History

Ucla Essay


Second, because of the unwarrantedrecommendation for its use in such infectious diseases as pneumonia andepidemic influenza and for lack of satisfactory supporting evidence ofits alleged therapeutic efficacy in other diseases and, third, becausethe recommendations for its use appearing on and in the trade packageconstitute an indirect advertisement to the public w a puckner, secretary syrup leptinol is sold by the balsamea co of san francisco it wasfirst introduced as syrup balsamea in recent advertising, syrupleptinol is also referred to simply as “leptinol ”according to the statements of the balsamea co , syrup leptinol isprepared from the root of a species of leptotaenia a plant belongingto the parsnip family which grows in nevada and which has heretoforenot been used in medicine the manufacturer states that the botanistswho have been consulted have been unable to agree on the botanicalclassification of the plant the dried root of this unclassifiedspecies of leptotaenia is extracted with alcohol and from the extractso obtained the syrup is made, but no information has been furnishedto show how the alcohol-soluble material is incorporated in the syrup further, the manufacturer has not announced tests whereby the identityand uniformity of the finished preparation may be determined a booklet contains the following. “the species of leptotaenia from which leptinol is produced was first used in medicine by dr e t krebs, who, after thorough laboratory investigation and clinical application over a period of several months, which resulted in the perfecting of leptinol, prescribed the preparation for influenza during the epidemic of that disease in 1918 with remarkably good results since this first use, leptinol has been exhaustively tested by clinicians in private practice and in hospitals in the treatment of pneumonia, influenza bronchitis, etc , and has been universally endorsed ”in a circular letter it is asserted that the use of “leptinol” duringthe “influenza epidemic” of 1918-1919 “demonstrated its almost specificaction in respiratory affections”. That “during this epidemic it provedto be five times as efficacious as any other treatment in pneumonia ”. And that “it is now as firmly fixed in the mind of thesis doctorsfor respiratory diseases as quinine is for malaria and the salicylatesfor rheumatism ”in the booklet it is further stated that the therapeutic action ofthe preparation is primarily that of a “stimulating expectorant” andsecondarily as a “sedative expectorant”. That “its antiseptic actionin the respiratory tract is prompt”. That it “is an effectual cardiactonic where the tone of the heart muscle is impaired by fever”. That“in acute pulmonary conditions it effectively improves the respiratoryaction and allays cerebral irritation due to fever and toxins”. Thatit acts “as a vital stimulant and nerve sedative”. That “it stimulatesthe excretion of acid by the skin and in fever it has a stronglydiaphoretic and antipyretic action without depressing the circulationor the central nervous system”.

Fig 21 - ruptures of the liver from a fall from aconsiderable height, causing immediate death wounds and ruptures of the gall-bladder result in the effusionof bile while rupture of the liver is not necessarily followed byperitonitis, rupture of the gall-bladder with the effusion of bilegenerally causes peritonitis, and is fatal in this way and not fromhemorrhage rupture ucla essay of the gall-bladder may be favored by the presenceof gall-stones, but the result is still attributable to the injury spleen - ruptures of the spleen may be due to a bruising violencein this region, and here too the skin may not show the marks of thecontusion, though this fact is still employed by the defence to tryto disprove the connection between the injury and the result it isimportant to remember, from a medico-legal point of view, that anenlarged and softened spleen may be ruptured from a comparativelyslight muscular exertion this might occur in a sudden movement toavoid a blow, and the charge of manslaughter might be affected bythe mode of the production of the injury and the previous abnormalcondition only direct violence is liable to rupture the healthy normalspleen rupture and wounds of the spleen may be and generally are fatalfrom hemorrhage, owing to the vascularity of the organ. More rarely arethey fatal from shock peritonitis is not a result to be expected the hemorrhage accumulates in the lower and left side of the abdomen orin the pelvis, and coagulation is imperfect if present at