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Uc Essay Prompts 2016-17


Apnœa is breathlessness there is asphyxia when theblood from the heart can go to the lungs, but there is no access ofair. Apnœa, when there is access of air, but the blood fails to reachthe lungs in asphyxia the lungs obstruct the circulation. In apnœathe obstruction is in the heart in asphyxia the air cannot reach theblood. In apnœa the blood cannot reach the air quinquaud730 and fredericq731 conclude from experiments onanimals that asphyxia is due to the deficiency of oxygen, not to theaccumulation of carbon dioxide page732 divides the phenomena witnessed in an animal killed by simplydepriving it of air, without interfering with the blood-vessels of theneck, into four stages:first a short stage in the human subject this stage could scarcelylast longer than fifty seconds, which is said to be the extreme limitof the most expert divers the breath can be held longest if a numberof deep breaths have previously been taken, so as to surcharge theblood with oxygen second the stage of “besoin de réspirer, ” when the want of airbegins to be felt. The animal makes vigorous and violent efforts toovercome the obstacle this stage may continue for three to fourminutes third unconsciousness supervenes with irregular and spasmodicmovements. Efforts at respiration continue fourth efforts at respiration cease, but the heart still beats thisstage may last from two to four minutes hofmann733 says that it maylast a half-hour in new-born infants, asphyxiated, it may be quitelong the post-mortem appearances in such an animal were as follows. The lungs were pale, reddish, not much distended. There were a few dilated air-cells toward the anterior border. Hemorrhages irregularly dispersed over the surface of the lung, varying in number and size the right cavities of the heart contained dark fluid blood, the left were empty the pulmonary artery and systemic veins, even the smallest branches, were gorged with dark blood page adds that when the great vessels of the neck are interfered with death may occur “by coma, syncope, and even asthenia ” colin734 made twenty-five experiments on horses, and records three of them as follows. They were all strangled with a hempen cord at the middle of the neck the first was quiet till the second or third minute, then there were violent movements and strong efforts to dilate the chest.

The leaves, flowers, and seed, all or any of them, are good toexpel pensiveness and melancholy. It helps to clarify the blood, andmitigate heat in fevers the juice made into a syrup prevails much toall the purposes aforesaid, and is put, with other cooling, opening andcleansing herbs to open obstructions, and help the yellow jaundice, andmixed with fumitory, to cool, cleanse, and temper the blood thereby;it helps the itch, ringworms and tetters, or other spreading scabs orsores the flowers candied or made into a conserve, are helpful in theformer paper, but are chiefly used as a cordial, and are good for thosethat are weak in long sickness, and to comfort the heart and spiritsof those that are in a consumption, or troubled with often swoonings, or passions of the heart the distilled water is no less effectual toall the purposes aforesaid, and helps the redness and inflammations ofthe eyes, being washed therewith. The herb dried is never used, butthe green. Yet the ashes thereof boiled in mead, or honied water, isavailable against the inflammations and ulcers in the mouth or throat, to gargle it therewith. The roots of bugloss are effectual, being madeinto a licking electuary for the cough, and to condensate thick phlegm, and the rheumatic distillations upon the lungs blue-bottle it is called syanus, i suppose from the colour of it. Hurt-sickle, because it turns the edge of the sickles that reap the corn. Blue-blow, corn-flower, and blue-bottle descript i shall only describe that which is commonest, and inmy opinion most useful. Its leaves spread upon the ground, beingof a whitish green colour, essaywhat on the edges like those ofcorn-scabious, amongst which rises up a stalk divided into diversbranches, beset with long leaves of a greenish colour, either but verylittle indented, or not at all.

