he persisted in his refusal probably he wasright in fearing the loss of his prestige should the imperial medicalpowers prove unequal to the task of curing disease not until thepriests solemnly vouched for the truthfulness of the dream-sending godserapis, and declared a failure of the imperial cure to be impossible, did vespasian stubbornness relent now he spat, and rubbed theparalyzed limbs, and the blind saw, and the paralytic arose and walked §6 church sleep - when, subsequently, the ancient religions died out, and had left the world as an heritage to christianity, temple sleep hadby no means died out also on the contrary, after the lapse of threecenturies, it again came into favor with the christian priests and theuse of it now was scarcely less in favor than it had been a thousandyears previous in the world of the ancient greeks let us mention a fewexamples the first four stories are taken from the works of gregory oftours mummolus, who came to the court of justinian 527 to 565 as theambassador of king theudebert, suffered greatly from calculi of theurinary bladder, and during this journey he became subject to an attackof renal colic things went badly with poor mummolus, and he was ina great hurry to make his will whereupon he was advised to pass onenight sleeping in st andrew church, at pateras, for st andrew hadperformed thesis miraculous cures in this place no sooner said thandone mummolus, greatly tormented by pain and fever, and despairingof life, had himself placed upon the stone flags of the sanctuary, and waited there for the things that were to happen suddenly, towardmidnight, the patient awoke with a violent desire to urinate, anddischarged in a natural manner a calculus which, as st gregory assuresus, was so enormous that it fell with a loud clatter into the vessel from that hour mummolus was hale and hearty, and joyfully started onhis journey homeward in brioude, the capital of the present dewritingment haute-loire, therewas a woman named fedamia, who had been paralyzed for years inaddition to this, she was penniless, and her relatives, therefore, brought her to the church of st julian, who enjoyed a great reputationin brioude, in order that, even if she did not become cured, she mightat least make essay money by begging at the church door for eighteenyears she had lived thus when, one sunday night, while she slept inthe colonnade adjoining the church, a man appeared who took her by thehand and led her toward the grave of st julian on arriving there sheuttered a fervent prayer, and in a moment felt as if a load of actualchains fell from her limbs all this, it is true, happened in a dream, but when the patient awoke she was hale and hearty, and was able, tothe amazement of the assembled multitude, to walk, with loud prayers, to the grave of the saint a certain man, deaf, dumb, and blind, known by the name of amagildus, also tried the sleep in the church of st julian, at brioude but itappears that this saint was not always quite accessible to the wishesof the sick it is true, amagildus was not obliged, like fedamia ofthe previous narrative, to pass eighteen years in the basilica, but, nevertheless, he had to sleep for a full year in the colonnade of thechurch before the curative power of the holy martyr delivered him fromhis ailment veranus, the slave of one of the clergy under gregory, was so violentlyattacked by gout that he was absolutely unable to move for an entireyear thereupon his master pledged himself to advance the afflictedslave to the priesthood if st martin would be willing to cure him toaccomplish this cure the slave was carried to the church, and thereplaced at the feet of the saint the poor wretch had to remain therefor five long days, and it seemed as tho st martin had forgotten allabout him finally, on the sixth day, the patient was visited by a manwho seized his foot and drew it out straight the slave rose to hisfeet in terror, and perceived that he was cured for thesis years heserved st martin as a priest but the most wonderful cure was that of the german emperor henry ii , called “the saint” 1002 to 1024 this emperor, who was of bavarianstock, suffered greatly from the stone, and had retired to the italiancloister monte cassino, inasmuch as this cloister during that periodjustly enjoyed an extraordinary medical reputation but whether themonks of monte cassino, altho well versed in medical art, did not havesufficient confidence in their ability to treat an emperor, or whetherthey were induced by essay other reason, is not known. However, insteadof submitting the imperial patient to the operations of terrestrialmedicine, they surrendered him to the providence of heaven, andmore writingicularly to the sympathy of st benedict this saint fullyjustified the confidence that was placed in him, for, during an acuteperiod in the patient sufferings, he appeared in his own holy person, and with his own holy hands he performed the necessary operation, and, after having pressed the stone that he had removed from the bladderinto the hand of the sleeping emperor, he retired heavenward but hetook care from his heavenly residence to attend to the prompt healingof the operation wound, and this was surely very good of st benedict in fact, his entire behavior during this case was extremely proper andlaudable. For is it not much more fitting that the imperial bladdershould be delivered from its disagreeable visitor, the stone, at thehands of a saint than by those of mortal beings, even if those mortalbeings were the pious and medically skilled monks of monte cassino?.

