History

Us History Regents Essay Topics


Marks of us history regents essay topics circumcision, useful in india to identifymussulmans above eleven years. Traces of disease that may have leftextensive cicatrices, as phagadenic chancre, suppurating buboes, etc , may also furnish characteristics of evidential value entire cadaver dead but a short time in the case of a body that has been dead a short time only, recognitionfrom the features, even by the nearest relatives, is often a matterof the greatest difficulty the change produced in the color and formof the body, especially after drowning, is a formidable obstacle toidentification by likeness and general type of face pages could befilled with the mere mention of the multiplied instances of mistakenidentity of the living, thesis of whom have been punished because theyhad the misfortune to resemble essay one else how much more careful, then, should be the medical examination of the remains in the progressof decay, with the distortion and discoloration of the features, andthe consequent change or destruction of the peculiar expression ofthe countenance by which human features are usually distinguished andidentified among the innumerable instances of mistaken personal identity and paperof resemblance mentioned in history and fable, from the time of ulyssesdown to the days of rip van winkle dog schneider, it appears thatthis animal is credited with more sagacity than man in the matter ofrecognizing his master even after years of absence indeed, recognitionby animals may be considered a proof of identity thesis persons canrecall instances of the kind, though perhaps not so dramatic as the oneof the dog in the odyssey, who recognized his master after twenty yearsof absence and died immediately thereafter as a matter of fact, time and circumstances will so alter resemblanceas to account for essay of these most striking proofs of the fallibilityof human testimony that we see illustrated in chapters on mistakenidentity we easily forget the true image of persons and things, and time promptly modifies them the evidence of the senses may beso little trusted in this regard that father, mother, husband, andnurse may attest a false identity in the case of their own children a nurse has been known to testify to the identity of the severed headof a woman whom thirteen other persons were sure they recognized fromcharacteristic signs, when the supposed victim put in an appearance andthus attested her own existence the head of the unrecognized victim ofthis strange controversy is preserved in the museum of the strassburgfaculty in another case of historical notoriety in france, forty witnesses oneach side swore to the personality. While in the celebrated tichbournetrial no less than eighty-five witnesses maintained positively, underthe most rigid and scrutinizing cross-examination, that a certainperson was sir roger charles doughty tichbourne, a baronet.

95 0 per cent alcohol. 48 5 per cent alcohol;236 chloroformand ethyl acetate 237 complete saturation of the solvent was attainedaccording to the u s p ix method p 599 the bath was maintainedat a temperature of 25 c , with a range of ± 0 2 degrees the solutionwas analyzed by the method of seidell 238 the data obtained for thesolubility of phenylcinchoninic acid are given in table 5 table 5 -- solubility of cincophen gm per hundred solubility, gm of writings by solvent sat solution weight distilled water 0 0160 1 in 6, 216 0 95 per cent ethyl alcohol 0 8343 1 in 119 0 dilute ethyl alcohol 0 0875 1 in 1, 142 6 chloroform, 0 1075 1 in 929 7 ethyl acetate 1 4151 1 in 70 6235 attempts were made to make salts of phenylcinchoninic acidwith metals such as copper, mercury, barium and calcium, and alsothe chloroplatinic acid or periodid addition products reliablequantitative results could not be obtained 236 this corresponds to “diluted alcohol, u s p ”237 the ethyl acetate was merck product redistilled, stated tocontain 81 6 per cent of ethyl acetate, 10 per cent alcohol andalcohol derivatives 238 seidell, a. Bull 67, hyg lab , u s p h s , p 11 the abbott laboratories, chicago, have been licensed by the federaltrade commission to manufacture cinchophen other firms, however, havedecided to manufacture it without the formality of obtaining a license, evidently considering the german-obtained patent not to be valid 239239 very recently the chemical foundation, inc , has undertaken togrant licenses for cinchophen the calco chemical company has obtainedone procain novocainprocain was introduced in medicine under the proprietary name“novocain, ” and before the war was obtainable in this country