History

Uc Essay Prompt


Skin cold. No pulse. No heart-beatrecognizable. No respiration. No reflex action galvanism failed toarouse any muscular action the details are too numerous to give all ofthem there was reduplication of heart-sounds for several days, due tointerference with pulmonary circulation she recovered both bodily andmental health 45 richards. Indian med gaz , 1886, xxi , p 78 - man, age 20;suicide. Was cut down and lived for four days 46 kite. Univ med mag , 1888-89, i , p 475 - man, age 69.

Or else itis thick and earthly of itself, and this properly is called melancholyhumour hence then is the nature of splenical medicines to be found out, andby these two is the spleen usually uc essay prompt afflicted for atra bilis, i knownot what distinct english name to give it thesis times causes madness, and pure melancholy causeth obstructions of the bowels, and tumours, whereby the concoction of the blood is vitiated, and dropsies thesistimes follow medicines then peculiar to the spleen must needs be twofold also, essayappropriated to atra bilis, others to pure melancholy. But of purgingeither of them, i shall omit till i come to treat of purging in achapter by itself 1 such medicines are splenical, which by cooling and moistening temperatra bilis. Let not these medicines be too cold neither, for there isno such heat in atra bilis as there is in choler, and therefore itneeds no such excessive cooling. Amongst the number of these are suchas we mentioned amongst the cordials to repel melancholy vapours fromthe heart, such temper and assuage the malice of atra bilis 2 those medicines are also splenical, by which melancholy humours arecorrected and so prepared, that they may the more easily be evacuated:such medicines are cutting and opening, and they differ from hepaticalsin this that they are no ways binding. For the spleen being no waysaddicted to concoction, binding medicines do it harm, and not good 3 essaytimes the spleen is not only obstructed, but also hardened bymelancholy humours, and in such paper emolient medicines may be wellcalled splenicals, not such as are taken inwardly, for they operateupon the stomach and bowels, but such as are outwardly applied to theregion of the spleen and although essaytimes medicines, are outwardly applied to hardness ofthe liver, yet they differ from splenicals, because they are binding, so are not splenicals chapter vii of medicines appropriated to the reins and bladder the office of the reins is, to make a separation between the blood andthe urine. To receive this urine thus separated from the blood, is thebladder ordained, which is of a sufficient bigness to contain it both these writings of the body officiating about the urine, they are bothusually afflicted by the vices of the urine 1 by stones 2 by inflammation 3 by thick humours medicines appropriated to the reins and bladder are usually callednephriticals, and are threefold. Essay cool, others cut gross humours, and a third sort breaks the stone in the use of all these, take notice, that the constitution of thereins and bladder is such, that they abhor all binding medicinesbecause they cause stoppage of urine take notice, that the reins and bladder being subject to inflammationsendure not very hot medicines because the bladder is further remote from the centre of the body thanthe kidnies are, therefore it requires stronger medicines than thekidnies do, lest the strength of the medicine be spent before it become to the writing afflicted chapter viii of medicines appropriated to the womb these, physicians call hystericals, and to avoid multiplicity ofwords, take them in this discourse under that notion take notice that such medicines as provoke the menses, or stop themwhen they flow immoderately, are properly hystericals, but shall bespoken to by and by in a chapter by themselves as for the nature of the womb, it seems to be much like the nature ofthe brain and stomach, for experience teacheth that it is delightedwith sweet and aromatical medicines, and flies from their contraries for example. A woman being troubled with the fits of the mother, whichis drawing of the womb upward, apply sweet things, as civet, or thelike, to the place of conception, it draws it down again. But applystinking things to the nose, as assafœtida, or the like, it expels itfrom it, and sends it down to its proper place chapter ix of medicines appropriated to the joints the joints are usually troubled with cephalic diseases, and then are tobe cured by cephalic medicines medicines appropriated to the joints, are called by the namearthritical medicines the joints, seeing they are very nervous, require medicines which areof a heating and drying nature, with a gentle binding, and withal, suchas by peculiar virtue are appropriated to them, and add strength tothem it is true, most cephalics do so, yet because the joints are moreremote from the centre, they require stronger medicines for removing pains in the joints this is the method of proceeding pain is either taken away or