all kidneys - these are occasionally ruptured from violence, but more oftenfrom accident wounds of the kidney are rare, owing to the depth fromthe surface at which they lie they are more accessible from behind awound from behind is generally extra-peritoneal unless it perforatesthe organ. Not so a wound from in front accidents in which the lumbarregion is forcedly flexed are most apt to be followed by injury to thekidney the injury may cause no prominent symptoms, but usually lumbarpain and tenderness, frequent micturition and hematuria, and in severepaper the symptoms of hemorrhage and shock are present the injury maybe speedily fatal from hemorrhage or collapse, or more slowly fatalfrom peritonitis, when the peritoneum is involved, or from abscessand septic infection, or from uræmia if the other kidney is diseased slight injuries are generally recovered from as is the case with theliver and spleen, so after injuries of the kidney the victim may walkabout, etc , unless there is copious and immediate hemorrhage the bladder may be wounded directly through the hypogastrium, vagina, or rectum. It may be punctured by a broken fragment of the pelvis, especially the pubis, or it may frequently be ruptured from blows, crushes, or falls the latter accident occurs especially where thebladder is distended the bladder may also rupture spontaneously fromover-distention, which may or may not be favored by disease of thebladder wall, in which case rupture occurs more easily medico-legallythe question may arise whether the rupture was spontaneous or due toinjury in this connection it should be remembered that the injury mayleave no external mark of violence, and a case is recorded in which thebladder was ruptured by a fall in wrestling. But the question can bedetermined only by an examination of the bladder if the wall of thebladder is thinned by the pressure of a calculus or from other causes, or if it is weakened by tubercular, syphilitic, or carcinomatousdeposits or ulcerations, it may be spontaneously ruptured fromslight distention or a slight degree of violence may rupture it ifviolence has been employed it is responsible for the rupture, thoughthe diseased condition may act as a mitigating circumstance. Not soa distended bladder, as the latter is not abnormal in spontaneousrupture from over-distention without disease of the bladder wall, stricture, hypertrophied prostate, or essay such condition must bepresent to account for the over-distention spontaneous rupture ofthe bladder can, therefore, only occur when either disease of thebladder wall or obstruction of the urethra is present no conditionexcludes rupture from violence if there is an injury followed bythe symptoms of rupture of the bladder and death and the bladder andurethra are healthy, there can be little doubt that death was due tothe injury wounds or rupture of the bladder may be extra-peritonealor intra-peritoneal rupture from disease of the bladder wall occursat the site of the diseased and weakened spot, which is most often atthe base of the bladder rupture of the bladder from violence occursmost often on the postero-superior wall, running downward from theurachus, in which case the peritoneum would be involved a puncturedwound of the bladder wall may be so minute that the leakage is veryslow and the customary symptoms may be obscured, or the opening may bevalvular in character, perhaps allowing escape of urine only when thebladder is not distended the symptoms consist of pain, inabilityto micturate, and the presence of blood in the little fluid which canbe drawn by a catheter fluid injected is not all returned and thebladder cannot be distended after a time varying from a few hours toa few days, depending upon the size of the opening and the conditionof the urine, peritonitis or peri-vesical cellulitis is set up, theformer being generally fatal, the latter not necessarily so promptsurgical treatment may save the patient life by avoiding peritonitis extra-peritoneal ruptures are far less dangerous than intra-peritoneal, as in the former case cellulitis and abscess in the cellular tissuearound the bladder, which may subsequently be treated by operationand drainage, take the place of peritonitis in the latter case, forwhich prevention is the only safe treatment in extra-peritonealrupture death, if it occurs, is generally due to septicæmia. In theintra-peritoneal variety it is due to peritonitis these paper ofinjury to the bladder may die suddenly and speedily from shock or fromperitonitis in three to seven days, or not until fifteen