onlythrough the farbwerke hoechst company, the american representativeof the german establishment, farbwerke vorm meister luciusbruening, hoechst a m chemically it is the mono-hydrochlorid ofpara-amino-benzoyl-diethyl-amino-ethanol, having the structural formula:illustration. Nh₂-- benzene ringcoo-ch₂-ch₂-- n c₂h₅₂ hclit is prepared according to u s patent no 812554 issued to alfredeinhorn, munich, gerthesis by treating para-nitro-benzoylchlorid withethylene chlorhydrin and diethylamin with subsequent reduction of thenitro groups, the resulting product being purified by recrystallization procain is employed largely in infiltration anesthesia it is lesstoxic than cocain, but its anesthetic action is not sustained thisdrawback is overcome by the simultaneous injection of epinephrin, andfor this reason procain is often compounded with epinephrin in tablets, thus obviating the necessity of separate solutions when the first specimens of the american-made product were submittedthrough the channels of the federal trade commission, it was necessaryto compile a monograph 240 this was prepared from descriptions inthe available literature, mostly from tests described in new andnonofficial remedies, 1918, and the german pharmacopeia v 240 the monograph appears in new and nonofficial remedies, 1919 the submitted products were found satisfactory chemically the toxicitydeterminations made by dr r a hatcher, with the assistance ofdr carey eggleston241 indicated that none of the specimens areto be considered dangerous when used in ordinary dosage for normalindividuals therefore the federal trade commission, on recommendationof the committee on synthetic drugs of the national research council aided by the a m a chemical laboratory, issued licenses for themanufacture of procain to the farbwerke-hoechst company which licensewas later transferred to the h a metz laboratories, to the abbottlaboratories, to the calco chemical company and to the rector chemicalcompany 241 the report of these and subsequent toxicity experiments onprocain appeared in the report of the council on pharmacy andchemistry, j a m a 72. 136 jan 11 1919 subsequently the products of the licensed firms were submitted to thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, which in turn invoked the aid of thea m a chemical laboratory and the cornell university pharmacologiclaboratory later the council asked the laboratory to examine themarket supply altogether, therefore, a number of products wereexamined which were found to respond satisfactorily to the testsoutlined table 6 table 6 date melting ash, brand received color point, c * % procain abbott, 12/21/17 white 154-155 none from committee on synthetic drugs procain abbott, 1/29/18 white 153 5-154 5 none submitted to coun- cil p and c procain abbott, 8/31/18 white 152 5-153 5 none gen pur off u s army procain abbott, 9/30/18 slight 153-154 5 none gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 89999 procain abbott, 9/30/18 slight 153-154 0 005 gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 89998 procain abbott, 10/8/18 slight 153-154 none gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 89997 procain abbott, 11/4/18 slight 153 5-154 5 none gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 89996 procain abbott, 11/4/18 slight 153 5-154 5 none gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 810995 procain calco, 2/7/18 white 153 5-154 5 none from committee on synthetic drugs procain farbwerke- 10/24/18 white 153-154 none hoechst co , sub- mitted to council procain farbwerke- 12/10/17 white 153-154 5 none hoechst co , sub- mitted to council procain farbwerke- 8/9/18 white 153 5-154 5 none hoechst co , sub- mitted to council, market spec “a 56” procain farbwerke- 9/9/18 white 153 5-154 5 none hoechst co , sub- mitted to council, market spec “a 57” procain h a metz 8/23/18 white 153-154 none lab , market spec “a 63” procain h a metz 9/23/18 white 153-154 none lab , market spec “a 57” procain rector, 12/18/17 white 153-154 5 none from committee on synthetic drugs procain rector, 5/2/18 white 152 5-153 none from committee on synthetic drugs procain rector, 8/20/18 slight 153-155 none market spec brownish tint procain rector, 8/23/18 slight 153-155 none market spec brownish tint procain rector, 8/23/18 slight 153-154 5 none market spec brownish tint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - * u s patent 812, 554-- the novocain patent-- declares that the salt melts at 156 c evidently based on this, both the german pharmacopeia and past editions of new and nonofficial remedies give this melting point two specimens of german-made