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The root bruised and appliedof itself to any place where the ucf essay prompts bones are broken, helps to draw themforth, as also splinters and thorns in the flesh. And being appliedwith a little wine mixed therewith, it breaks boils, and helps whitlowson the joints - for all these latter, beginning at sores, cancers, &c apply it outwardly, mixing it with a little hog grease, or otherconvenient ointment as for the former diseases where it must be taken inwardly, it purgesvery violently, and needs an abler hand to correct it than most countrypeople have brook lime, or water-pimpernel descript this sends forth from a creeping root that shoots forthstrings at every joint, as it runs, divers and sundry green stalks, round and sappy with essay branches on them, essaywhat broad, round, deepgreen, and thick leaves set by couples thereon. From the bottom whereofshoot forth long foot stalks, with sundry small blue flowers on them, that consist of five small round pointed leaves a piece there is another sort nothing different from the former, but that it isgreater, and the flowers of a paler green colour place they grow in small standing waters, and usually nearwater-cresses time and flower in june and july, giving seed the next month after government and virtues it is a hot and biting martial plant brook-lime and water-cresses are generally used together in diet-drink, with other things serving to purge the blood and body from all illhumours that would destroy health, and are helpful to the scurvy theydo all provoke urine, and help to break the stone, and pass it away;they procure women courses, and expel the dead child being friedwith butter and vinegar, and applied warm, it helps all manner oftumours, swellings, and inflammations such drinks ought to be made of sundry herbs, according to the malady i shall give a plain and easy rule at the latter end of this book butcher broom it is called ruscus, and bruscus, kneeholm, kneeholly, kneehulver, andpettigree descript the first shoots that sprout from the root of butcherbroom, are thick, whitish, and short, essaywhat like those of asparagus, but greater, they rise up to be a foot and half high, are spread intodivers branches, green, and essaywhat creased with the roundness, toughand flexible, whereon are set essaywhat broad and almost round hardleaves and prickly, pointed at the end, of a dark green colour, two atthe most writing set at a place, very close and near together. About themiddle of the leaf, on the back and lower side from the middle rib, breaks forth a small whitish green flower, consisting of four smallround pointed leaves, standing upon little or no footstalk, and in theplace whereof comes a small round berry, green at the first, and redwhen it is ripe, wherein are two or three white, hard, round seedscontained the root is thick, white and great at the head, and fromthence sends forth divers thick, white, long, tough strings place it grows in copses, and upon heaths and waste grounds, andoftentimes under or near the holly bushes time it shoots forth its young buds in the spring, and the berriesare ripe about september, the branches of leaves abiding green all thewinter government and virtues it is a plant of mars, being of a gallantcleansing and opening quality the decoction of the root made withwine opens obstructions, provokes urine, helps to expel gravel and thestone, the stranguary and women courses, also the yellow jaundice andthe head-ache. And with same honey or sugar put thereunto, cleansesthe breast of phlegm, and the chest of such clammy humours gatheredtherein the decoction of the root drank, and a poultice made of theberries and leaves applied, are effectual in knitting and consolidatingbroken bones or writings out of joint the common way of using it, is toboil the root of it, and parsley and fennel and smallage in white wine, and drink the decoction, adding the like quantity of grass-root tothem. The more of the root you boil, the stronger will the decoctionbe. It works no ill effects, yet i hope you have wit enough to give thestrongest decoction to the strongest bodies broom, and broom-rape to spend time in writing a description hereof is altogether needless, it being so generally used by all the good housewives almost throughthis land to sweep their houses with, and therefore very well known toall sorts of people the broom-rape springs up in thesis places from the roots of the broom but more often in fields, as by hedge-sides and on heaths the stalkwhereof is of the bigness of a finger or thumb, above two feet high, having a shew of leaves on them, and thesis flowers at the top, of areddish yellow colour, as also the stalks and leaves are place they grow in thesis places of this land commonly, and ascommonly spoil all the land they grow in time they flower in the summer months, and give their seed beforewinter government and virtues the juice or decoction of the youngbranches, or seed, or the powder of the seed taken in drink purgesdownwards, and draws phlegmatic and watery humours from the joints;whereby it helps the dropsy, gout, sciatica, and pains of the hips andjoints. It also provokes strong vomits, and helps the pains of thesides, and swelling of the spleen, cleanses also the reins or kidneysand bladder of the stone, provokes urine abundantly, and hinders thegrowing again of the stone in the body the continual use of the powderof the leaves and seed doth cure the black jaundice the distilledwater of the flowers is profitable for all the same purposes.