days or so inpunctured and incised wounds the urine escapes more slowly, peritonitisdevelops less early, and death is longer delayed hemorrhage in injuryto the bladder is not usually serious. The blood is found writingly inthe bladder, writingly in the pelvis, where the fluid extravasated byperitonitis is also found the victim of a wound or rupture of thebladder may often walk about for essay time after the injury stomach and intestines - punctured wounds, or, more rarely, incisedwounds of the abdomen may involve these organs, or they may be rupturedby blows, crushes, and falls, or from disease stab-wounds of theseviscera may be multiple from a single stab, the instrument traversingone coil, perhaps, and then wounding others, though this is less oftenthe case than with gunshot wounds ruptures too may be multiple, though less often so than wounds the ileum is most liable to rupture, though several paper of rupture of the jejunum are on record likethe bladder, the stomach and, to a less extent, the intestines aremore liable to be ruptured when distended ruptures of the stomach orintestines are seldom attended with much hemorrhage, while wounds mayoccasionally cause a serious and fatal hemorrhage from the wounding ofa large blood-vessel the principal danger lies in the leakage of thecontents of the stomach and intestines, which almost always sets up aseptic peritonitis this may essaytimes become localized and go on tospontaneous cure, though as a rule it becomes general and is fatal insuch paper early operation may avoid the fatal peritonitis a puncturedwound may be so small as to be closed by the mucous membrane, avoidingthe escape of the contents of the gut or a wound may not entirelypenetrate the wall of the stomach or intestines, which only gives wayessay days, perhaps, after the injury, though the injury is entirelyresponsible for the delayed result these injuries are essaytimesfatal immediately or very speedily from shock, while in other paperof very extensive injury there may be almost no shock, and the victimis aware of no serious injury it is an important point to remembermedico-legally that spontaneous rupture of the stomach or intestinesmay occur owing to ulceration due to disease this can be determinedby a careful examination of the wall of the stomach or intestines atthe site of the rupture a slight injury may also cause rupture if thewall of the gut is weakened by disease, as the disease causes greaterliability to rupture here too it is to be remembered that a severeinjury causing rupture may leave no mark of violence on the abdominalwall the power of walking or other muscular exertion after suchinjuries of the stomach or intestines is not infrequently preserved, asrecorded in numerous paper 683 the prognosis in such injuries of thestomach and intestines is always extremely grave incised, punctured, and contused wounds of the genital organs these are not common as medico-legal paper self-castration ormutilation is essaytimes practised by lunatics, idiots, or evenintoxicated persons thus a man who, while intoxicated, cut off hisgenital organs and died the next day from the effects of hemorrhage wasseen by demarquay 684 circumcision in infants is also essaytimes fatalfrom phlegmonous inflammation 685incised, lacerated, or contused wounds of the female genitals may befatal from hemorrhage from thesis small vessels deeply incised woundsof the female genitals proves wilful and deliberate malice. Accidentis out of the question and suicide is improbable in such paper but weessaytimes have to determine between accidental, self-inflicted, andhomicidal wounds of these writings, as accidental wounds may occasionallyresemble those made by design and so may furnish more or lessdifficulty, unless all the circumstances are known thus taylor686relates the case of a child in whom a sharp-pointed stick entered andpassed through the posterior wall of the vagina as she fell from atree the stick was removed by a woman, and the child died in a littleover a day from peritonitis unless the circumstances were known, thiscase might have caused suspicion of homicide lunatics, idiots, and drunkards essaytimes inflict on themselves woundsunlike ordinary suicidal ones in other paper the various points wehave enumerated in a previous section to distinguish between suicide, homicide, and accident may be applied to solve the case contused wounds, such as kicks, etc , of the female genitals maybe fatal from hemorrhage due to the laceration of the writings 687like the wounds of the eyebrows, contused wounds of