A red dye wasalso present both qualitative and quantitative data showed that themercury was present in the form of mercurous iodid yellow iodid ofmercury-- hydrargyri iodidum flavum quantitative estimations yieldedthe following. Silver ag 0 001 per cent mercury hg 11 1 per cent iodid i- 7 8 per cent sucrose cane sugar 72 0 per cent ash calcium sulphate 2 5 per cent ether-soluble material fatty material-- petrolatum 3 5 per cent thus each tablet of “syphilodol” contains approximately, 3/4 grainof mercurous iodid an ampule of “syphilodol, ” labeled 0 4 gram, contained approximately 1 5 c c of a liquid which after evaporationon a water-bath left a residue weighing 0 8 mg , or 1/80 grain asecond ampule held about 2 c c of liquid, which contained a trace ofarsenic less than 0 00001 gm , or 1/6000 grain. A very small amountof mercury was indicated but not definitely established the liquid hadthe physical characteristics of water accompanying “syphilodol” advertising sent to physicians is a circularletter inviting the doctor to become a member in the “united statesbacteriological and research institute ” the “institute” seems to be ameans of suggesting that the physician have bacteriologic, pathologicand serologic examinations made on behalf of his patients in view ofthe fact that it is to the commercial interest of the french medicinalcompany to have as thesis users of “syphilodol” as possible, it wouldbe interesting to know what proportion of the wassermann tests arereported negative shorn of its mystery, syphilodol the “synthetic chemical product ofsilver, arsenic and antimony” is essentially mercurous iodid-- yellowiodid of mercury details of analysis syphilodol tabletsin france there has been on the market for essay time a syntheticcompound of silver, arsenic and antimony having the general structureof arsphenamin structurally, the formula as given by bonard, danyssand tournier is c₁₂h₁₂n₂as₂ 2agbrsbo h₂so₄₂-- dioxy diaminoarsenobensolstibicosilver sulphate as the advertising matter for“syphilodol” referred to the synthetic compound of silver, antimonyand arsenic, and also to its use in syphilis by fournier, the abovecompound was first suspected however, the general characteristicsof syphilodol tablets, such as writingial solubility in water, but notsoluble in sodium hydroxid, sodium bicarbonate or acids, threw doubt onthe hypothesis when a small amount of the powdered tablets was treatedwith water, a yellow residue could be filtered off. The filtrate waspink, opalescent, which on standing gave a clear pink solution, anda small yellow precipitate the residue, when allowed to remain insulphuric acid solution 20 per cent over night became red. Onboiling, the red precipitate with sulphuric acid, the precipitatevolatilized and could be condensed in a watch glass adding a pinch ofmanganese dioxid to the hot sulphuric acid mixture caused an evolutionof iodin fumes a small amount of powdered syphilodol tablets wasplaced in the sunlight. They turned from yellow to black all thesereactions are typical of mercurous iodid-- yellow iodid of mercury mercury, silver, arsenic, antimonyi mercury -- two methods were used to determine the mercury. a1 4535 gm of powdered syphilodol was treated with 10 c c of a 50 percent sodium sulphid solution the solution was then transferred withwashings about 20 c c to a cathode cup, previously weighed with itscontained mercury the mercury compound was electrolyzed by a currentof about 8 volts and 3 amperes, using a rotating anode the solution and essay sulphur suspension was removed by siphon, pouring in wateruntil the amperage of the current was close to zero u s p , ix, p 587 the increased weight in mercury was 0 1612 gm ii to serve as a check on the foregoing method, mercury was alsodetermined in the following method, which also allowed systematic testsfor silver, antimony and arsenic b 1 1023 gm of the sample wasplaced in an erlenmeyer flask, 50 c c of water, 50 c c of sodiumhydroxid solution 10 per cent and 20 c c of formaldehyd solution, u s p , added the solution was boiled for ten minutes and maintainedat temperature of steam bath for two hours this reduces the mercurysalt to mercury and any silver salt to silver. Antimony would probablybe likewise reduced the precipitated mercury was transferred bywater, and concentrated nitric acid added the nitric acid solutionis boiled to oxidize all mercurous nitrate to mercuric nitrate asmall white precipitate was obtained at this point which seemed to beinsoluble in aqua regia calcium sulphate the filtrate from thisprecipitate, which was washed well, was tested with one or two dropsof dilute hydrochloric acid and a faint precipitate formed. This wasfiltered off through extra fine filter paper and washed repeatedly thepaper and precipitate was heated with potassium cyanid solution overnight, filtered and the filtrate electrolyzed in a platinum dish theincrease in weight of the dish was 0 00018 gm , or 0 001 per cent intothe platinum dish essay nitric acid was poured, then diluted, and a dropof hydrochloric acid added a turbidity was produced which cleared onthe addition of excess of ammonium hydroxid solution silver