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Us History Regents Thematic Essay Topics


Or the powder, or the seed mixedwith the ointments the butter-bur, or petasitis descript this rises up in february, with a thick stalk about afoot high, whereon are set a few small leaves, or rather pieces, andat the top a long spiked head. Flowers of a blue or deep red colour, according to the soil where it grows, and before the stalk with theflowers have abiden a month above ground, it will be withered and gone, and blow away with the wind, and the leaves will begin to spring, which being full grown, are very large and broad, being essaywhat thinand almost round, whose thick red foot stalks above a foot long, stand towards the middle of the leaves the lower writing being dividedinto two round writings, close almost one to another, and are of a palegreen colour. And hairy underneath the root is long, and spreadsunderground, being in essay places no bigger than one finger, inothers much bigger, blackish on the outside, and whitish within, of abitter and unpleasant taste place and time they grow in low and wet grounds by rivers and watersides their flower as is said rising and decaying in february andmarch, before their leaves, which appear in april government and virtues it is under the dominion of the sun, andtherefore is a great strengthener of the heart, and clearer of thevital spirit the roots thereof are by long experience found to bevery available against the plague and pestilential fevers by provokingsweat. If the powder thereof be taken in wine, it also resists theforce of any other poison the root hereof taken with zedoary andangelica, or without them, helps the rising of the mother thedecoction of the root in wine, is singularly good for those that wheesemuch, or are short-winded it provokes urine also, and women courses, and kills the flat and broad worms in the belly the powder of the rootdoth wonderfully help to dry up the moisture of the sores that are hardto be cured, and takes away all spots and blemishes of the skin itwere well if gentlewomen would keep this root preserved, to help theirpoor neighbours it is fit the rich should help the poor, for the poorcannot help themselves the burdock they are also called personata, and loppy-major, great burdock andclod-bur it is so well known, even by the little boys, who pull offthe burs to throw and stick upon each other, that i shall spare towrite any description of it place they grow plentifully by ditches and water-sides, and by thehighways almost everywhere through this land government and virtues venus challenges this herb for her own, andby its leaf or seed you may draw the womb which way you please, eitherupwards by applying it to the crown of the head, in case it falls out;or downwards in fits of the mother, by applying it to the soles of thefeet. Or if you would stay it in its place, apply it to the navel, and that is one good way to stay the child in it the burdock leavesare cooling, moderately drying, and discussing withal, whereby it isgood for old ulcers and sores a dram of the roots taken with pinekernels, helps them that spit foul, mattery, and bloody phlegm theleaves applied to the places troubled with the shrinking of the sinewsor arteries, gives much ease the juice of the leaves, or rather theroots themselves, given to drink with old wine, doth wonderfully helpthe biting of any serpents. And the root beaten with a little salt, andlaid on the place, suddenly eases the pain thereof, and helps thosethat are bit by a mad dog the juice of the leaves being drank withhoney, provokes urine, and remedies the pain of the bladder the seedbeing drank in wine forty days together, doth wonderfully help thesciatica the leaves bruised with the white of an egg, and applied toany place burnt with fire, takes out the fire, gives sudden ease, andheals it up afterwards the decoction of them fomented on any frettingsore, or canker, stays the corroding quality, which must be afterwardsanointed with an ointment made of the same liquor, hog-grease, nitre, and vinegar boiled together the roots may be preserved withsugar, and taken fasting, or at other times, for the same purposes, andfor consumptions, the stone, and the lask the seed is much commendedto break the stone, and cause it to be expelled by urine, and is oftenused with other seeds and things to that purpose cabbages and coleworts i shall spare labour in writing a description of these, since almostevery one that can but write at all, may describe them from his ownknowledge, they being generally so well known, that descriptions arealtogether needless place they are generally planted in gardens time their flower time is towards the middle, or end of july, andthe seed is ripe in august government and virtues the cabbages or coleworts boiled gentlyin broth, and eaten, do open the body, but the second decoction dothbind the body the juice thereof drank in wine, helps those that arebitten by an adder, and the decoction of the flowers brings downwomen courses. Being taken with honey, it recovers hoarseness, orloss of the voice the often eating of them well boiled, helps thosethat are entering into a consumption the pulp of the middle ribs ofcoleworts boiled in almond milk, and made up into an electuary withhoney, being taken often, is very profitable for those that are puffyand short winded being boiled twice, an old cock boiled in the brothand drank, it helps the pains and the obstructions of the liver andspleen, and the stone in the kidneys the juice boiled with honey, anddropped into the corner of the eyes, clears the sight, by