the vulva mayessaytimes resemble incised wounds owing to the sharp bony surfacesbeneath careful examination allows a discrimination to be made fromincised wounds if hemorrhage occurs a long time after the allegedviolence, it is probably due to natural causes, especially in paper ofmetrorrhagia, etc it may be alleged in defence that contused woundsof the female genitals were inflicted post mortem, but besides theother features which we have already seen help to distinguish betweenante-mortem and post-mortem wounds, we may add that kicks and othercontusions of the vulva, if fatal, are so from hemorrhage or effusionof blood, and no post-mortem hemorrhage is enough to cause death incised, punctured, and contused wounds of the extremities these may be fatal if a large blood vessel or vessels are opened, oressaytimes if a compound fracture or wound of a joint becomes infected they may also in essay paper be fatal from shock, from the severityof the injury as a rule they are the cause of civil suits, not ofcriminal ones the various injuries may cause disability for a longeror shorter time, or even permanently, and more or less deformity mayalso remain this may be the case with fractures, especially if theyoccur near the joints, in which case great caution should be exercisedin giving an opinion or prognosis it is a common mistaken idea of thelaity that a fractured or dislocated limb can be made in every case asgood as before the injury on the contrary, they not infrequently leavea slight deformity and impairment of function, essaytimes even under thebest treatment dislocations may also leave a lasting disability orweakness, often owing to the carelessness of the injured person wounds of an artery or vein, or both, may result in an aneurism oran arterio-venous aneurism wounds of nerves may cause paralysis andanæsthesia of the writings supplied wounds of muscles or tendons maycause weakness or complete loss of motion of writingicular joints woundsof the soft writings, if infected, may lead to cellulitis and phlegmonousinflammation, which may result in much injury wounds of joints, ifpenetrating, are serious, for without the proper treatment they mayresult in suppuration in the joint, disorganization of the joint, and final ankylosis before the use of antiseptic treatment suchwounds were not uncommonly fatal fractures, simple or compound, orcontusions of bone especially in young subjects, may be followed byosteo-periostitis and its consequences, which may require a long timefor recovery after the fracture is entirely recovered from, and a stilllonger time before the limb can be used these and thesis other of thevarious results of wounds and injuries of the extremities, causingdeformity or disability, or both, can often be cured or improved bysurgical treatment or operation the medico-legal consideration of gunshot wounds by roswell park, a m , m d , professor of surgery in the university of buffalo. Attending surgeon to the buffalo general hospital.

A similar accident may occur in a personwho attempts to swallow and speak at the same time infants have beensuffocated by inspiring vomited milk fitz886 states that food maypass from the digestive tube to the air-passages after death a case of suffocation in an infant by retraction of the base of thetongue is recorded it has been stated that negroes have committedsuicide by doubling back the tongue into the throat, or, as it iscalled, swallowing the tongue 887 in giving anæsthetics, the subjectbeing supine, and the head and neck essaywhat flexed, the tongue, epiglottis, and soft palate may fall backward and suffocation mayfollow howard888 states that pulling the tongue forward under suchcircumstances may reopen the pharynx, but will not lift the epiglottis the thorax should be raised and head and neck extended backward hebelieves that in giving anæsthetics the head should be lower than theshoulders in order to avoid vomiting no food should be taken for essayhours before the anæsthetic paper are recorded of artificial teeth having fallen from the mouthinto the air-passages during anæsthesia and sleep, and in epilepticand puerperal convulsions it would appear advisable that these teethshould be worn only while eating case 13 hemorrhage from the lungs, from rupture of an aneurism or from injuryof the mouth or throat, may make its way into the air-passages andcause suffocation so also the bursting of an abscess of the tonsils orother writing near the air-passages case 7 œdema of the glottis from scalding or other irritation of the faucesor glottis, or from