novocain obtained from our files, stated to be manufactured by farbwerke-hoechst vorm meister, lucius and bruening, hoechst a m , were found to melt, respectively, between 154 and 155 c and between 153 5 and 154 5 c when the melting point was determined according to the direction of the u s pharmacopeia, ninth revision the various specimens examined at that time melted between 153 and 155 c , and it was decided to permit this range an examination of essay american-made procain-suprarenin tablets wasalso made the procain was determined by liberation of the alkaloidwith ammonia water, extraction with chloroform, evaporation of thechloroform, dissolving the alkaloid in one hundredth normal sulphuricacid solution and titrating excess acid with one hundredth normalsodium hydroxid solution the epinephrin was determined according tothe method employed by seidell, 242 with slight modifications thetablets contained the claimed amounts of ingredients 242 seidell. J biol chem 14. 19, 1913 the synthetic drug situationbefore the war, the american physician was literally bombarded with newand wonderful ?. coal-tar synthetics, most of which were originatedin gerthesis in fact, it seemed that if a by-product in the manufactureof dyes could not be used for a dye per se, then a place might befound for it in the ever increasing lists of medicaments by cleveradvertising and propaganda among physicians, an artificial stimulationfor coal-tar drugs was created which evidently yielded lucrativefinancial returns as a result of the war, it is interesting to observethat of all the synthetic drugs imported into this country from gerthesisand on which the american patents were controlled by the germans upto the time of our entrance into the war, the demand was reallysufficient enough to warrant the commercial manufacture of only fourof them by american firms of course, a larger number of nonpatenteddrugs, also imported from gerthesis, are now being made in sufficientquantities in this country. Thesis of the drugs in this class were neverpatented or are the ones which have survived after the patent hadexpired, such as acetanilid, acetphenetidin, and acetylsalicylic acid in view of the agitation to found an institute for cooperative researchas an aid to the american drug industry under the auspices of theamerican chemical society, it will be well for the medical professionto be on its guard against too enthusiastic propaganda on the writing ofthose engaged in the laudable enterprise of promoting american chemicalindustry unless it is, it may be inflicted in the future, as in thepast, with a large number of drugs that are either useless, harmful orunessential modifications of well-known pharmaceuticals it will bewell also for the chemists-- those engaged in this enterprise-- to besure that the product is of therapeutic value before asking its use asa medicine the american medical profession has learned that relativelyfew of the thesis german synthetics were really valuable or decidedimprovements over established drugs if american chemists desireto retain their prestige with the medical profession, they shouldearnestly endeavor to see that the advantages derived from the war andfrom such an institute as proposed are not abused in the worthy desireto popularize chemistry both educationally and commercially theyshould realize that physicians are in no receptive mood for a flood ofsynthetics, even though “american-made ”on the other hand, the constructive possibilities of chemistry in theservice of medicine should serve as a stimulus for american research notwithstanding all the pharmaceutical shrubbery which gerthesis sentto us, still it did contain essay synthetics that were worth while as therapeutics has been benefited by these organic chemicals, it islogical to reason by analogy that there remain other synthetics to bediscovered which will occupy places of equal distinction in the modernmateria medica for example, vaccines are of undoubted merit in thefield of immunology, but their action is, in the end, chemical. As soonas chemical technic is refined by medicochemical research, it is quitepossible that a definite chemical agent synthetic will supersedethe indefinite bacterial vaccine obviously the american chemist hasthe opportunity of showing his resourcefulness in aiding the publichealth of america and the world in this connection, a cooperativeinstitute devoted to purely scientific drug research, and governedin such a manner as to inspire confidence in its humanitarianismand unbiased judgment, should serve a most commendable purpose the hopes of american men of science are for a monumental