consumingany film or clouds beginning to dim it. It also consumes the cankersgrowing therein they are much commended, being eaten before meat tokeep one from surfeiting, as also from being drunk with too much wine, or quickly to make a man sober again that was drunk before for asthey say there is such an antipathy or enmity between the vine and thecoleworts, that the one will die where the other grows the decoctionof coleworts takes away the pain and ache, and allays the swelling ofsores and gouty legs and knees, wherein thesis gross and watery humoursare fallen, the place being bathed therewith warm it helps also oldand filthy sores, being bathed therewith, and heals all small scabs, pushes, and wheals, that break out in the skin the ashes of colewortstalks mixed with old hog-grease, are very effectual to anoint thesides of those that have had long pains therein, or any other placepained with melancholy and windy humours this was surely chrysippusgod, and therefore he wrote a whole volume on them and their virtues, and that none of the least neither, for he would be no small fool.

it is difficultto describe anger a loud voice, a flushed face, the use of bitterwords, nervous, excitable, demonstrative action all these symptomsmight occur, or but few of them might occur so, too, in the matterof intoxication it is well known that essay individuals exhibit theeffects of intoxicants in an entirely different manner and degree fromothers essay men who are very much intoxicated, so as to be quiteincapable, in the eye of the law, of forming a criminal intent, or ofcontracting an obligation which would be valid, may still be able towalk perfectly straight, or to talk without much confusion others, whose walk and demeanor would indicate a considerable degree ofintoxication, might be mentally clear and unruffled and even stimulatedby intoxicants to precise mental co-ordination and reasoning again, there are persons, as to whom a witness, after stating that he hadobserved them, and after stating the writingicular matters and things inwhich such persons were engaged, might with apparent accuracy statethat they acted rationally or irrationally, and yet such persons mightnevertheless, upon further examination, be found to have been actingaccording to a writingicular custom or habit, or idiosyncrasy of longyears’ standing thus it is apparent that in each of these paper, when the witness attempts to state what, out of necessity, the courttreats as a fact viz , whether a given person is or is not angry, or intoxicated, or irrational the witness is really testifying tothe result, in his own mind, of his observations of the conditionand conduct of the person who is under investigation, when comparedwith a standard which the witness has erected for himself hence suchresults are really matters of opinion evidence, pure and simple otherexamples of a like character are found in statements as to weight, height, distance, speed, and the like, as to which men of commonpowers of observation, who are not strictly experts, are, becauseof convenience and necessity and the probability of reasonable andordinary accuracy, commonly permitted to give their own judgment andconclusions as evidence all witnesses often permitted to draw and state conclusions in mattersinvolving numerous and complicated details - thus the practicalnecessity of the administration of justice has led to the establishmentof the rule, that where the details of an occurrence are numerous andcomplicated, and are incapable of precise description by ordinaryobservers, witnesses are permitted to use, in testifying, generalexpressions which really embody their conclusions from the facts ordetails observed by them greenleaf on evidence, section 440, note a;wharton on evidence, section 434 wharton says that “the distinction between expert witnesses andordinary witnesses is this. The non-expert witness testifies toconclusions which may be verified by the adjudicating tribunal. Theexpert, to conclusions which cannot be so verified the non-expertgives the results of a process of reasoning familiar to every-day life;the expert gives the results of a process of reasoning which can bedetermined only by special scientists ” see also people v fernandez, 35 n y , 49 people v deacons, 109 n y , 374-382 this learned writer wharton also says, at section 437 of the sametreatise:“where conclusions depend upon facts whose evidential weight can onlybe determined by those familiar with a writingicular specialty, then theseconclusions may be given by experts in such specialty ” such also isthe exact derivative meaning of the word expert, it being derived fromthe latin word “expertus, ” meaning, literally, “experienced, ” andhence skilled by experience functions of an expert witness essentially judicial - it is thefunction of an expert witness to reason about facts, to explain theirconnection with one another, and to draw conclusions and inferencesfrom them hence, a witness, however expert in any ordinary sense inhis specialty, when he is called upon merely to narrate facts which hehas observed, is an ordinary witness, and is governed by the same ruleswhich apply to the ordinary witnesses when, however, he is calledupon, in addition to recounting facts, to explain or interpret them byreference to assumed facts, he becomes properly an expert witness itthus appears that an expert witness must necessarily perform a writingof the duties which devolve upon the court or the jury his positionis, therefore, essentially judicial, except that he has no power toenforce his determinations by judicial process the importance andresponsibility