Then writingly stranded ucf essay prompts andwritingly suffocated by pressure on neck and chest body afterward burntto cover up the crime 31 ibid , p 211 - three murders by one man all women all injuredabout the head and then strangled by both hand and ligature two died;one had an odor of alcohol and had apparently not resisted the thirdwas resuscitated she was strong and stout, and resisted marks offingers and nails on neck afterward she had headaches and giddinessfor a long time suicide 32 francis. Med times and gaz , december 2d, 1876, p 634 - hindoo lunatic, a giant, strangled himself he passed two orthree coils of stout thread around his neck, attached the ends securelyto his wrists, and then extended his arms to their utmost limit thisoccurred during a ten-minute absence of his attendant, who, returning, found the man had fallen to one side from a kneeling position, with hisback against a wall, quite dead no reason to suspect homicide 33 badahur. Indian med gaz , december, 1882, p 330 - hindoowoman, age about 17, strangled herself with the border of her saree necroscopy. Circular depressed mark caused by the border of a bandof cloth, which she had passed in three coils around her neck, thecoils tightly overlapping each other. The short ends had been knottedtogether with a “granny” knot at the back of the neck, like the nativewomen tie up their hair the coils were so tight that they had to becut off face swollen, dark purple. Conjunctivæ congested tonguebetween the shut teeth. Bloody froth issuing from mouth and nostrilsthe examination was in september, thirty hours after death skin ofneck reddened in nearly a continuous line all around, both above andbelow the band, about three-fourths inch wide, evidently caused by thepressure of the three folds considerable ecchymosis above and belowthe coils. The neck underneath the folds was swollen and red brain andmembranes much congested trachea, pharynx, and œsophagus congested lungs congested right cavity auricle?. of heart full, left empty liver, spleen, and kidneys congested intestinal peritoneum congested stomach contained half-digested food small intestines empty. Fæces inlarge intestine bladder empty uterus and appendages congested. Noevidence of catamenia 34 harris. Ibid - woman.

too tough 9 “paraffin no 910, ” 47 0 30 5 26-27 a adheres well. waverly oil works, detaches well pittsburgh b pliable and strong 10 “paraffin no 920, ” 44 4 27 5 25 0 a adheres well. waverly oil works, detaches well pittsburgh b pliable and fairly strong 11 “hard paraffin, ” 48 0 28 5 24 5-25 5 a adheres well. rob’t stevenson & co , detaches well chicago b pliable and strong 12 “paraffin, ” 47 2 33 0 32 5 not quite as good island petroleum co , as 11 chicago 13 “paraffin 122 f , ” 46 8 30 5 27 5-28 a does not adhere gulf refining co , so well. pittsburgh detaches well b very pliable 14 “paraffin 125 f , ” 50 0 32 0 31 0 about as 13 gulf refining co , pittsburgh 15 “paraffin 132 f , ” 54 8 35 5 34 0 a does not adhere gulf refining co , well pittsburgh b not very pliable, but strong 16 “paraffin no 301, ” 50 2 33 0 32-32 5 a does not adhere national refining co , well cleveland b not very pliable 18 paraffin recovered 48 6 30 5 28-28 5 a adheres well. from “ambrine” detaches well b pliable but not strong 19 “hyperthermine” 49 4 33 5 30 5-31 a does not adhere well. detaches well b very pliable and strong 20 “ambrine” 48 4 30 5 27 0 a adheres well. detaches well b very pliable and strong 21 paraffin 120-122 f 45 4 29 0 28 5 a adheres see 3, 97 5. Excellently. olive oil, 1 5.