The moist and waterish dosooner corrupt in the stomach, but the firm do nourish more, and offendless the dried fruit sold by the grocers under the names of damaskprunes, do essaywhat loosen the belly, and being stewed, are oftenused, both in health and sickness, to relish the mouth and stomach, to procure appetite, and a little to open the body, allay choler, andcool the stomach plum-tree leaves boiled in wine, are good to washand gargle the mouth and throat, to dry the flux of rheum coming tothe palate, gums, or almonds of the ear the gum of the tree is goodto break the stone the gum or leaves boiled in vinegar, and applied, kills tetters and ringworms matthiolus saith, the oil preserved out ofthe kernels of the stones, as oil of almonds is made, is good againstthe inflamed piles, the tumours or swellings of ulcers, hoarseness ofthe voice, roughness of the tongue and throat, and likewise the painsin the ears and that five ounces of the said oil taken with one ounceof muskadel, drives forth the stone, and helps the cholic polypody of the oak descript this is a small herb consisting of nothing but roots andleaves, bearing neither stalk, flower, nor seed, as it is thought ithath three or four leaves rising from the root, every one single byitself, of about a hand length, are winged, consisting of thesis smallnarrow leaves cut into the middle rib, standing on each side of thestalk, large below, and smaller up to the top, not dented nor notchedat the edges at all, as the male fern hath, of sad green colour, andsmooth on the upper side, but on the other side essaywhat rough byreason of essay yellowish flowers set thereon the root is smaller thanone little finger, lying aslope, or creeping along under the uppercrust of the earth, brownish on the outside and greenish within, of asweetish harshness in taste, set with certain rough knags on each sidethereof, having also much mossiness or yellow hairiness upon it, andessay fibres underneath it, whereby it is nourished place it grows as well upon old rotten stumps, or trunks of trees, asoak, beech, hazel, willow, or any other, as in the woods under them, and upon old mud walls, as also in mossy, stony, and gravelly placesnear unto wood that which grows upon oak is accounted the best. Butthe quantity thereof is scarce sufficient for the common use time it being always green, may be gathered for use at any time government and virtues polypodium of the oak, that which growsupon the earth is best. It is an herb of saturn, to purge melancholy;if the humour be otherwise, chuse your polypodium accordingly meuse who is called the physician evangelist for the certainty of hismedicines, and the truth of his opinion saith, that it dries upthin humours, digests thick and tough, and purges burnt choler, andespecially tough and thick phlegm, and thin phlegm also, even from thejoints, and therefore good for those that are troubled with melancholy, or quartan agues, especially if it be taken in whey or honied water, or in barley-water, or the broth of a chicken with epithymum, or withbeets and mallows it is good for the hardness of the spleen, and forpricking or stitches in the sides, as also for the cholic. Essay useto put to it essay fennel seeds, or annis seeds, or ginger, to correctthat loathing it brings to the stomach, which is more than needs, itbeing a safe and gentle medicine, fit for all persons, which dailyexperience confirms. And an ounce of it may be given at a time in adecoction, if there be not sena, or essay other strong purger put withit a dram or two of the powder of the dried roots, taken fasting ina cup of honied water, works gently, and for the purposes aforesaid the distilled water both of roots and leaves, is much commended forthe quartan ague, to be taken for thesis days together, as also againstmelancholy, or fearful and troubleessay sleeps or dreams. And with essaysugar-candy dissolved therein, is good against the cough, shortness ofbreath, and wheezings, and those distillations of thin rheum upon thelungs, which cause phthisicks, and oftentimes consumptions the freshroots beaten small, or the powder of the dried roots mixed with honey, and applied to the member that is out of joint, doth much help it. Andapplied also to the nose, cures the disease called polypus, which isa piece of flesh growing therein, which in time stops the passage ofbreath through that nostril. And it helps those clefts or chops thatcome between the fingers or toes the poplar tree there are two sorts of poplars, which are most familiar with us, viz the black and white, both which i shall here describe unto you descript the white poplar grows great, and reasonably high, coveredwith thick, smooth, white bark, especially the branches. Having longleaves cut into several divisions almost like a vine leaf, but notof so deep a green on the upper side, and hoary white underneath, of a reasonable good scent, the whole form representing the form ofcoltsfoot the catkins which it brings forth before the leaves, arelong, and of a faint reddish colour, which fall away, bearing seldomgood seed with them the wood hereof is smooth, soft, and white, veryfinely waved, whereby it is much esteemed the black poplar grows higher and straighter than the white, with agreyish bark, bearing broad green leaves, essaywhat like ivy leaves, notcut in on the edges like the white, but whole and dented, ending in apoint, and not white underneath, hanging by slender long foot stalks, which with the air are continually shaken, like as the aspen