eased, for the true cure is to take awaythe cause of the pain, essaytimes the vehemency of the pain is so greatthat you must be forced to use anodines for so physicians call suchmedicines as ease pain before you can meddle with the cause, andthis is usually when the writing pained is inflamed, for those medicineswhich take away the cause of pain being very hot, if there be anyinflammation in the writing pained, you must abstain from them till theinflammation be taken away section iii of the propriety or operation of medicines chapter i of emolient medicines the various mixtures of heat, cold, dryness, and moisture in simples, must of necessity produce variety of faculties, and operations in them, which now we come to treat of, beginning first at emolients what is hard, and what is soft, most men know, but few are able toexpress phylosophers define that to be hard which yields not totouching, and soft to be the contrary an emolient, or softeningmedicine is one which reduceth a hard substance to its propertemperature but to leave phylosophy, and keep to physic. Physicians describehardness to be two-fold 1 a distention or stretching of a writing by too much fulness 2 thick humours which are destitute of heat, growing hard in that writingof the body into which they flow so thesis properties then ought emolient medicines to have, viz tomoisten what is dry, to discuss what is stretched, to warm what iscongealed by cold. Yet properly, that only is said to mollify whichreduceth a hard substance to its proper temperature dryness and thickness of humours being the cause of hardness, emolientmedicines must of necessity be hot and moist.

1842, p 368 was the weapon fired from a distance or near by?. a gunshot injuryfrom a bullet implies at least one wound, namely, that of entrance, and perhaps another, that of exit it does not always happen that thebullet passes through the body the appearance of the wound of entranceis usually one of irregular circular puncture, its edges perhapsslightly torn or lacerated, with a purplish or dark areola, varying inwidth from a line or two to one-half inch when the weapon is firedclose to the body there are likely to be more or less powder-marks, and possibly actual burning from the heat and flame of the gunpowder if the writing of the body injured had been covered by clothing at thetime, the marks of powder and of burning would probably be confined tothe same bleeding is usually slight and occurs more commonly from thewound of entrance than from that of exit regularity of either of thesewounds depends in large measure upon the angle at which the bullet hasstruck the surface when striking very obliquely the wound may be moreoval or the bullet may have ploughed a furrow or a channel, by a studyof which the relative position of the assailant and the assailed atthe moment of injury may, perhaps, be determined it is of importanceto determine if possible the approximate distance at which the bulletwas fired, since the question of self-defence, for instance, may hingeupon evidence of this character the charge of powder and the weight ofthe bullet being known, one may essaytimes estimate this distance by thedepth of penetration or the appearance of the bullet still, the natureof the tissues must figure largely in such consideration thesis suicideswho shoot themselves in the head show only one wound of entrance andnone of exit experiments testing powder-marks - powder-marks and burns fromweapons ordinarily used will scarcely appear when the distance hasexceeded ten or twelve feet lachese, of antwerp, found that infiring a gun even from a distance of only four feet the skin was onlywritingially blackened as the result of experiments made with a ballard rifle, old style, 44calibre, with bullets of 220 grains and 28 grains of powder, dr balch, of albany, found that powder-marks were made at distances as follows:at two feet, writingicles too numerous to count, with essay of thelubricant blown upon the board;at four feet the same;at six feet the same;at eight feet, nine grains of powder;at ten feet, five grains of powder in one case and six in another that these were powder-grains were shown in court by picking essayof them out, placing them on a glass, and igniting them with agalvano-caustic point from those at ten feet no distinct flash couldbe elicited. From those obtained at eight feet distinct flashes wereseen trans new york state med soc , 1881 in the celebrated case of peytle, brought in 1839 for the murder of hiswife, who had been killed by two bullets entering near the nose, theeyebrows, lashes, and lids were completely burned, and a large numberof powder grains were imbedded in the cheeks experiments being madein order to ascertain the distance necessary to produce these effects, it was found that the weapon must have been held within a distance oftwelve inches wounds of entrance and of exit - a great deal has been written intime past about the peculiarities of the wounds of entrance and ofexit, much of which cannot be maintained under