disease of the kidneys. Tumors pressing on essayportion of the air-passages. Rapid, profuse bronchial secretion ininfants. Acute double pleuritic effusion. Cheesy glands ulceratinginto trachea. Simultaneous œdema of both lungs all of these may causesuffocation paper 18 and 49 for paper of enlarged thymus gland, seehofmann, op cit , pp 587, 588 paralysis of the muscles of swallowing, from diphtheria or othercause, predisposes to suffocation progressive asthenia in whichthe muscles are exhausted. Injury of spinal cord or pneumogastrics;paralysis of muscles of respiration from the use of curare. Thespasms of tetanus and strychnia poisoning. The entrance of air intothe pleural cavities with collapse of the lungs all tend to causemechanical suffocation either by pressure or by paralysis for deathsin epileptics, see paper 1, 10, 11, 33, and 40 it is not necessary that the air-passages should be absolutely closedto cause suffocation the cause of death is more likely to be pure asphyxia, because of theabsence of the complicating pressure of the hand or ligature on thevessels and nerves of the neck, and of fracture of larynx or vertebræ symptoms - foreign bodies889 entering the trachea naturally falltoward the right bronchial tube instead of the left because of thesize and position of the entrance of the right tube if then but onetube is involved, the signs will usually be on the right side. Whereasif the foreign body stop in the larynx or trachea, both sides will beaffected the latter condition is much more dangerous the symptomswould be resonance over the lung with the respiratory murmur writingly orwholly absent. Less mobility. Puerile breathing on the unaffected side in either case there may at first be little disturbance, especiallyif the shape of the foreign body is such as not to greatly interferewith the access of air. Otherwise there may be at once, and almostalways will be after a time, more or less urgent dyspnœa diminution ofthe necessary oxygen may cause convulsions, apoplexy, and other brainsymptoms acute emphysema of the portion of lung not obstructed mayfollow its forcible distention the local effect of the foreign body isan irritation which causes spasm and cough it may be carried upward bythe expirations and downward again by each inspiration inflammationis likely to appear eventually and may involve the lung if theobstruction is not complete there may follow periods of alternation ofgood and bad health, ending perhaps in recovery the foreign body maybe expelled after a greater or lesser interval on the other hand deathmay result from secondary causes in the absence of correct historythe symptoms may lead to a wrong diagnosis and inappropriate treatment;as where a patient whose symptoms resulted from the presence of a pieceof bone in the larynx, was treated for syphilis a foreign body may becoughed up from the lung into the trachea and fall backward into theopposite lung writingial closure of the larynx, most likely caused by a flat orirregular substance, rather than globular, may cause gradual asphyxiawith symptoms of apoplexy, making the diagnosis difficult when a foreign body remains a long time in the larynx, spasmodic coughand croupy breathing usually ensue, expectoration tinged with blood, hoarseness, or complete aphonia, pain, dyspnœa, possibly crepitationand dulness over the lungs the case may end suddenly in death fromclosure of the glottis, or the foreign body may pass into the tracheaand set up a new train of symptoms, or it may be expelled the frequency with which foreign bodies in the pharynx or œsophagusobstruct respiration, and the facility with which they may usually beremoved, suggest a careful examination otherwise the patient may betreated indefinitely for supposed obstruction in the air-passages foreign bodies in the œsophagus have perforated into the trachea, andeven the lungs, heart, and aorta in complete suffocation death will occur in from two to five minutes see remarks under strangulation death may also occur instantaneously the experiments of the committee on suspended animation890 showed that when the trachea of a dog was exposed, incised, and a tube tied in, the average time covered by the respiratory efforts after stopping up the tube with a cork was four minutes five seconds. The heart-beat stopping at seven minutes eleven seconds on the average after four minutes ten seconds it seemed to be impossible for the dog, unaided, to recover faure891 made the following experiment upon a large dog. He fixed a cork in the trachea at first the dog was quiet.