leavesare the catkins hereof are greater than those of the white, composedof thesis round green berries, as if they were set together in a longcluster, containing much downy matter, which being ripe, is blown awaywith the wind the clammy buds hereof, before they spread into leaves, are gathered to make unguentum and populneum, and are of a yellowishgreen colour, and essaywhat small, sweet, but strong the wood issmooth, tough, and white, and easy to be cloven on both these treesgrows a sweet kind of musk, which in former times was used to put intosweet ointments place they grow in moist woods, and by water-sides in sundry placesof this land. Yet the white is not so frequent as the other time their time is likewise expressed before. The catkins comingforth before the leaves in the end of summer government and virtues saturn hath dominion over both whitepoplar, saith galen, is of a cleansing property. The weight of anounce in powder, of the bark thereof, being drank, saith dioscorides, is a remedy for those that are troubled with the sciatica, or thestranguary the juice of the leaves dropped warm into the ears, eases the pains in them the young clammy buds or eyes, before theybreak out into leaves, bruised, and a little honey put to them, is agood medicine for a dull sight the black poplar is held to be morecooling than the white, and therefore the leaves bruised with vinegarand applied, help the gout the seed drank in vinegar, is held goodagainst the falling-sickness the water that drops from the hollowplaces of this tree, takes away warts, pushes, wheals, and other thelike breakings-out of the body the young black poplar buds, saithmatthiolus, are much used by women to beautify their hair, bruisingthem with fresh butter, straining them after they have been kept foressay time in the sun the ointment called populneon, which is made ofthis poplar, is singularly good for all heat and inflammations in anywriting of the body, and tempers the heat of wounds it is much used todry up the milk of women breasts when they have weaned their children poppy of this i shall describe three kinds, viz the white and black ofthe garden, and the erratic wild poppy, or corn rose descript the white poppy hath at first four or five whitish greenleaves lying upon the ground, which rise with the stalk, compassingit at the bottom of them, and are very large, much cut or torn on theedges, and dented also besides. The stalk, which is usually four orfive feet high, hath essaytimes no branches at the top, and usually buttwo or three at most, bearing every one but one head wrapped up in athin skin, which bows down before it is ready to blow, and then rising, and being broken, the flowers within it spreading itself open, andconsisting of four very large, white, round leaves, with thesis whitishround threads in the middle, set about a small, round, green head, having a crown, or star-like cover at the head thereof, which growingripe, becomes as large as a great apple, wherein are contained a greatnumber of small round seeds, in several writingitions or divisions nextunto the shell, the middle thereof remaining hollow, and empty thewhole plant, both leaves, stalks, and heads, while they are fresh, young, and green, yield a milk when they are broken, of an unpleasantbitter taste, almost ready to provoke casting, and of a strong headysmell, which being condensed, is called opium the root is white andwoody, perishing as soon as it hath given ripe seed the black poppy little differs from the former, until it bears itsflower, which is essaywhat less, and of a black purplish colour, butwithout any purple spots in the bottom of the leaf the head of theseed is much less than the former, and opens itself a little roundabout the top, under the crown, so that the seed, which is very black, will fall out, if one turn the head thereof downward the wild poppy, or corn rose, hath long and narrow leaves, very muchcut in on the edges into thesis divisions, of a light green colour, essaytimes hairy withal the stalk is blackish and hairy also, but notso tall as the garden kind, having essay such like leaves thereon togrow below, writinged into three or four branches essaytimes, whereon growsmall hairy heads bowing down before the skin break, wherein the floweris inclosed, which when it is fully blown open, is of a fair yellowishred or crimson colour, and in essay much paler, without any spot in thebottom of the leaves, having thesis black soft threads in the middle, compassing a small green head, which when it is ripe, is not biggerthan one little finger end, wherein is contained much black seedssmaller than that of the garden the root perishes every year, andsprings again of its own sowing of this kind there is one lesser inall writings thereof, and differs in nothing else place the garden kinds do not naturally grow wild in any place, butall are sown in gardens where they grow the wild poppy or corn rose, is plentifully enough, and thesis times toomuch so in the corn fields of all counties through this land, and alsoon ditch banks, and by hedge sides the smaller wild kind is also foundin corn fields, and also in essay other places, but not so plentifullyas the former time the garden kinds are usually sown in the spring, which thenflower about the end of may, and essaywhat earlier, if they spring oftheir own sowing the wild kind flower usually from may until july, and the seed of themis ripe soon after the flowering government and virtues the herb is lunar, and of the juice of itis made opium.