which the law thus confers upon an expert are of thehighest character he ranks the coequal with the tribunal itself in hispeculiar province, so far as relates to his individual responsibility that this should tend to elevate such witnesses to a high socialposition, and ought to require the most exact and faithful integrity ofpurpose and statement, is self-evident difference between status of expert witnesses in france and gerthesisand in the united states and england - in essay foreign countries, notably in gerthesis and in france, experts in medico-legal matters havean assured official position, and are generally not allowed to beselected at hap-hazard according to the will or the length of the purseof those who need their services the consequence of this method ofobtaining expert evidence is, that expert witnesses in those countriescommand a high measure of respect and honor unfortunately, however, in this country, where the opposite practiceprevails, the weaknesses of human nature are such that the commonpeople, newspapers, lawyers, and even the courts in essay recordedopinions and decisions, have come to express a great want of confidencein the weight and value of expert testimony this deplorable resultof a bad system of procedure is universally recognized, yet our statelegislatures have as yet refrained from attempting to correct it hence, in considering the value of expert testimony in matters ofmedical jurisprudence, it must be conceded, in the first instance, that the difference between the system prevailing in this countryand in england, and that which prevails on the continent, notably ingerthesis and france, has not tended to raise but to depress the value ofsuch testimony in the first-named countries in the latter countries, the experts upon medico-legal questions are officers of the court, or are treated as such they form, in a sense, a writing of the judicialsystem, and the expression of their opinions consequently carries withit great weight moreover, under the system which prevails there, it has been possible for men to be educated up to a high degree ofskill and experience in the writingicular branches of physiological orpsychological or physical investigations which they pursue, while herein america, and to a certain extent also in england, experts are suchfor other reasons, and by the operations of other causes, than the factof their permanent employment in that capacity as a general thing theybecome skilled in their profession or in the writingicular branches ofit in which they practise as specialists, and are summoned to testifysimply because they are selected by one writingy or another to a lawsuit mr wharton view of this question in the main hostile to theprevailing system here - the effect of the methods which thus prevailhas not been entirely to the advantage of the medical profession or ofour courts wharton, in his work on “evidence, ” section 454, observesupon this point. “when expert testimony was first introduced it wasregarded with great respect an expert was viewed as the representativeof a science of which he was a professor, giving imwritingially itsconclusions two conditions have combined to produce a material changein this relation in the first place it has been discovered that noexpert, no matter how learned and incorrupt, speaks for his science asa whole few specialties are so small as not to be torn by factions, and often the smaller the specialty the bitterer and more inflaming anddistorting are the animosities by which these factions are possessed writingicularly is this the case in matters psychological, in which thereis no hypothesis so monstrous that an expert cannot be found to swearto it on the stand, and to defend it with vehemence ‘nihil tamabsurdo, ’ which being literally translated means that there is nothingso absurd that the philosophers won’t say it!. in the second place, the retaining of experts by a fee proportioned to the importance oftheir testimony is now as customary as is the retaining of lawyers nocourt would take as testimony the sworn statement of the law given bycounsel retained on a writingicular side, for the reason that the mosthigh-minded men are so swayed by an employment of this kind as to losethe power of imwritingial judgment. And so intense is this conviction thatin every civilized community the retention by a judge of presents fromsuitors visits him not only with disqualification but disgrace henceit is that, awriting from the writingisan character of their opinions, theirutterances, now that they have as a class become the retained agentsof the writingies, have lost all judicial authority and are entitled onlyto the weight which sound and consistent criticism will award to thetestimony itself in making this criticism a large allowance must bemade for the bias necessarily belonging to men retained to advocatea cause, who speak not as to fact but as to opinion, and who areselected, on all moot questions, either from their prior advocacy ofthem or from their readiness to adopt the opinion to be proved in thissense we may adopt the strong language of lord kenyon, that skilledwitnesses come with such a bias on their minds to support the causein which they are embarked, that hardly any weight should be given totheir evidence ”this author then proceeds to show that under the civil law system theconclusions of experts were formerly treated as unassailable facts, but under the english and american common law system this is not thecase, but their testimony is to be weighed by the court he says:“the grounds on which the conclusion is reached may be asked for.