“if anyone suffer from colicky pains he may sit down on a chair and say tohimself. ‘per te diacholon, diacholon, diacholon ’”“a person who has an attack of colic may take the feces of a wolf, which, if possible, should contain small writingicles of bone, enclosethem in a small tube, and wear this amulet on the right arm, thigh, orhip ” alexander of tralles, book 8, chapter ii , page 374 “take the heart from the living lark and wear it as an amulet at theleft thigh ” alexander of tralles, ibid remedy against epilepsy advised by the physician, moschiondiorthotes “alexander of tralles, ” book 1, chapter xv , page 570:“the forehead of an ass is tied to the skin of the patient and worn ”“gather iris, peonies, and nightshade when the moon is on the wane, pack them into linen and wear as an amulet ” advised by the magicianosthanes - alexander of tralles, book 1, chapter xv , page 566 “take a nail from a cross and suspend it from an arm of the patient ”given by a physician of the second century, a d , by the name ofarchigenes - alexander of tralles, book 1, chapter xv , page 566 “wear on the finger a jasper of bluish-gray luster ” advised bydioscorides, book 5, 159 remedy against podagra gout “alexander of tralles, ” book 12, page582. “take a gold leaf and write upon it when the moon is on thewane. Mei, threu, mor, for, teux, za, zon, the, lu, chri, ge, ze, on as the sun becomes firm in this name and daily renews itself, so doesthis formation also make firm as conditions were previously quickly, quickly, rapidly, rapidly for behold!. i call the great name in whichbecomes firm again what was destined to die. Jas, azyf, zyon, threux, dain, chook make this formation firm as it has been, quickly, quickly, rapidly, rapidly this document must be covered with the tendon of acrane, enclosed in a capsule, and worn by the patient at his heel ”remedy against diseases of the eye advised by sextus placituspapyriensis magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 597. “ifthe right eye becomes afflicted with glaucoma, rub it with the righteye of the wolf, and, similarly, the left eye with the left eye of thewolf ”in photophobia fear of light “wear as an amulet an eye whichwas taken from a live crab ” quintus serenus samonicus magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 595 with pains of the eye the patient must, with a copper needle, put outthe eyes of a green lizard caught on a jupiter day, during a moon thatis on the wane, in the month of september the eyes must be worn in agolden capsule, as an amulet around the neck marcellus empiricus magnus, “ophthalmology of the ancients, ” page 602 the above illustrations are surely sufficient to give the reader anidea of the medicine of the magicians at the same time they show thegreat similarity which exists between these ancient magic cures and thesympathetic cures of our people at the present day § 4 ancient medicine and magic - but how is it possible that theancient physicians, and even the most enlightened minds among them, should not only have tolerated such a crass medical superstition as theabove examples have shown us, but should even have incorporated them intheir works?. incomprehensible, however, as this fact may appear to themodern practitioner, it becomes conceivable if the condition of antiquemedicine and of the medical profession of ancient times is considered in the first place, ancient medical science adopted an entirelydifferent mode of diagnostico-theoretical method than that employedby professors of medicine in modern times ancient natural science compare also chapter v of this work, as well as ancient medicine, obtained their scientific views exclusively by deduction i e , theydeduced individual results from general presumptions, or, rather, theyconstrued, by reason of essay general presumption, the physico-medicalconsequences which were to follow from such a general supposition ifthis attempt to obtain an insight into physical processes is extremelyhazardous, it becomes still more precarious when the manner and meansin which these general presumptions were arrived at were primarily ofan entirely hypothetical nature it is true, no fundamental objectioncan be raised to this method, as even modern natural science andmedicine, despite the fact that their methods of investigation in adiagnostico-theoretical respect scarcely admit of material objections, can not do without hypothesis but hypothesis is not always merehypothesis it is well known that there are hypotheses which, even inthe minds of the most conscientious investigators, are not inferior tothat knowledge which is obtained by experiment and observation, whereasother hypotheses again present the distinct stamp of insufficiency andmakeshift the trustworthiness and the heuristic value of an hypothesisdepend upon the quality of the diagnostico-theoretical process by meansof which it was obtained if this process has been such as physicalinvestigation is bound to insist upon, the hypothesis thus arrivedat is fully justified to supply the still absent data with regardto the phenomena in question this, however, can be accomplished byhypothesis only when the latter is not set forth until it plainlyappears that, in spite of a conscientious and orderly arrangement ofobservation after observation, of experiment upon experiment, withoutthe admission of logical loopholes, full data in regard to the natureof the phenomena is not forthcoming in such a case we may consideras actually proven by hypothesis what observation and systematicexperiment, continuous and logical, were intended to prove, andfailed however, this inductive hypothesis is alone entitled to beconsidered in medicine naturally, such an inductive hypothesis was notthought of by the ancients, as the inductive method of investigationwas generally quite unknown to them the process by which ancientmedicine usually attempted to find its hypothesis was by an argumentfrom analogy each and every point of resemblance, however superficial, between two phenomena was considered sufficient by the ancientnaturalists to warrant the assumption that analogous phenomena in themost various domains were most certainly proven to possess similarpoints of resemblance and upon the basis of such an insecure methodof deduction which, moreover, was selected entirely at the option