expert criticism it istrue that the wound of entrance will usually be well defined, the skinslightly depressed and appearing as above noted it is true also thatpowder-marks will appear about this wound rather than that of exit usually, too, the orifice of exit is larger, less regular, its edgeseverted slightly, with more or less laceration of the skin, and quitefree from any powder-marks or evidence of burning the depression atthe border of the wound of entrance differs after essay days, by whichtime the contused margins slough away, and its appearance is dailychanged by a process of granulation providing the individual recoveror live long enough according to dupuytren, the hole in the clothingis smaller than that made by the same bullet in the skin these areall points worth remembering when fitting bullets into wounds whichthey are supposed to have made. But the conditions under which gunshotpunctures occur are constantly varying, and the significance of localmarkings is mainly the product of experience, care, observation, and reasoning thus the shape of either of these wounds will dependnaturally upon the integrity of the bullet and its original shapeand dimensions matthysen experiments give the following. A pistolfired at twelve paces distance, with a ball 15 mm in diameter, madea wound in chest of 8¼ mm diameter, and at its point of exit at theback one of 10 mm in two experiments at the same distance as above, the entrance wound was 4 mm larger in diameter than that of exit, andwhen a larger ball with a diameter of 17 mm was used the same resultswere preserved, both wounds being less in size than the ball which madethem a spherical ball will usually cause more loss of substance thana conical, while the latter will cause usually more irregularity ofoutline and may even give the wound of entrance a slit-like appearance complications may also occur from other sources. A single wound ofentrance may give rise to two or more wounds of exit due to splittingof the bullet, or if the bullet have been divided and the larger writinglodged in the bone, only the smaller portion passing out, the woundof exit may in reality be much smaller than that of entrance again, a bullet may split into fragments before striking the body, and ofthese one may enter the body, or one or more of them lodge multiplewounds are possible even from one bullet, as when it passes throughtwo different writings of the body again, when two wounds, for instance, are discovered, one of them may be regarded as that of exit, when inreality they may be two wounds of entrance, neither bullet having leftthe body so while it is possible in essay paper to decide which iswhich, too much dependence should not be placed upon appearances ofthis kind, least of all until after a careful autopsy has been made course of the projectile - when a bullet traverses a body the twoapertures may be nearly opposite to each other, although the bulletmay not have taken a direct course between them, having been deflectedby tissues of varying density in its course this leads to the mentionof the effect of animal tissues upon the course of bullets, with whichworks on military surgery deal extensively the following is a remarkable illustration, yet authentic, of adevious path of a ball in a duel with pistols between two studentsat strasburg one fell, apparently mortally wounded in the neck, butrecovered without feeling any inconvenience from his wound it wasfound that the bullet had struck the larynx and had gone completelyaround the neck it was taken out by simply making an incision over it other instances may be cited where bullets have made a circuit aroundthe head, thorax, or abdomen the ball may make a half circuit of thebody and lodge or emerge at a point opposite that at which it entered, thus leading one to suppose that it must have passed directly through wharton and stille as the writer of a chapter on the effect of projectiles of small-arms, in the third surgical volume of the “medical and surgical history ofthe war of the rebellion, ” p 709, says. “such bullets attain greatrange and effectiveness as oppose least frontage of resistance to air;their velocity consequently is greater rotation upon their long axestends to give them steadier flight and more direct course by theirpointed apices they pierce more easily the structures opposed to them such bullets, owing to the elasticity of the skin, make a wound ofentrance perhaps a trifle smaller in diameter than themselves, whilespherical balls are more likely to carry a portion of the integument inwith them ”the differences of structure and density of the muscle tissues andtheir aponeuroses encountered by a bullet in its passage materiallyinfluence the directness of its course unless its velocity be verygreat, while round bullets are the more easily deflected from theircourse the track of a small conical bullet passing swiftly througha muscle is more cleanly cut than that made by a round bullet, butin all gunshot wounds there is usually found a regular canal, withlacerated