If before death, whether they were sufficient tocause death essay wounds and injuries might be sufficiently apparentand dangerous so that the common, inexperienced eye would at oncedetect that they were sufficient to cause death but in most instancesthis is not the case, and in such instances the testimony of expertsis required by the necessity of the case, to show that the wounds andinjuries were sufficient to cause death the general rules stated as to subjects for expert testimony - hencethe general rule is, that wherever the facts to be investigatedare such that common experience and knowledge of men do not enablethem to draw accurate conclusions, but are such that the study andexperience of specialists do enable such specially endowed persons todraw accurate conclusions, then the inferences and deductions theyhave drawn can be testified to by those who qualify themselves beforethe court as persons having sufficient skill and experience as suchspecialists to entitle them to give opinions the paper in which experttestimony is permitted to be given are set forth in rogers on experttestimony, sec 6, quoting from jones v tucker 41 n h , 546, asfollows:“1 upon questions of science, skill, or trade, or others of like kind “2 where the subject-matter of inquiry is such that inexperiencedpersons are unlikely to prove capable of forming a correct judgmentwithout such assistance “3 where the subject-matter of investigation so far writingakes of thenature of science as to require a course or previous habit of study inorder to the attainment of knowledge of it ”so also chief justice shaw of the supreme court of massachusetts, innew england glass co v lovell 7 cushing, 319, said:“it is not because a man has a reputation for sagacity and judgmentand power of reasoning that his opinion is admissible in testifyingas a witness if so, such men might be called in all paper to advisethe jury, and it would change the mode of trial. But it is because aman professional pursuit, or his peculiar skill and knowledge of essaydewritingment of science not common to men in general, enable him to drawinferences where men of common experience, after all the facts havebeen proved, would be left in doubt ”to the same effect see muldowney v illinois central r r co , 36iowa, 472. Wharton on evidence, sec 436. Greenleaf on evidence, sec 441 qualifications of this general rule - the extent to which an expertwitness can go in giving his opinion is limited to matters of scienceand skill, and does not extend to the expression of views on mattersof legal or moral observation, or the manner in which others wouldprobably be influenced if the writingies had acted in one way rather thanin another campbell v richards, 5 b & ad , 345 so it has been held that the question whether a physician has honorablyand faithfully discharged his duty in a given case, either to hismedical profession or to his patient, is not a question of science butof pure ethics, upon which the jury is as competent to decide as anyone else, and in such a case an opinion would not be allowed to begiven either by another medical practitioner or by a professor in thescience of morals rogers on expert testimony, sec 11, citing ramadgev ryan, 9 bing , 333 there are also essay matters of fact which apparently transcend thedividing line between common experience and judgment and scientificexperience and judgment, as to which expert testimony is notreceivable, but the jury and court must weigh the facts and draw theinferences for themselves an interesting example of this is found inthe case of manke v the people, 78 n y , 611 17 hun, 410, citedin stephens’ “digest of the law of evidence, ” p 107, note h, decidedin the new york court of appeals a few years ago in that case oneadolf was killed by a gunshot, and pieces of paper were found near thescene of the homicide bearing certain marks an expert was called uponto say whether they were powder-marks, and whether the condition of thepaper was such that in his opinion it was wadding which had been firedfrom a gun this evidence was held to be inadmissible by the generalterm of the supreme court, and this decision was affirmed by the courtof appeals these courts held that the question as to whether this wasa wad fired from a gun was a matter which the jury was as competent tojudge of as the witness in delivering the opinion at general term, presiding justice talcott said that this case was very close to theborder line, but in his judgment it was beyond the province of expertsand within the province of jurors nevertheless, in that case the evidence of chemists who had examinedthe wadding, and had discovered the marks on it which were said tobe powder-marks, and upon analysis had determined that they werepowder-marks, or that they were marks of powder which had exploded, would have been clearly admissible the subjects concerning which medical men may be called upon totestify as experts are as numerous as the diseases, injuries, mentaland physical conditions of the human race which fall within the rangeof the practice of medicine and surgery it is therefore practicallyimpossible to give them in detail 185practical suggestions and admonitions embodied in rules - itis deemed advisable that the following practical suggestions andadmonitions to physicians, concerning their duties as expert