ofthe observer the ancient investigator erected the boldest hypotheses thus, for instance, the atomic theory of leucippus and democritus isan hypothesis which rests upon the basis of a conclusion from analogy the motes which appear in the rays of the sun led these two ancientinvestigators to the conception that, like the writingicles of dustsporting in the air, the primary component writings of everything thatexists in the entire universe consisted of similar writingicles 2 2 lucretius, book 2, verse 113, sqq it appears that epicurus arrived at his theory of light according towhich, as is well known, images of things were brought to the senses bydelicate but absolutely objective small pictures which were detachedfrom the surface of things in a continuous current by the factthat thesis animals for instance, snakes shed their skins the theoryof humoral pathology, one of the most important advances in medicalscience, was based on a conclusion from analogy and arrived at by thedeductive method the diagnostico-theoretical lines in which antique medicine movedwere bound and this is the point of importance in this case to exerta determining influence upon medical criticism for medico-physicalcriticism can only appear in closest connection with the prevailingcondition of the respective sciences, being really nothing else buta precipitate from them thus the ancient physicians were compelledto take an entirely different position toward magical medicine thanwe moderns, educated in the school of inductive methods, have alwaystaken the probable and similar, the supposable and possible, in whichdeductive medicine found its data, working on the lines of argumentfrom analogy, were necessarily bound to find expression also in thecharacter of medical critique, and it was impossible, therefore, for the ancient physician to detect anything absurd or contrary toexperience in hypotheses which the practitioner of to-day at oncebrands as nonsensical and superstitious we are not in the least justified, therefore, in speaking disparaginglyof galen and alexander of tralles because they believed in magicalmedicine and applied it in their practise as no human being canjump out of his skin, so is he unable to get beyond the intellectualadvancement of his time as the ancient physicians were also unable todo this, accordingly they were believers in the magical medicine but there is still a second point which explains the remarkableposition taken by ancient physicians in relation to magicalmedicine namely, the fact that the conception of miracle and magicwere essentially different in the ancient world from what they are atpresent the belief in the interference of spirits and supernaturalbeings in terrestrial matters, and the manifestations of theirinfluence exerted in manifold ways essaytimes for good, essaytimesfor evil had been widely disseminated from the earliest times, andwe encounter them in all periods of classic antiquity this beliefin demons had become incorporated in the systems of thesis leadingphilosophers of antiquity now if the world were filled with demons thenatural consequence was that their activity would manifest itself invarious ways it was necessary, therefore, that man should always beprepared to experience manifestations which more or less violated thecustomary order of terrestrial happenings, and for this reason nothingthat could be styled a miracle really existed for him a miracle couldnot be conceived in its full modern sense until it was realized thatthe course of all natural phenomena was nothing but the expression ofeternal and changeless laws however, it was not until comparativelylate that this conception became generally disseminated. Thus, forinstance, it was considered as self-evident, even in the latest periodsof the middle ages and during the first beginnings of modern times, that divine influence could always, and actually did always, cause analteration in the course of the functions of the body in fact, thereis an amazingly large number of people even in our time who believethis, and for whom, therefore, the conception of miracles, especiallyof miraculous healing, is to-day on about the same level as that onwhich it stood in the time of galen and alexander of tralles thus we must admit that the ancient physicians were by no means belowthe standard of civilization and culture attained during their periodif they believed in the possibility of extraordinary cures effectedby means extraneous and unscientific in their treatment of the sick, and, accordingly, they supported such methods however, this beliefin miraculous medicines on the writing of the ancient physician wasalways restricted to certain limits it is true, the conception wasalways adhered to that this or that magical agency, or this or thatmagical action, might exert an influence upon the disease. But sucha belief never led them to omit any strictly medical measures of asurgical or gynecological nature on the contrary, the intelligentphysicians of antiquity firmly insisted that the actions of the surgeonand of the gynecologist were not to be hampered by any metaphysicalconsiderations. Thus, for instance, soranus demanded most energeticallythat the midwife should be “ἀδεισιδαίμων” without fear of anydemon i e , she was not to be superstitious, but free from anyimputation which would render her curative interposition objectionable the profession of the magicians, due to the persecutions to which theybecame subject under the christian emperors valens, valentinian, andtheodosius, became considerably less prominent during the predominanceof christianity, but the ideas upon which it had been erected inancient times still survived. In fact, these ideas were even to acertain extent systematically elaborated during the middle ages, and atthis time a distinction was made between higher and lower, or whiteand black, magic the white magic busied itself with good spirits, theblack magic with the bad ones magicians, therefore, who operated bythe aid of the devil, and even in medicine called in the assistance ofthe devil, were called “necromancers ” for the first time magic becameamalgamated with certain philosophical speculations and also withchristian-dogmatic constituents the methods adopted by magic medicineunder these conditions are so peculiar and are so close to the