thefiltrate from the nitric acid treatment was electrolyzed, this time ina platinum dish, and the liquid carefully removed, washed carefullywith redistilled alcohol and ether the mercury, which could be seeneasily by the naked eye, weighed 0 1200 gm , equivalent to 10 89 percent of mercury iii arsenic and antimony -- about 3 gm of the powdered specimen wasdigested with sulphuric acid in a kjeldahl flask one-half portion which was evaporated almost to dryness and treated with 5 c c ofconcentrated hydrochloric acid was submitted to treatment withhydrogen sulphid, diluted, and saturated with hydrogen sulphid theprecipitate was treated in the usual manner of the group separationwith warm ammonium sulphid solution the filtrate from this treatmentwas acidulated with hydrochloric acid, the precipitate removed, andtreated with concentrated hydrochloric acid the substance insolublein hydrochloric acid was treated with more concentrated hydrochloricacid and a crystal of potassium chlorate the solution was tested afterthe gutzeit method of the pharmacopeia ix, for arsenic a very smallamount was indicated the hydrogen sulphid test was not indicative thesolution which might contain the antimony was tested with hydrogensulphid in one case only was a slight orange coloration produced noantimony was deposited on platinum foil in the presence of granulatedzinc these tests were run in triplicate iodid -- iodid was determined by the carius method a 0 7412 gm yielded 0 1112 gm silver iodid, equivalent to 8 09 per cent. b0 5319 gm yielded 0 0751 gm , equivalent to 7 80 per cent the iodidand mercury were in proportions comparable to mercurous iodid ash -- a 0 9159 gm when ignited to constant weight yielded0 0232 gm , equivalent to 2 52 per cent ash. b 1 3008 gm treatedwith water and the residue filtered on a gooch filter and ignited the ash of the residue was 2 51 per cent the mercurous iodidvolatilized the ash was calcium sulphate sucrose -- 1 3008 gm of the sample was treated with water andfiltered by suction through a gooch crucible the filtrate and washingwere carefully transferred to 500 c c volumetric flask, and allowed tostand one week. 50 c c portions were used to determine sugar accordingto the daufresne-oullivan method the weights of cupric oxid averaged210 mg , or 72 per cent ether soluble material -- 1 6998 gm of the powdered specimen wasextracted with ether and the ether extract evaporated to dryness theresidue weighed 0 0600 gm , equivalent to 3 53 per cent syphilodol ampuleswater -- the liquid from one ampule was distilled over very carefully the freezing point of the liquid was 0 1 c , and it was neutral tomethyl orange and phenolphthalein arsenic -- the contents of one ampule was placed in a small florenceflask, 20 c c of concentrated sulphuric acid added and heated to70 c.

“report proteogen therapy requested bythe american medical association, 1919. The wm s merrell company ”the first volume contained 79 pages of typewritten material. The secondvolume contained 76 pages of typewritten material and a number ofadvertising booklets put out by the wm s merrell company, exploitingthe proteogens among the typewritten material was a 14-page report on “proteogentherapy” by its originator, a s horowitz following this thereare several pages devoted to what is termed “a short qualitativedescription of the ingredients of major importance in proteogens ”then follows a page describing the advertising of proteogens, andthe remainder of the two books is devoted to testimonials, laudingthe benefit of proteogens in diseases such as cancer, tuberculosis, rheumatism, asthma, influenza, enlarged prostate, rheumaticendocarditis, syphilis, eczema, psoriasis, diabetes, secondary anemia, gonococcic infections, etc finally, there are attached samples ofadvertising pamphlets the dissertation by a s horowitz contains little actual informationconcerning these substances, but is concerned principally withdiscussion of foreign proteins, “antiferments, ” “non-specificproteins, ” “anti-virolins” and speculations on their hypotheticalactions and interactions on each other and on the organs of the bodyand on bacteria the report contains thesis questionable statements one finds in this report but few definite statements of facts whichare known to be accurate or which could be accepted without question the qualitative description of the proteins and their components isas vague as the previous discussion the differentiation between thevarious proteogens is extremely indefinite. That for tuberculosis, no 3 is described as “polyvalent, non-specific protein which rapidlyattacks the acid-fast, encapsulated tubercle bacilli”. Proteogen no 10 for syphilis is said to be a combination of “non-specific plantproteins and different chemicals which has the power to paralyze anddestroy living spirochete ” it is stated that proteogens are scientificpreparations based on standard ingredients and that the standardizationis more accurate than in serums, vaccines or toxins, etc the reportgives no proof of such statements the testimonials that are submitted are typical of “reports” thatmanufacturers are able to obtain from essay physicians, to