Iodin, gr 1/8 usa essay writing service. Phenol, gr 1/2. Glycerine and elixir lactated pepsin with aromatic oils in the form of a perfect emulsion ”a circular which gives what is asserted to be the composition ofiodinized emulsion, declares that, among other ingredients, eachfluidram contains “one and three quarters m tincture of iodine ”both the statement on the label that the preparation contains “iodin”and the one in the circular that tincture of iodin is present in theproduct are incorrect, for the a m a chemical laboratory reportsthat no free iodin could be detected in the preparation, and that itresponded to tests for iodid instead an advertising circular for iodinized emulsion scott makesunwarranted claims for the therapeutic properties of the constituents for example. “ the great usefulness of turpentine in diseases, especially of the intestinal infection, such as the meteorism and tympanites of typhoid ”and this absurdity. “ where turpentine, carbolic acid or iodine or even pepsin is indicated, that it will give satisfaction in each and every case ”iodinized emulsion scott is not a “pharmaceutical triumph”. It is anirrational mixture-- a reminder of a decadent polypharmacy-- sold undermisleading and unwarranted claims it is inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies for conflict with rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 creosotonic scottcreosotonic scott, advertised as a “reconstructive tonic” for thetuberculous, according to the label, contains in each fluidram.

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During these “nine years” these combinations have inevitably been put to an informing clinical trial, because of the fact that they have been employed with success in disorders of the pancreas and bile functions and often in chronic and serious paper where the clinical conditions were obvious and unmistakable the reports of these paper come to us from physicians widely separated and each of his own independent initiative it would seem gratuitous, to say the least, to state that the observers are “disinterested, ” since it is quite clear that there is no other interest than that of usa essay writing service the practitioner and his patient it is not a case of a new drug or combinations of new remedies, but simply resources which, upon well grounded reasons, both from a theoretical and material standpoint, justify clinical trial, and with results which would seem from any ordinary human standpoint to be satisfactory clinical evidence as to the interpretation of competent clinical evidence by the council, we would, in view of the circumstances and without comment, ask to embody in this text this rule. “clinical evidence ”-- “to be acceptable, the clinical evidence must offer objective data with such citation of authority as will enable the council to confirm the facts and establish the scientific value of the conclusions drawn clinical data are worthless when the author is not cited the facts on which claims with regard to the value of a remedy are based must have been rendered accessible for investigation and confirmation by disinterested observers, either through publication or through the records of a hospital or other institution ” to discredit these combinations would seem to us not only unjustified, but sterile of any real advancement in medicine, or of anything in the way of helpfulness to the patient in the class of paper in which these products have been resorted to with benefit. This on no other ground really than the opinion “that they have no advantage over the simple preparations themselves ” naturally we shall continue to prepare these products and shall continue to take such action as we deem best to bring them to the attention of the physician, for the conduct of our business must remain in the hands of those who are personally responsible for it and it is now forty years since we took up this line of work and with the declared intention of devoting ourselves to the applied science of the digestive ferments and “to their development and practical application in every useful purpose in medicine ” we have been consistently in sympathy with the fundamental purpose of the council, which must first rest upon fact as to the character of the products offered as medicinal agents the weight of evidence justifies the position that these writingicular products rationally should be, and as a matter of fact are, of important special service in the utilization of these organic secretions in medicine as explained in the preceding report, the council holds that complexmixtures of remedial agents are from every point of view inimicalto therapeutic progress and therefore to the public welfare theyare especially objectionable because it is impossible to determineaccurately the effects which follow the simultaneous administrationof a number of drugs having dissimilar actions, and because such apractice tends strongly to discourage careful consideration of thespecial needs of individual patients without which there can be notherapeutic progress on the contrary, with their use, therapeutictreatment becomes haphazard and mere guesswork the dismissal of the holadin and bile salts mixtures does not involvethe question of the usefulness of holadin or of bile salts alone. Onthe contrary, the possible usefulness of these preparations is admittedin the report it is the combination of holadin, bile salts, sodiumsuccinate and phenolphthalein to which objection is made the statement of fairchild bros and foster that “these combinationsare now further justified in view of physiological considerations”is essaywhat misleading it is true that bile and the pancreaticsecretion cooperate in intestinal digestion, but there is no evidencethat in every case in which there is a deficiency of one of