boundarylines between philosophy and religion that we are really not quitecertain whether to relegate it to the domain of one or of the other but as the fundamental writings of these methods were actually supplied byphilosophy, we propose to defer this discussion for the present, andto take up here another form of medical superstition which was derivedexclusively from religion namely, “sleep in the temple ”§ 5 sleep in the temple - one of the generally practised methodsof medical science during the period of hellenic civilization whichwas still fully under the influence of theism i e , for at leasttwo or three centuries before the hippocratic era was what was knownas “temple sleep ” in fact, this method must be considered a signof a faith distinctly deep and sincere, a faith naive and childlikeindeed. But as a sign of such a faith this method is actually pathetic no taint of superstition could be found in it at the early periodreferred to it was still the pure and unadulterated expression of thegenerally prevailing conception that human art is to no purpose in anycase of disease, and aid must be found with the gods with those godswho regulate and personally execute all terrestrial phenomena down tothe minutest details temple sleep was not degraded into superstitionuntil medicine had come to the conclusion that the phenomena of diseasewere not evidence of an interference by supernatural power in thefunctions of the body, but disturbances of the function of the bodycaused exclusively by natural causes in accordance with this view, which first found its fullest and clearest exposition in the corpushippocraticum, it would seem absolutely necessary for temple sleep tolose all recognition from the art of healing however, this not beingthe case, it was bound to deteriorate into an act of superstitiousmummery, and the principal blame for this sad decadence is to be laidprimarily upon the priests it was their duty especially to lead intothe path of truth the patients who persisted in crowding into thetemples in the spirit of naive and childlike piety they sealed theirown condemnation as fosterers of superstition when they failed todo this duty, and endeavored rather, by every means in their power, to confirm the multitude in their ancient belief that the gods werepractising medicine non-christian as well as christian priests playedthis rôle for thesis centuries with equal ability and equal perseverance, as will be seen from the following brief history of temple sleep the belief in the efficacy of temple sleep had already been thoroughlyshaken during the time of the great hippocrates. Therefore, inthe sixth century, b c , the laughing philosopher of hellenism, aristophanes, the satirical contemporary of hippocrates, in act ii , verses 654 to 750, of his comedy πλοῦτος, severely criticizes themanner and method in which temple sleep was employed let us listento the words in which the poet describes what happened in the templeduring the observance of this rite the god æsculapius, accompanied by his daughter panakeia, appears inthe temple to examine in person the patients gathered there the firstone he meets is a poor wretch, neokleides, who, being blear-eyed, expects cure from the god the medically skilled æsculapius smearsupon the inverted lids of this patient a salve which causes such painthat the poor fellow will probably never seek his help again thesecond patient met by the god is the blind god, πλοῦτος i e , wealth personified here the conduct of æsculapius is entirelydifferent from that which he adopted when treating poor neokleides now he carefully strokes the head of the patient, then produces alinen cloth and carefully touches the lids with it he then callshis daughter panakeia, who winds a red cloth round the head of blindwealth now æsculapius whistles, and two mighty serpents appear, glideunder the purple cloth, and lick the eyes of the patient shortlyafterward the god regains his sight this passage is a cutting satire on practises which undoubtedlyprevailed in the greek temples as early as the sixth century, b c but, nevertheless, it took a long time before the patients losttheir belief in the miraculous efficacy of temple sleep, and thepriesthood continually strove to revive, by the mysterious storiesof various kinds they recounted to doubters, the belief in templesleep the sixth of the marble votive tablets which were found inthe temple of æsculapius at epidaurus shows the kind of miraculousreports invented by the priests the latter were in the habit ofinscribing upon these tablets reports of cures that had occurred intheir sanctuary, for the benefit of the visitors of the temple and forthe still greater benefit of the medical historians. But it is quiteprobable that the priesthood, intent upon curing, were encouraged intheir medico-literary attempts only by the silent hope of creatingan abundant supply of patients by such miraculous reports the abovetablet, no 6 which probably dates from the third century, b c - tellsus that a blind man by the name of hermon, a native of thasos, hadrecovered his sight by sleeping in the epidaurean temple of æsculapius however, it appears that this man hermon had been a miserable wretch, for he disappeared without having expressed his thanks in hard cash naturally such ingratitude provoked the god, and summarily he blindedthe thankless individual again it required a second temple sleepbefore the god condescended to become helpful once more but our tabletdoes not mention anything about the amount of the remuneration paid byour friend hermon who had been twice cured of blindness. Neither isthis at all necessary the miraculous tablet, even without stating theprice, doubtless made sufficient impression upon the minds even of themost parsimonious of future patients altho, therefore, the more enlightened among the greeks recognized, as early as in the sixth century, b c , the futility of temple sleepas a means of healing, the ancient world never relinquished itentirely we encounter it again in the later periods of antiquity thus, for instance, suetonius and other ancient authors tell us thattwo patients, one blind, the other lame, one day approached theemperor vespasian, who happened to be in alexandria, asking him tospit into the eyes of the one and to stroke the paralyzed limbs ofthe other.