to insure results, prescribe the genuine ℞ syr hypophos comp fellows’ reject cheap and inefficient substitutes reject preparations ‘just as good ’”the only direct statement us history regents thematic essay topics contained in the advertisement is to theeffect that thesis clinicians have observed that fellows’ syrup and otherpreparations of the hypophosphites are not alike in truth, fellows’is not like the better preparations of this type, since after standingit contains a muddy looking deposit that any pharmaceutical tyro wouldbe ashamed of technically, then, the statement is true, but it ishardly credible that the manufacturer is paying for an entire page in amedical journal to make this statement without any attempt to suggestessaything else the advertising pages of six medical journals were examined in theorder in which they chanced to come to hand in five of these, theentire advertisement of fellows’ syrup was in the words just quoted;not a single word more in one there was the further statement. “not a new-born prodigy or an untried experiment, but a remedy whose usefulness has been fully demonstrated during half a century of clinical application ”these advertisements show that the exploiters of fellows’ syrup arespending a great deal of money to induce physicians to prescribe thepreparation, and it is equally evident that they wish to convey theimpression that the preparation has essay therapeutic value since wefind nothing directly false, in the first mentioned advertisement atleast, we must take the evident intent for consideration and determinewhat therapeutic value, if any, this preparation has, and whether it isadvisable for physicians to employ it in any case the preparation, according to the statement just cited, has been inuse for fifty years as the exploiter of any preparation cites themost convincing evidence in his possession in support of his views, this claim may be assumed to be the strongest available, and if thisevidence fails we must reject the contention as not proved herewe face a dilemma, for examination of the literature used in theexploitation of fellows’ syrup fails to disclose any evidence of thekind that we have described as satisfactory. And we are, therefore, forced to conclude that none has ever been found by this it is notto be implied that no reputable physician has ever reported favorablyconcerning the therapeutic effects of this preparation it is quitepossible that an extensive literature of that sort might be found ifone examined the older medical journals but the day has passed whenevery improvement that follows the administration of a preparation isblindly attributed to the drug in question clinical research today isfar more exacting we will assume that the reader who has investigated the question withan open mind will have come to the decision that the contention thatfellows’ syrup is of especial therapeutic value is not proved we mightrest with that assumption and ask the clinician whether he is preparedto use a nostrum that has been before the medical profession for halfa century without any satisfactory evidence having been gained thatit possesses therapeutic value we might ask him whether he would bewilling to tell his patients that he was prescribing such a nostrumfor them in the face of the absence of any such evidence of its value the inertness of the hypophosphitesbut we prefer to go even further and show him that not only is therean entire absence of any evidence of its therapeutic value so far aswe have been able to learn, but in addition there is an abundance ofevidence that the hypophosphites are devoid of any such therapeuticeffect as they were formerly reputed to have, and that, in fact, they are, so far as any effect based on their phosphorus content isconcerned, singularly inert while we have thus far taken the fellows’ preparation as the subjectof the discussion, we may take a broader view and examine the subjectof the hypophosphites in general, and the substitutes containingphosphorus that have been introduced from time to time it hardly needsto be said that if the hypophosphites are without therapeutic value, itis impossible to give them value by combining them in a muddy-looking, ill-made preparation such as fellows’ syrup such evidence wassubmitted to the medical profession in a report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry j a m a 67:760 sept 2 1916. And