thesesecretions there is also a deficiency of the other, and it is an axiomof scientific therapeutics that no drug or remedial agent should beadministered except to fill a definite want otherwise the practice oftherapeutics becomes mere empiricism the properties of phenolphthalein are not in the least influenced bythe manner of its introduction, as messrs fairchild bros and fosteremphasize. But the important fact in this connection is that thepopular conception of their actions is greatly influenced by the modeof introduction, and phenolphthalein has been widely advertised in avariety of conditions, so that the popular notion concerning it is notthat of scientific therapeutics in short, the entire argument of messrs fairchild bros and fosterconcerning the exploitation of these preparations may be summed up bysaying that they have been used by clinicians who believe that goodresults have followed their use, and that the firm will thereforecontinue to supply the demand the tendency of essay to use anythingbrought to their notice, and the readiness of manufacturers to marketanything that physicians will use, presents the greatest obstacleto therapeutic progress there was never a nostrum so irrational orworthless that honest but undiscriminating clinicians could not befound who reported wonderful results from its use according to fairchild bros and foster, these holadin and bile saltsmixtures have been in use for essay nine years yet the council is notaware of any investigation of their merits that meets the requirementsof scientific research the council is not acquainted with a single clinical investigation oftheir action under conditions which afford satisfactory evidence oftheir therapeutic value it is obviously wholly insufficient for a clinician to report that theuse of a mixture was followed by good results the fallacy of sucharguments was demonstrated long ago he must make a comparison of theresults obtained with the remedial agent with those obtained in asnearly similar conditions as possible except for the use of the agent we are not aware that any such study of the mixtures in question hasbeen made it is in the last degree irrational to hold that becausebile salts are the active constituents of bile, therefore such complexmixtures as these are necessary -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 59 liquor santaiva, s & d , omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of liquor santaiva, s & d , has been authorized forpublication w a puckner, secretary so far the council has applied rule 10 concerning the recognition ofmixtures with the greatest leniency compatible with consistency whenthere has been a reasonable doubt concerning the value of a mixture, ithas frequently directed that rule 10 should not apply, pending furtherclinical trial of such mixture in no instance has subsequent experience shown that a strictinterpretation of the rule would have worked hardship or injustice thecouncil feels that there is no longer any warrant for the admission ofcomplex mixtures to new and nonofficial remedies or for the retentionof any that have been admitted, unless definite evidence of thetherapeutic value of such combinations is available the council being engaged in the annual revision of new and nonofficialremedies, the referee in charge of santal preparations reported thatthe three year period of acceptance had expired for liquor santaiva sharp & dohme the referee held that liquor santaiva, s & d , declared to be asolution of santal oil and copaiba with aromatic oils, in a mixtureof alcohol and water, is plainly in conflict with the currentinterpretation of rule 10, because there was no sound evidenceto indicate that any useful end is gained by the simultaneousadministration of santal oil and copaiba in any proportion, and thatso, of course, there is no evidence of the special advantage in thefixed proportions represented by the mixture he pointed out that theformula is essentially a survival of the discredited shotgun gonorrheamixtures and therefore recommended that its acceptance be not continued the council agreed to the recommendation of the referee and directedthat liquor santaiva, s & d , be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 66 maltzyme, maltzyme with cascara sagrada, maltzyme with cod liver oil, maltzyme ferrated and maltzyme with yerba santa omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of the maltzyme preparations has been authorized forpublication w a puckner, secretary in 1916, the council voted to omit maltzyme with hypophosphites, andmaltzyme with phosphate of iron, quinine and strychnine at thattime the labels used on the maltzyme preparations still in new andnonofficial remedies contained a list of maltzyme combinations whichincluded those which had been dismissed as the council does not permitan accepted article to be used as a means of advertising an articlenot accepted, it voted to continue the following preparations fora period of three years on condition that reference to the deletedarticles be omitted from the labels when those then in stock had beenused up. Maltzyme, maltzyme with cascara sagrada, maltzyme with codliver oil, maltzyme ferrated and maltzyme with yerba santa while themaltzyme company made no definite agreement to revise its advertisingpropaganda in accordance with the council requirements, the maltzymepreparations were retained in the belief that in due time the requiredrevision of the labels would be made the council being engaged in preparing the 1919 edition of new andnonofficial remedies, the referee in charge of malt extracts reportedthat the maltzyme company had not revised its labels in accordance withthe stipulation of the council the referee further reported he hadbecome convinced that the claim that maltzyme is “rich in malt