witnesses, shall here be given first. A physician should refuse to testify as an expert unless he isconscious that he is really qualified as an expert second. After accepting the responsibility, his first duty should beto make a diligent examination and preparation for his testimony, unless it is upon a subject with which he is familiar and which heis satisfied that he has already exhausted, by reading the bestauthorities that he can find, and by careful reflection upon writingicularquestions as to which his opinion will be asked third. Where he is to make an examination of facts, such as thepost-mortem examination of a body, a chemical analysis or anexamination of an alleged insane person, he should insist upon havingplenty of time and full opportunity for doing his work thoroughly heshould take writingicular pains to make his examination open and fair, and, if possible, should invite opposing experts to co-operate with himin it fourth. He should be honest with his client before the trial inadvising him and giving him opinions, and upon the trial shouldpreserve an absolutely imwritingial attitude, concealing nothing, perverting nothing, exaggerating nothing fifth. On the preliminary examination as to his qualifications as awitness he should be frank and open in answering questions he shouldstate fully the extent and the limits of his personal experience and ofhis reading upon the subject, without shrinking from responsibility, yet without self-glorification sixth. He should be simple, plain, and clear in his statement ofscientific facts and principles, avoiding the use of technicallanguage, and trying to put his ideas in such form that they will begrasped and comprehended by men of ordinary education and intelligence seventh. He should avoid stating any conclusions or principles of whichhe is not certain, but having an assurance that he is right he shouldbe firm and positive he should admit the limitations of his knowledgeand ability where a question is asked which he cannot answer, heshould not hesitate to say so. But he should refuse to be led outsidethe subject of inquiry, and should confine his testimony to thosescientific questions which are really involved in the case, or in hisexamination of the case eighth. And finally, he should always bear in mind that at the closeof his testimony an opportunity is usually given to him to explainanything which he may be conscious of having said, which requiresexplanation.

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“if we are permitted to continue marketing the same drug afterthe war, we can sell it at $1 00 or ucla essay less per tube ” to abrogate thispatent would be doing an injury to no one certainly the patentees ofsalvarsan have already reaped their harvest-- and a pretty rich one thesupply of salvarsan at a reasonable price in proportion to its actualcost of production is in the interest of the health of the entirepopulation of the country, whereas to let matters rest as they are, is to the benefit of one man while we are emphasizing here the cost, there is after all a greater question, and that is the supply necessaryto help control the ravages of one of the most serious diseaseswhich afflict humanity today it is the duty of congress to abrogatethe patent on this preparation and, incidentally, on all medicinalpreparations of importance -- editorial from the journal a m a , april 21, 1917 end the monopolythe adamson bill, known as the “trading with the enemy act, ” hasrecently been passed by the house of representatives, is now beforethe senate, and will doubtless be enacted into a law one of itsclauses confers authority on the federal trade commission to grantlicenses to citizens of this country to operate patents owned by enemyaliens physicians are interested in the bill primarily because itincludes the salvarsan situation the manner in which salvarsan hasbeen supplied in this country has been so arbitrary and the pricescharged so tremendously above the actual cost, that we should not besatisfied unless the monopoly is ended so that the drug can be suppliedat least at a fairly moderate figure, and the old methods eliminated it is to be hoped, therefore, that the federal trade commission willnot grant exclusive control-- that is, exclusive license-- to any oneperson or firm to do so would simply perpetuate the old monopoly andthe old conditions england has adopted a law, which, in principle, is similar to the adamson bill, and there several concerns have beenlicensed to manufacture the product the same should be done here thedermatologic research laboratories of philadelphia announce that theycan supply arsenobenzol at $1 50 a tube, and that there is immediatelyavailable a supply sufficient for any demand that may be made the samelaboratories have announced also that in a few months they will be ableto supply hospitals for $1 00 a tube considerable responsibility restson the federal trade commission in this matter, for it is not only aquestion of monopoly, but also a question of scientific qualificationsand ability to make the product on the writing of essay who may makeapplication undoubtedly the commission will secure the cooperation ofthe united states public health service, under whose supervision thesedrugs should be manufactured no matter who shall be licensed to makethe product -- editorial from the journal a m a , july 21, 1917 arsphenaminno, this is not a new chemical. It is simply the name adoptedby the federal trade commission for the hydrochlorid of3-diamino-4-dihydroxy-1-arsenobenzene-- in other words, salvarsan asour readers already have been informed three firms have been licensedto manufacture and sell arsphenamin. But, while each manufacturer mayhave his own trade name on the label, the official name must be theprominent one on all packages hence, physicians should at once make ita point to learn and use the name “arsphenamin” in place of salvarsan at first sight, arsphenamin looks formidable in reality, it is just aseasy to familiarize oneself with the word “arsphenamin” as it was tolearn to use the terms “salvarsan, ” “arsenobenzol” or any other of thetrade names -- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 19, 1918 beer and cancer cures did the brewing interests advertise autolysin?. Our readers may remember that an article appeared in this dewritingment ofthe journal for july 6, 1918, under the title “henry smith williams and‘proteal therapy ’” “proteal therapy” is a treatment exploited by henrysmith williams, m d , of new york, for use in tuberculosis, cancer, rheumatism, etc it is apparently a modification of the “autolysin”cancer “cure” which williams had previously puffed in heartmagazine the journal article pointed out that henry smith williams, althoughentitled to write “m d ” after his name, is essentially a journalist he has written voluminously for essay years in lay publications onvarious subjects, both under his own name and under his nom de plume, “stoddard goodhue, m d ” in addition, williams runs a publishingconcern called the goodhue company, which issues a number of books, thesis of them being reprints of williams’ own articles closely associated with henry smith williams is his brother, edwardhuntington williams, who also is a prolific writer the journalprevious article called attention to the fact that there had been sentbroadcast to physicians a neat little cloth-bound book, entitled, “alcohol, hygiene and legislation ” this book, which evidently costessaybody a good deal of money to distribute gratis, was published bythe goodhue company, and was written by edward huntington williams enclosed with the book was an advertising leaflet on the “autolysin”cancer cure and also a letter from the goodhue company, askingphysicians to accept it “with our compliments and the compliments ofthe author ” the letter was chiefly devoted to calling attention tohenry smith williams’ “new book, the autolysin treatment of cancer ”the last thirteen pages of the book “alcohol, hygiene and legislation”contained advertisements of the goodhue company publications, writingicular emphasis being placed on the “autolysin treatment ofcancer, ” by henry smith williams so much by way of retrospect now comes information that may throwan interesting side-light on the matter just presented there is atpresent being conducted by a committee of the united states senate, an investigation relative to the purchase of a washington d c newspaper with money alleged to have been furnished by those interestedin the brewing industry at the opening hearing before the senate committee, tuesday, november19, the secretary of the united states brewers’ association, afteradmitting that brewers’ propaganda had been published in theinternational monthly, edited by viereck of the fatherland, alsodeclared that the publication committee of the brewers’ associationemployed writers to “write up certain subjects” relating to thebrewers’ trade one of the writers mentioned in this connection was, according to the newspaper reports, “dr edward h williams, author ofarticles published in medical and other journals ”with this fact before us, it seemed worth while to go through thebook that had been distributed so lavishly to physicians with thecompliments of the goodhue company and dr edward huntington williams, in the exploitation of “autolysin, ” and henry smith williams’ book onthe subject the first chapter of “alcohol, hygiene and legislation” consists ofa reprint of an article from the new york medical journal of may8, 1915 the article is a skilful presentation of the case for thedefenders of the lighter alcoholic beverages, especially beer thischapter and all succeeding chapters of the book attempt to discreditprohibitory legislation, and argue that prohibition drives the publicto the use of the more ardent alcoholic beverages, while preventing theuse of the milder beverages, such as beer, which one is led to inferis not writingicularly harmful throughout the book, also, the state ofkansas is held up as an example of the harm done by prohibition, andthe theme is developed that insanity and the use of cocain and otherhabit-forming drugs follows in the wake of prohibition the followingextracts are from chapter i. The evil effects of beer and wine, for example, are greatly less than those produced by spirituous liquors italics ours -- ed if our theory of immunity is correct we should expect to find that the older beverages, such as beer and wine, which have been used for thousands of years, are less productive of alcoholic insanity, for example, than the spirituous liquors which are recent innovations in point of fact we find this to be the case.