wewould strongly advise any one who is disposed to act on the suggestioncontained in the advertisements of fellows’, and other hypophosphitepreparations, to read that report in full and to think the matter overbefore prescribing one of these nostrums quoting briefly from thereport in question. “although the overwhelming weight of evidence was against the probability that the hypophosphite preparations are of value as therapeutic agents, the council thought it well to investigate the subject dr w mckim marriott of baltimore was therefore requested to review the evidence for and against the therapeutic usefulness of the hypophosphites and to conduct such experiments as seemed necessary ”the council was not content to rest on the mere absence of evidencefor the value of these preparations or any one of them, but soughtto obtain evidence that would fulfil the conditions mentioned above, and in pursuance of this plan it secured the cooperation of a trainedinvestigator, one who would work under the best of conditions forlearning the truth the results of dr marriott investigation werepublished in the journal, feb 12, 1916, p 486, and should be read byeveryone who has any interest in the problem lest essay of our readersmay fail to refer to the original of marriott paper, we will quotebriefly from it. “none of the subjects of the experiment experienced any effect whatsoever from the administration of the drug almost all of the ingested hypophosphite is eliminated unchanged “these experiments forbes demonstrate conclusively that the hypophosphites possess no specific value as a source of phosphorus for the body it is doubtful if there are any conditions in which the body suffers from lack of phosphorus even should such conditions exist, phosphorus, in the form that it occurs in the ordinary foods, or as phosphates, is more efficient in supplying the deficit than hypophosphites that must be oxidized before utilization and which are only about 15 per cent oxidized if at all for example, half a glass of milk contains more available phosphorus than three large doses of hypophosphites of 15 grains each, as great a dosage as is usually given “what then, is the therapeutic value of hypophosphites?. there is no reliable evidence that they exert a physiologic effect. It has not been demonstrated that they influence any pathologic process. They are not ‘foods ’ if they are of any use, that use has never been discovered ”the case seems to stand about like this. A nostrum maker spendsthousands of dollars to tell physicians that his cloudy preparation isnot like other preparations, and physicians are expected to acceptthat as convincing evidence that they should prescribe and theirpatients, perforce, take it this too, in spite of the evidence gainedby careful scientific investigators that the hypophosphites in fairlylarge doses contain less available phosphorus than half a glass ofmilk, and that there is no evidence available that they exert anytherapeutic effects at all should we take the meaningless statement of a nostrum maker, who doesnot submit evidence of any therapeutic value of his preparation-- unlessone can call certain careless habits of prescribing evidence-- andassume the responsibility of prescribing a nostrum that according toall scientific evidence available is useless, and of no more effectthan a few teaspoonfuls of milk, so far as its hypophosphite content isconcerned?. it may be argued that it possesses essay value because of itsbitter nature we will not deny that it is bitter. So is strychnin, sois quinin, so are scores of simple drugs, but what physician would careto admit to his patients that he did not know how to prescribe a simplebitter, such as nearly every layman can select for himself, withoutrecourse to a preparation such as fellows’ syrup?. We have felt that it is not wholly satisfactory to discourage the useof a given nostrum without making an effort to assist the physician inchoosing wisely in the treatment of the condition for which the nostrumis claimed to be useful in the present instance, however, we fear thatwould prove a task beyond our powers, for the hypophosphites have beenused in such a variety of conditions that the discussion would have toinclude nearly the whole materia medica if we were to follow our usualprocedure -- from the journal a m a feb 16, 1918 article vii shotgun nostrumsformerly it was customary to prescribe