prove theefficacy of almost any preparation in any disease each consists, practically, of the opinion of the individual who has employed theproteogens or the opinion of the patient who has been treated few dataare given in these reports from which an imwritingial conclusion might bedrawn a few of the testimonials presented by the william s merrellcompany follow the valuelessness of such material as scientificevidence is obvious. Rheumatism:-- proteogen no 2 -- the doctor has one case being treated with no 2 she has improved so rapidly she cannot express her pleasure, and will continue for essay time on the treatments she is a patient who was confined during the time she suffered from a rheumatic illness, and it seemed to affect her mental condition this condition is clearing up also, very much to the pleasure of both patient and doctor -- november 27, 1918 influenza:-- proteogen no 12 -- first day, temperature 102, gave 1 c c proteogen no 12. Second day, temperature 100, gave 1 c c proteogen no 12. Third day, temperature 98 8, gave 1 c c proteogen no 12, and then discharged the case as recovered -- october 31, 1918 asthma:-- proteogen no 4 -- splendid results obtained from a sample of proteogen no 4 three ampoules affected effected?. complete recovery -- october 9, 1918 cancer:-- proteogen no 1 -- mrs b pronounced recovered from cancer by dr o w a , of catlin, after having injections of proteogen no 1 for essay time -- october 4, 1918 eczema:-- proteogen no 5 -- tried no 5 on a patient with eczema, and with happy results have not done anything for him for about five months-- and he is now at his business proteogen no 5 also relieved him of constipation and what he claimed a traumatic stricture of the lower portion of sigmoid flexure he is sure pleased and recommending them to his friends proteogens -- february 17, 1919 syphilis:-- proteogen no 10 -- i am getting such excellent results with the no 10 proteogen for syphilis that i am badly in need of more, as i am treating so thesis paper please send me four dozen c o d -- october 9, 1918 enlarged prostate:-- proteogen no 1 -- have used plantex in four paper, with good results in each case one of them his father, an elderly man -- april 25, 1918 lobar pneumonia:-- proteogen no 12 -- the only case i have used proteogen no 12, was a man who had lobar pneumonia of left lung following influenza after crisis came, patient continued to have slight rise in temperature, cough, and after using 10 doses of your proteogen no 12, temperature was normal, cough very much better, patient began to take on flesh and is still improving -- december 26, 1918 tuberculosis:-- proteogen no 3 -- the doctor writes. The proteogen no 3 sent me worked wonders in my patient the case came under my care when he was too far gone for anything to benefit him a great deal, but the proteogen did for him more than anyone could have expected, yet he died leaving me with a few ampoules to try on the next patient -- september 20, 1918 gonorrheal cystitis:-- proteogen no 11 -- my patient has taken two boxes of your proteogen no 11 given for gonorrheal cystitis of probably two years’ standing and at this writing i consider her almost, if not entirely, cured which i think speaks very highly of your remedy i expect to use more of your preparations in the future -- april 12, 1919 this testimonial, either by clerical error, or because the results were considered remarkable, was repeated elsewhere in the material submitted by the merrell company acute gonorrhea:-- proteogen no 11 -- mr a e r , age 65, weight 140 pounds first attack had had no previous treatment came to me january 2, 1919 had discharge, all acute symptoms, burning, etc gave seventeen injections of proteogen no 11, also mild antiseptic urethral wash discharged on february 15, 1919, clinically cured -- april 11, 1919 epithelioma of buttock -- proteogen no 1 -- i used proteogen no 1 on an epithelioma of buttock essay six months ago with favorable results and no return of symptoms as yet -- april 13, 1919 it is obvious that the proteogen preparations are in conflict withrules 1, 6 and 10, and should not be admitted to “new and nonofficialremedies ” it is recommended that the previous action of thecouncil be allowed to stand and that publication of both reports beauthorized -- from the journal a m a , july 12, 1919 “arsenoven s s ” and “arseno-meth-hyd” report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council authorizes publication of the following report this reportdeclares arsenoven s s of the s s products company and solution ofarsenic and mercury formerly called arseno-meth-hyd of the new yorkintravenous laboratory, inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies the council takes this opportunity to repeat its warning against theabuses-- often dangerous-- to which patients are frequently subjectedwhen “intravenous therapy” is employed w a puckner, secretary because of inquiries received, the council took up the consideration ofarsenoven s s and arseno-meth-hyd now sold as solution of arsenicand mercury the preparations having been referred to a committee forconsideration, this committee reported.