researchinstitution-- cooperative with all the allied professions-- and, as thechicago chemical bulletin stated, “stripped of all professionalor commercial pettishness and not dominated by any one group ofscientists ”243243 proposed institute for drug research, editorial chicago chem bull , april, 1919, p 67 conclusionsas for the results of the work so far, they can be summed up in twosentences 1 american chemists are producing synthetic drugs formerly controlledby gerthesis, and thus have declared their independence of germanchemicals 2 judging from the evidence at hand, we can feel assured that thequality of american synthetics will be second to none -- from thejournal a m a , sept 6, 1919 writing iii contributions from the journal. Proprietary products nostrums in retrospect a series of nine articles reviewing worthless or unscientific proprietary mixtures previously criticized s q lapius, m d foreword -- it is more than twelve years since the council on pharmacyand chemistry of the american medical association was created sincethen there have been but few issues of the journal that have not calledthe attention of the medical profession to the debasing influenceon scientific medicine of unscientific or worthless proprietarymixtures advertised to physicians for their use in prescribing thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry has investigated and shown thesis ofthese preparations to be fraudulent in one way or another, and thesereports have been published in the journal in spite of this, thesepreparations have been advertised continuously to physicians, throughmedical journals and otherwise, and prescribed by a large number ofphysicians one reason for this is that there are thesis physicians whohave never seen these reports-- who were not in active practice at thetime, or who were not reading the journal we probably have among ourreaders at the present time 35, 000 or 40, 000 physicians who were notamong the readers of the journal twelve years ago it is desirable, then, that we should take up, in more or less detail, several of themore widely advertised products that have been the subjects of previousreports it has been repeatedly stated in the journal that thesis of theproprietary mixtures-- the so-called ethical proprietaries advertisedto physicians-- were no better and no worse than “patent medicines”advertised to the public every physician who has the welfare of medicine at heart should putthese questions squarely to himself if he has not already taken a firmstand on this whole problem. What is my attitude toward the work ofthe council?. are its reports worthy of acceptance?. am i upholding thecouncil in its efforts to place therapeutics on a rational basis, notby blind faith alone, but by an honestly critical attitude toward it?. Am i following the path of indolence by taking the advice of nostrummakers without any serious effort to determine whether they are true orfalse?. in a word, am i really practicing medicine, or am i an unpaidagent and a dupe of nostrum makers?.

Or if you would stay it in its place, apply it to the navel, and that is one good way to stay the child in it the burdock leavesare cooling, moderately drying, and discussing withal, whereby it isgood for old ulcers and sores a dram of the roots taken with pinekernels, helps them that spit foul, mattery, and bloody phlegm theleaves applied to the places troubled with the shrinking of the sinewsor arteries, gives much ease the juice of the us history regents essay topics leaves, or rather theroots themselves, given to drink with old wine, doth wonderfully helpthe biting of any serpents. And the root beaten with a little salt, andlaid on the place, suddenly eases the pain thereof, and helps thosethat are bit by a mad dog the juice of the leaves being drank withhoney, provokes urine, and remedies the pain of the bladder the seedbeing drank in wine forty days together, doth wonderfully help thesciatica the leaves bruised with the white of an egg, and applied toany place burnt with fire, takes out the fire, gives sudden ease, andheals it up afterwards the decoction of them fomented on any frettingsore, or canker, stays the corroding quality, which must be afterwardsanointed with an ointment made of the same liquor, hog-grease, nitre, and vinegar boiled together the roots may be preserved withsugar, and taken fasting, or at other times, for the same purposes, andfor consumptions, the stone, and the lask the seed is much commendedto break the stone, and cause it to be expelled by urine, and is oftenused with other seeds and things to that purpose cabbages and coleworts i shall