enzymes”is unwarranted and that the term “maltzyme” malt plus enzyme ismisleading. This because of the recognized instability of malt extracts jour a m a , march 30, 1912, p 954 and because the maltzymecompany makes no definite statement with regard to the diastase maltenzyme content of its preparations 126 for this reason it hadbeen the referee intention to propose the deletion of all maltzymepreparations when their period of acceptance expired in 1919 as, however, the present maltzyme preparations are in contravention withthe council requirements, he recommended that the acceptance of thesepreparations be canceled now 126 manufacturers are warned by the dewritingment of agriculture, through the bureau of chemistry, that combinations claiming to containdigestive enzymes must be active when sold if preparations tend todeteriorate in a short time, each lot should be dated and not soldafter the period when they become inactive while every manufacturermust be considered innocent until proved guilty, and ignorant untilproved knowing, it is a matter of knowledge that manufacturers havemarketed their various digestive mixtures with full appreciation oftheir worthlessness -- jour a m a , dec 19, 1914, p 2234 the council agreed to the recommendation of the referee and directedthat maltzyme, maltzyme with cascara sagrada, maltzyme with cod liveroil, maltzyme ferrated, and maltzyme with yerba santa be omitted fromn n r -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 67 methaform omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of methaform has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary methaform is the proprietary name applied by f stearns & co tochlorbutanol being engaged in the annual revision of new and nonofficial remedies, and the term of acceptance for methaform having expired, a tradepackage was purchased to determine if the product was marketed incompliance with the rules of the council it was then found that acircular was wrapped with the trade package which advertised methaforminhalant, a preparation not accepted for new and nonofficial remedies for obvious reasons, the council does not countenance the use of anaccepted article as a means of advertising an article not accepted accordingly f stearns & co was advised that the council wouldbe obliged to withdraw the acceptance of methaform unless theobjectionable circular was omitted from the methaform packages stearns & co did not give the requested assurance, and therefore thecouncil directed that methaform be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 68 pineal gland, red bone-marrow and thymus gland and their preparations omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of pineal gland, red bone-marrow and thymus gland and theirpreparations has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary pineal gland, red bone-marrow and thymus gland were admitted to newand nonofficial remedies when these products gave promise of havingtherapeutic value the term of acceptance for the preparations of pineal gland, redbone-marrow and thymus gland having expired, the referee in charge ofanimal organ preparations recommended in his report for the annualrevision of n n r that these products and the general articlesdescribing them be omitted from new and nonofficial remedies he heldthat the experimental and clinical experience with them leads to theconclusion that they are without value in accordance with the recommendation of the referee, the council votedthat the following preparations be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies. Desiccated pineal gland-armour. Pineal gland tablets-armour;extract of red bone-marrow-armour. Desiccated thymus-armour. Thymustablets-armour as a matter of record, the descriptive articles for pineal gland, redbone-marrow and thymus gland, which appeared in new and nonofficialremedies, 1918, are given below pineal glandthe functions of this gland have not yet been established but thereis essay pathological and essay experimental evidence that there isa relation between the gland and essay processes of development andgrowth. The nature of this relation is unknown adiposis is a frequentsign of disturbed pineal function, but observers are not agreed whetherto interpret this as indicating hypofunction or hyperfunction, orpossibly a concurrent disturbance of the pituitary in essay instancesintravenous injections of pineal extract have seemed to cause adistinct fall in blood pressure it has been inferred from observationsin paper of pineal tumors in the young that the gland in youngindividuals furnishes a secretion which inhibits growth, writingicularlythe development of the reproductive glands, but the results ofexperimental administration of pineal substance orally have led otherobservers to infer that the pineal secretion favors physical andpossibly mental and sexual development it has been suggested that, asall evidence points to the fact that the function of the pineal glandis one of early life, extract of adult pineal glands might be expectedto be inert experiment has also indicated greater activity in glandsobtained from young animals than in those obtained from older ones thecouncil has decided to admit preparations of pineal gland to new andnonofficial remedies simply for experimental purposes red bone-marrowred bone-marrow consists largely more than 90 per cent of fat innew-born animals a third or more of this fat consists of lecithin the marrow of the bones of new-born animals contains iron up to 1per cent or more in various forms of organic combination bothlecithin and iron decrease rapidly in the first weeks after birth the commercial preparations contain very variable amounts of theseconstituents actions and uses -- red bone-marrow is supposed to stimulate theformation of red blood corpuscles.