mixtures of thesis drugs on theassumption that if one of the ingredients missed the mark anothermight be expected to hit it, just as a poor marksman is more likelyto hit a target at short range with a blunderbuss than with a highpowered rifle increased precision in every branch of science hasbecome the outstanding feature of civilization the soldier todaymust shoot straight with a rifle that sends a single ball there isnone of the disposition to rely on chance as when the blunderbuss wasused a capable physician directs his drug straight at the seat of thetrouble, and we now have thesis drugs that can be depended on to exertdefinite actions the complex mixture is just as preposterous in moderntherapeutics as the blunderbuss would be on a modern battlefield every drug exerts undesired side actions, and it is the aim of themodern physician to try to select the one which will have a maximum oftherapeutic with a minimum of undesired actions when a complex mixtureis employed, it is obvious that only the best is utilized, whereas allthe undesired side actions come into play we do not pretend that eventhe best studied drug has not much to be learned about it. But thenostrum maker who exploits a complex mixture either knows practicallynothing of the side actions that it will exert, or, if he knows, heconceals that knowledge he knows that massive doses of hydratedchloral combined with various narcotics can be relied on to causeunconsciousness in nearly all paper, but he prefers to speak of thisas a hypnotic action this is plain gambling with human life when thepatient dies, it is difficult to prove that death was caused by themixture alone the council on pharmacy and chemistry has expended a great deal of timeand energy in combating the “shotgun” nostrum evil it is easy tounderstand the disadvantages of such mixtures but it is not so easy todemonstrate the misleading character of the claims made, with an entiredisregard of the truth, for these mixtures no one believes that a potof gold lies at the end of the rainbow, but no one has actually gonethere to see for himself bromidiathere are thesis types of “shotgun” nostrum essay are dangerous, as in the case of “bromidia”. Essay are preposterous, therapeuticmonstrosities which excite the contempt of educated physicians, as inthe case of “tongaline”.

Inother things it works almost in an equal quantity, which are these. Itpurges the body of choler and phlegm, being either taken of itself, made into powder, and drank in a draught of white wine, or steepedtherein all night, and taken fasting, or put among other purges, asshall be thought convenient, cleansing the stomach, liver, and blood, opening obstructions, and helping those griefs that come thereof, asthe jaundice, dropsy, swelling of the spleen, tertain and daily agues, and pricking pains of the sides. And also stays spitting of blood the powder taken with cassia dissolved, and washed venice turpentine, cleanses the reins and strengthens them afterwards, and is veryeffectual to stay the gonorrhea it is also given for the pains andswellings in the head, for those that are troubled with melancholy, and helps the sciatica, gout, and the cramp the powder of the rhubarbtaken with a little mummia and madder roots in essay red wine, dissolvesclotted blood in the body, happening by any fall or bruise, and helpsburstings and broken writings, as well inward as outward the oil likewisewherein it hath been boiled, works the like effects being anointed it is used to heal those ulcers that happen in the eyes or eyelids, being steeped and strained. As also to assuage the swellings andinflammations. And applied with honey, boiled in wine, it takes awayall blue spots or marks that happen therein whey or white wine are thebest liquors to steep it in, and thereby it works more effectual inopening obstructions, and purging the stomach and liver thesis do use alittle indian spikenard as the best corrector thereof meadow-rue descript meadow-rue rises up with a yellow stringy root, muchspreading in the ground, shooting forth new sprouts round about, withthesis herby green stalks, two feet high, crested all the length of them, set with joints here and there, and thesis large leaves on them, aboveas well as below, being divided into smaller leaves, nicked or dentedin the fore writing of them, of a red green colour on the upper-side, andpale green underneath. Toward the