spare labour in writing a description of these, since almostevery one that can but write at all, may describe them from his ownknowledge, they being generally so well known, that descriptions arealtogether needless place they are generally planted in gardens time their flower time is towards the middle, or end of july, andthe seed is ripe in august government and virtues the cabbages or coleworts boiled gentlyin broth, and eaten, do open the body, but the second decoction dothbind the body the juice thereof drank in wine, helps those that arebitten by an adder, and the decoction of the flowers brings downwomen courses. Being taken with honey, it recovers hoarseness, orloss of the voice the often eating of them well boiled, helps thosethat are entering into a consumption the pulp of the middle ribs ofcoleworts boiled in almond milk, and made up into an electuary withhoney, being taken often, is very profitable for those that are puffyand short winded being boiled twice, an old cock boiled in the brothand drank, it helps the pains and the obstructions of the liver andspleen, and the stone in the kidneys the juice boiled with honey, anddropped into the corner of the eyes, clears the sight, by consumingany film or clouds beginning to dim it. It also consumes the cankersgrowing therein they are much commended, being eaten before meat tokeep one from surfeiting, as also from being drunk with too much wine, or quickly to make a man sober again that was drunk before for asthey say there is such an antipathy or enmity between the vine and thecoleworts, that the one will die where the other grows the decoctionof coleworts takes away the pain and ache, and allays the swelling ofsores and gouty legs and knees, wherein thesis gross and watery humoursare fallen, the place being bathed therewith warm it helps also oldand filthy sores, being bathed therewith, and heals all small scabs, pushes, and wheals, that break out in the skin the ashes of colewortstalks mixed with old hog-grease, are very effectual to anoint thesides of those that have had long pains therein, or any other placepained with melancholy and windy humours this was surely chrysippusgod, and therefore he wrote a whole volume on them and their virtues, and that none of the least neither, for he would be no small fool. Heappropriates them to every writing of the body, and to every disease inevery writing. And honest old cato they say used no other physic i knownot what metal their bodies were made of. This i am sure, cabbages areextremely windy, whether you take them as meat or as medicine. Yea, as windy meat as can be eaten, unless you eat bag-pipes or bellows, and they are but seldom eaten in our days. And colewort flowers areessaything more tolerable, and the wholeessayr food of the two the moonchallenges the dominion of this herb the sea coleworts descript this has divers essaywhat long and broad large and thickwrinkled leaves, essaywhat crumpled about the edges, and growing eachupon a thick footstalks very brittle, of a greyish green colour, fromamong which rises up a strong thick stalk, two feet high and better, with essay leaves thereon to the top, where it branches forth much. Andon every branch stands a large bush of pale whitish flowers, consistingof four leaves a-piece. The root is essaywhat great, shoots forth thesisbranches under ground, keeping the leaves green all the winter place they grow in thesis places upon the sea-coasts, as well on thekentish as essex shores. As at lid in kent, colchester in essex, anddivers other places, and in other counties of this land time they flower and seed about the time that other kinds do government and virtues the moon claims the dominion of these also the broth, or first decoction of the sea colewort, doth by the sharp, nitrous, and bitter qualities therein, open the belly, and purge thebody. It cleanses and digests more powerfully than the other kind. Theseed hereof, bruised and drank, kills worms the leaves or the juice ofthem applied to sores or ulcers, cleanses and heals them, and dissolvesswellings, and takes away inflammations calamint, or mountain-mint descript this is a small herb, seldom rising above a foot high, with square hairy, and woody stalks, and two small hoary leaves set ata joint, about the height of marjoram, or not much bigger, a littledented about the edges, and of a very fierce or quick scent, as thewhole herb is. The flowers stand at several spaces of the stalk, fromthe middle almost upwards, which are small and gaping like to those ofthe mints, of a pale bluish colour. After which follow small, roundblackish seed the root is small and woody, with