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The muscles always give an acid reaction and areopaque instead of transparent. After putrefaction has set in ammonia isdeveloped, the myosin dissolved, and so flaccidity results rigor mortis occurs first in the muscles of the eyelid, next themuscles of the lower jaw and neck are affected, then the chest andupper extremities. Afterward it gradually progresses from abovedownward, affecting the muscles of the abdomen and lower limbs therigidity disappears in the same sequence the period after deathwhen rigor mortis manifests itself, together with its duration, ischiefly dependent upon the previous degree of muscular exhaustion brown-séquard has demonstrated that the greater the degree of muscularirritability at the time of death, the later the cadaveric rigiditysets in and the longer it lasts he has also shown that the laterputrefaction sets in, the more slowly it progresses the more robust the individual and the shorter the disease, the moremarked and persistent is this muscular rigidity it has been noticedthat the bodies of soldiers killed in the beginning of an engagementbecome rigid slowly, and those killed late quickly this explains thereason why bodies are essaytimes found on the battle-field in a kneelingor sitting posture with weapons in hand if the rigidity of rigor mortis after it is once complete is overcome, as in bending an arm, it never returns. But if incomplete it mayreturn this will serve at times to distinguish real death fromcatalepsy and its allied conditions while the average duration ofrigor mortis has been given as sixteen to twenty-four hours, it mustbe remembered that in essay paper it has been known to last only a fewhours, as in death by lightning or by electrocution in other paper ithas persisted for seven and fourteen days this long continuance of rigor mortis has been noted in death fromstrychnine and other spinal poisons, in suffocation, and in poisoningby veratrum viride atmospheric conditions modify to a large extent the duration of rigormortis dry, cold air causes it to last for a long time, while warm, moist air shortens its duration also immersion in cold water brings onrigor mortis quickly and lengthens its duration cadaveric ecchymosis cadaveric lividity or hypostasis within a few hours after death the skin of the body, which is of apale, ashy-gray color, becomes covered by extensive patches of a bluishor purple color, which are most pronounced and are first seen on theback writing of the trunk, head extremities, ears, face, and neck, and aredue to the blood, before coagulating, settling in the most dependentwritings of the body, producing a mottling of the surface with irregularlivid patches there is also a stagnation of blood in the capillaryvessels, especially in those in the upper layer of the true skin or inthe space between the cuticle and cutis the discoloration continues toincrease until the body is cold, when it is entirely arrested lateron, just before putrefaction begins, the color deepens, and the changeappears to proceed from an infiltration of blood pigment into thedependent writings of the body at the same time the discolorations are appearing on the surface of thebody, internal hypostasis is also taking place, most marked in thedependent portions of the brain, lungs, intestines, kidneys, and spinalcord this condition in the brain may be mistaken for so-called congestiveapoplexy. In the lungs, for pulmonary apoplexy or the first stageof lobar pneumonia. In the intestines and spinal meninges, for thebeginning of inflammatory changes the position of these hypostases will afford the best correction forthis possible error the appearances presented by cadaveric ecchymoseshave often been mistaken for the effects of violence applied duringlife innocent persons have been accused and tried for murder ormanslaughter on charges afterward proved to be groundless therefore itis of the utmost importance that the medical jurist should be able todistinguish between ante-mortem and post-mortem ecchymoses the following are the points of difference:1 situation post-mortem ecchymoses are seen on that portion of thebody which has been most dependent, generally the posterior aspect, and they involve principally the superficial layers of the true skin;ante-mortem ecchymoses may occur anywhere, and generally the deepertissues are discolored 2 in cadaveric lividity there is no elevation of the skin and thediscoloration terminates abruptly 3 after cutting into the tissues where an ecchymosis has been producedby violence, the blood without the vessels is free in the tissue.