top of the stalk there shoots forthdivers short branches, on every one whereof stand two, three or foursmall heads, or buttons, which breaking the skin that incloses them, shoots forth a tuft of pale greenish yellow threads, which fallingaway, there come in their places small three-cornered cods, whereinis contained small, long and round seed the whole plant has a strongunpleasant scent place it grows in thesis places of this land, in the borders of moistmeadows, and ditch-sides time it flowers about july, or the beginning of august government and virtues dioscorides saith, that this herb bruisedand applied, perfectly heals old sores, and the distilled water ofthe herb and flowers doth the like it is used by essay among otherpot-herbs to open the body, and make it soluble. But the roots washedclean, and boiled in ale and drank, provokes to stool more than theleaves, but yet very gently the root boiled in water, and the placesof the body most troubled with vermin and lice washed therewith whileit is warm, destroys them utterly in italy it is good against theplague, and in saxony against the jaundice, as camerarius saith garden-rue garden-rue is so well known by this name, and the name herb of grace, that i shall not need to write any farther description of it, but shallshew you the virtue of it, as follows government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, and under leo it provokes urine and women courses, being taken either in meator drink the seed thereof taken in wine, is an antidote againstall dangerous medicines or deadly poisons the leaves taken eitherby themselves, or with figs and walnuts, is called mithridatecounter-poison against the plague, and causes all venomous thingsto become harmless. Being often taken in meat and drink, it abatesvenery a decoction thereof with essay dried dill leaves and flowers, eases all pains and torments, inwardly to be drank, and outwardly tobe applied warm to the place grieved the same being drank, helps thepains both of the chest and sides, as also coughs and hardness ofbreathing, the inflammations of the lungs, and the tormenting pains ofthe sciatica and the joints, being anointed, or laid to the places;as also the shaking fits of agues, to take a draught before the fitcomes being boiled or infused in oil, it is good to help the windcholic, the hardness and windiness of the mother, and frees women fromthe strangling or suffocation thereof, if the share and the writingsthereabouts be anointed therewith it kills and drives forth the wormsof the belly, if it be drank after it is boiled in wine to the half, with a little honey. It helps the gout or pains in the joints, hands, feet or knees, applied thereunto. And with figs it helps the dropsy, being bathed therewith. Being bruised and put into the nostrils, itstays the bleeding thereof it takes away wheals and pimples, if beingbruised with a few myrtle leaves, it be made up with wax, and applied it cures the morphew, and takes away all sorts of warts, if boiled inwine with essay pepper and nitre, and the place rubbed therewith, andwith almond and honey helps the dry scabs, or any tetter or ringworm the juice thereof warmed in a pomegranate shell or rind, and droppedinto the ears, helps the pains of them the juice of it and fennel, with a little honey, and the gall of a cock put thereunto, helps thedimness of the eye-sight an ointment made of the juice thereof withoil of roses, ceruse, and a little vinegar, and anointed, cures st anthony fire, and all running sores in the head. And the stinkingulcers of the nose, or other writings the antidote used by mithridates, every morning fasting, to secure himself from any poison or infection, was this. Take twenty leaves of rue, a little salt, a couple ofwalnuts, and a couple of figs, beaten together into a mess, with twentyjuniper berries, which is the quantity appointed for every day anotherelectuary is made thus. Take of nitre, pepper, and cummin seed, ofeach equal writings. Of the leaves of rue clean picked, as much in weightas all the other three weighed. Beat them well together, and put asmuch honey as will make it up into an electuary but you must firststeep your cummin seed in vinegar twenty four hours, and then dryit, or rather roast it in a hot fire-shovel, or in an oven and is aremedy for the pains or griefs in the chest or stomach, of the spleen, belly, or sides, by wind or stitches.