divers small stringsspreading within the ground, and dies not, but abides thesis years place it grows on heaths, and uplands, and dry grounds, in thesisplaces of this land time they flower in july and their seed is ripe quickly after government and virtues it is an herb of mercury, and a strongone too, therefore excellent good in all afflictions of the brain the decoction of the herb being drank, brings down women courses, and provokes urine it is profitable for those that are bursten, ortroubled with convulsions or cramps, with shortness of breath, orcholeric torments and pains in their bellies or stomach. It also helpsthe yellow-jaundice, and stays vomiting, being taken in wine takenwith salt and honey, it kills all manner of worms in the body ithelps such as have the leprosy, either taken inwardly, drinking wheyafter it, or the green herb outwardly applied it hinders conceptionin women, but either burned or strewed in the chamber, it drives awayvenomous serpents it takes away black and blue marks in the face, andmakes black scars become well coloured, if the green herb not thedry be boiled in wine, and laid to the place, or the place washedtherewith being applied to the hucklebone, by continuance of time, itspends the humours, which cause the pain of the sciatica the juicebeing dropped into the ears, kills the worms in them the leaves boiledin wine, and drank, provoke sweat, and open obstructions of the liverand spleen it helps them that have a tertian ague the body beingfirst purged by taking away the cold fits the decoction hereof, withessay sugar put thereto afterwards, is very profitable for those thatbe troubled with the over-flowing of the gall, and that have an oldcough, and that are scarce able to breathe by shortness of their wind;that have any cold distemper in their bowels, and are troubled withthe hardness or the spleen, for all which purposes, both the powder, called diacaluminthes, and the compound syrup of calamint are the mosteffectual let no women be too busy with it, for it works very violentupon the feminine writing camomile it is so well known every where, that it is but lost time and labour todescribe it the virtues thereof are as follow a decoction made of camomile, and drank, takes away all pains andstitches in the side the flowers of camomile beaten, and made up intoballs with gill, drive away all sorts of agues, if the writing grieved beanointed with that oil, taken from the flowers, from the crown of thehead to the sole of the foot, and afterwards laid to sweat in his bed, and that he sweats well this is nechessor, an egyptian, medicine itis profitable for all sorts of agues that come either from phlegm, ormelancholy, or from an inflammation of the bowels, being applied whenthe humours causing them shall be concocted.

Indian med gaz , 1876, xi , p 3 - woman, age 20, feeble her mother-in-law had kicked her. She probably had fainted;supposing her to be dead, the husband hanged her to a tree within halfan hour after the supposed death autopsy. No marks of injury. Obliquemark of cord on right side of neck. Tip of tongue between the teeth;face essaywhat livid. Right side of heart full of dark blood.

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15 jur , 1, 090 on theother hand it has been held in england, that every householder in whosehouse a dead body lies is bound by the common law, if he has the meansto do so, to inter the body decently, and this principle applies wherea person dies in the house of a parish or a union reg v stewart, 12 a & d , 1, 272 and the expense may be paid out of the effects ofthe deceased tugwell v hayman, 3 camp , 298, and note in pierce v the proprietors swan point cemetery, 10 r i , 227, s c , 14 am rep , 667, the court said. “that there is no rightof property in a dead body, using this word in its ordinary sense, may be well admitted, yet the burial of the dead is a subject whichinterests the feelings of mankind to a much greater degree than thesismatters of actual property there is a duty imposed by the universalfeelings of mankind to be discharged by essay one toward the dead. Aduty, and we may also say a right, to protect from violation. It may, therefore, be considered as a sort of quasi property, and it wouldbe discreditable to any system of law not to provide a remedy in sucha case. but the person having charge of it cannot be considered asthe owner of it in any sense whatever, he holds it only as a sacredtrust for the benefit of all who may from family or friendship havean interest in it ” see also wyncoop v wyncoop, 42 pa st , 293. 4albany law jour , 56. Snyder v snyder, 60 how prac , 368.