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Rectified ol of turpentine, m 3-1/2 uc essay prompts 2016-17. Iodin, gr 1/8. Phenol, gr 1/2. Glycerine and elixir lactated pepsin with aromatic oils in the form of a perfect emulsion ”a circular which gives what is asserted to be the composition ofiodinized emulsion, declares that, among other ingredients, eachfluidram contains “one and three quarters m tincture of iodine ”both the statement on the label that the preparation contains “iodin”and the one in the circular that tincture of iodin is present in theproduct are incorrect, for the a m a chemical laboratory reportsthat no free iodin could be detected in the preparation, and that itresponded to tests for iodid instead an advertising circular for iodinized emulsion scott makesunwarranted claims for the therapeutic properties of the constituents for example. “ the great usefulness of turpentine in diseases, especially of the intestinal infection, such as the meteorism and tympanites of typhoid ”and this absurdity. “ where turpentine, carbolic acid or iodine or even pepsin is indicated, that it will give satisfaction in each and every case ”iodinized emulsion scott is not a “pharmaceutical triumph”. It is anirrational mixture-- a reminder of a decadent polypharmacy-- sold undermisleading and unwarranted claims it is inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies for conflict with rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 creosotonic scottcreosotonic scott, advertised as a “reconstructive tonic” for thetuberculous, according to the label, contains in each fluidram. “alcohol, m 2-1/2. Creosote and guaiacol sulphonates of each, gr 1. Compound hypophosphites, gr 1 including quinine hypophosphites, gr 1/36 and strychnine hypophosphites, gr 1/256, with iodinized emulsion scott m 30 ”as in the case of iodinized emulsion scott, the advertising makesexaggerated therapeutic claims for the individual constituents of thepreparation and for the heterogeneous mixture of guaiacol and creosotesulphonates, hypophosphites, quinin, strychnin, turpentine, phenol, iodin, “lactated pepsin, ” etc thus, while it is well established thatin guaiacol sulphonate and creosote sulphonate the phenolic constituentis bound so firmly that, when administered, but very little is splitoff in the organism, yet the advertising claims “that the system canbe saturated in a shorter time and with smaller doses of creosote andguaiacol sulphonates than with any other form of these drugs” and that on the false premise that the guaiacol and creosote from these drugswill permeate the tissues of the lungs “they help to clear up thelocal infection and thus aid in returning to normal the diseased mucousmembrane ”in the advertising pamphlet, following a discussion of the effect ofclimate and food in the treatment of the tuberculous, we read. “while admitting the great importance of the foregoing points, we are firmly of the opinion that proper medication is a great aid in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, and, with this in view, we offer to the profession creosotonic scott believing that in it we have a superior preparation for this purpose ”this is unwarranted of course suitable medication to meet specialconditions is proper in the treatment of tuberculosis, but the routineadministration of a complex and irrational mixture such as creosotonic scott is bound to cause inattention to the prime requisites for theproper treatment of the tuberculous-- hygienic surroundings and goodfood creosotonic scott is an irrational mixture, sold under misleading andunwarranted claims it is inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesfor conflict with rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 -- from the journal a m a , aug 24, 1918 campetrodin and campetrodin no 2 report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on campetrodin and campetrodin no 2 has beenadopted by the council and its publication authorized w a puckner, secretary the following report of the a m a chemical laboratory on“campetrodin” and “campetrodin no 2, ” sold by the a h robinscompany, richmond, va , was submitted to the council by a referee ofthe committee on pharmacology:campetrodin and campetrodin no 2, double strength, are called “ethicalmedicinal specialties” by the a h robins company, richmond, va , which sells them an advertisement in the maryland medical journal december, 1917 contains the following claim for composition.