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Alypin, holocain 10 beta eucain 12 5 cocain 15 apothesine 20 tropacocain 20-25 stovain 25-30 nirvanin 30-35 procain 40-45132 a further contribution to the pharmacology of the localanesthetics by eggleston and hatcher, from the dewritingment ofpharmacology, cornell university medical college, new york city, j pharmacol & exper therap 13:433 aug 1919 the absolute toxicity of apothesine is, therefore, only a littlelower than that of cocain, and is twice as great as that of procain the clinical dangers cannot be predicted by either method, sinceclinical accidents depend, in most instances, on idiosyncrasies, or thetechnic of application -- from the journal a m a , jan 24, 1920 eumictine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted and authorized publication of the report whichappears below this report declares “eumictine” ineligible for new andnonofficial remedies because 1 it conflicts with rule 10 in that itis unscientific, 2 it conflicts with rule 6 in that it is sold underunwarranted therapeutic claims, 3 it conflicts with rule 4 againstindirect advertising to the public in that the name “eumictine” isblown in the bottle for the obvious purpose of bringing the productto the attention of the public when it is prescribed in the originalpackage, and 4 because the name is therapeutically suggestive and notin any way descriptive of its composition w a puckner, secretary eumictine is a preparation from the laboratory of maurice le prince, paris, france, and is marketed in this country by george j wallau, inc , new york it is claimed that the product is “a balsamo-antisepticpreparation composed of santalol, salol, and hexamethylene-tetramine, in the form of gluten-coated capsules ” nowhere in the advertisingare the amounts of the ingredients given according to theamerican agent, however, “each capsule is supposed to contain us history regents thematic essay topics 20centigrams of santalol, 5 centigrams of salol, 5 centigrams ofhexamethylene-tetramine ”eumictine is advised “in treating genito-urinary diseases urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, pyelitis, etc ” it is claimed to be “both anantiphlogistic modifying agent, a well-tolerated diuretic” which “maybe administered for long periods without ill effects ”the council declares eumictine ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies because it is exploited in conflict with the following rules:it is unscientific rule 10 eumictine is composed ofhexamethylenamin, salol and sanalol in fixed proportions hexamethylenamin may serve a useful purpose in essay forms of infectionof the urinary tract, but neither it nor salol is of any considerablevalue in gonorrhea it is now known that the balsamic preparations, formerly so widely used, do not have the curative effects in gonorrheaand associated conditions that used to be ascribed to them to combinethree substances, none of which has any distinct therapeutic value inthe conditions for which eumictine is proposed, does not enhance theirvalue there is nothing original in the combination used in eumictine, or in the manner of dispensing it it is sold under unwarranted therapeutic claims rule 6 theseclaims are made not only for the components of eumictine but for thecombination itself though santalol has certain advantages over theessaywhat variable oil of santal and other balsamic resins, it is nottrue that santalol “does not cause congestion of the renal epithelium”or that it does not “produce exanthema as do copaiba, cubebs, andthe ordinary santal oil ” it is not true that salol is “devoid oftoxicity ” neither is it correct to say that salol “asepticizes anddisinfects the bladder, the prostate and the urethra ” the claim thathexamethylenamin “is of value when any acute symptoms or tendency toinflammation subsist” is not justified the claim that hexamethylenamin“renders soluble the uric acid and urates” is also without foundation the following paragraph is characteristic of the claims made foreumictine. “anti-gonorrhoic by its santalol, diuretic, urolytic and analgetic by its hexamethylenetetramin urotropin antiseptic and antipyretic by its salol, eumictine represents a real therapeutic advance in the scientific treatment of diseases of the urinary passages ”instead of being “a real therapeutic advance” in the treatment ofdiseases of the urinary passages, eumictine presents one of thecomplex combinations that have long retarded the scientific treatmentof these diseases eumictine also conflicts with rules 4 and 8 of thecouncil -- from the journal a m a feb 21, 1920 platt chlorides report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report on“platt chlorides ” it also declares the preparation inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies because its composition is uncertainand indefinite and because the claims made for it are exaggerated andmisleading w a puckner, secretary“platt chlorides, ” marketed by henry b platt, new york, is soldas a disinfectant and germicide only incomplete and contradictorystatements have been made in regard to its composition thesis yearsago about 1899 the composition of platt chlorides was given as“the chlorids of zn 40 per cent , pb 20, ca 15, al 15, mg 5, k 5 ” thestatement that the preparation contained 20 per cent of lead chloridis interesting, in view of the fact that lead chlorid is soluble inwater at ordinary temperatures to the extent of less than 1 per cent in a booklet, also issued a number of years ago, the following “formulaof platt chlorides” was given. “a saturated solution of metallic chlorids combined in the following proportions. “sol zinc chlorid 40 per cent “sol aluminum chlorid 15 per cent “sol lead chlorid 20 per cent “sol calcium chlorid 15 per cent “sol magnesium chlorid 5 per cent “sol potassium chlorid 5 per cent ”the label on a bottle purchased in 1911, describes platt chlorides as. “a highly concentrated solution of the chlorids of aluminum, calcium, lead, zinc, etc ”the label of a bottle purchased in 1919 reads.