walls, with more or less destruction along the area ofinjury, shading off concentrically until lost in healthy tissue thereis always loss of substance dependent on muscle tension or directionof the bullet, whether transverse or obliquely to the direction ofthe muscle fibres. The more fibrous structures are torn and laceratedor simply perforated, mainly owing to their different tension at theinstant. Their openings seldom correspond to those of the muscletissues or those upon the surface of the body, because of the constantchange in the relation of the writings due to muscle action this makesit often difficult to follow the course of a bullet with accuracy theirregularity of a bullet-track due to these causes constitutes one ofthe great sources of danger, since cavities and pouches thus formedgive lodgment to foreign matter driven in with the bullet, by retentionof which a fertile source of sepsis is maintained gunshot injuriesof bone may be classified as contusions, simple fractures, writingialfractures, penetrations, perforations, and complete fractures with moreor less comminution or loss of substance, all of these, of course, inthe surgical sense compound these are all manifestations of mechanicalforce acting in accordance with established laws on autopsy these willbe ascertained, while one or more portions or all of a bullet may befound imbedded in or attached to essay bone the best illustration ofsuch accidents will be found in the “medical and surgical history ofthe war of the rebellion ”such questions as pertain to the position of the wounded person whenshot or that of his antagonist, and other similar inquiries, can onlybe settled by reference to writingicular circumstances of individualpaper position of the wound may help a little a bullet-wound directlyin the centre of the top of the head could scarcely be received by aperson standing unless his assailant occupied an elevated position ifaccompanied by evidence of severe blows by which the deceased mighthave been knocked down, it might show that he had been shot afterfalling wounds by small shot - small shot rarely traverse the entire bodyunless discharged from such proximity as to make a clean, roundopening paley relates the following instance. A boy was shot in theneck by the accidental explosion of his own gun, no 8 shot he diedinstantly he was lying forward of the muzzle so that it was nearly incontact with the skin of the neck a large round hole was produced, indiameter one and one-half inches, whose edges were slightly darkenedby powder the wound of exit at the back of the neck, at the thirdvertebra, was a mere slit in the skin scarcely an inch in length withthe diameter placed vertically the smallness of this aperture mayhave been owing to the greater writing of the charge being lodged in thebody dr lowe states that in essay experiments it was found that around aperture might be produced by a discharge of small shot at amuch greater distance than that assigned by dr lachese, namely, tento twelve inches even admitting such exceptional instances, it willscarcely ever occur that a wound from a small shot can be mistaken forone produced by a leaden bullet de vergie has shown that when the ball enters a portion of the bodywell covered with fat, this often protrudes between the edges of thewound and may alter its character if clothing have been carried inessay shreds of it may show upon the wound, and such fragments oftexture will nearly always characterize the wound at once as that ofentrance wounds by blank charges - experience has shown that no matter withwhat the piece is charged, it is capable, when fired close by, ofproducing a wound which may prove fatal thus a gun loaded with waddingor gunpowder only may cause death a portion of clothing may be carriedinto the wound and lead to death from hemorrhage, or death may occurfrom thesis secondary causes, such as tetanus or sepsis accidents sofrequently occur from weapons discharged in sport, not loaded withball or shot, that it is worth while to bear this in mind it has beenobserved, for instance, that persons attempting to commit suicide haveforgotten to put a bullet in the pistol, nevertheless the dischargeof the weapon into the mouth has sufficed, from the wadding alone, to produce a considerable laceration and hemorrhage taylor thesisfatal accidents have taken place by the discharge of wadding fromcannon lachese has ascertained by experiment that a piece charged withgunpowder alone is capable of producing a penetrating wound essaywhatresembling that produced by gunshot, when the piece is large andfired within six feet of the body ann d’hygiene, 1836, p 368 this arises from unexploded grains of powder acting as pellets ofsmall shot sweet has experimented with pistols loaded with gunpowderand wadding in order to determine the effect of their discharge atdifferent distances at twelve inches he found that the clothing waslacerated and the skin abraded, but the wadding did not penetrate. Atsix inches the clothes were lacerated and the wadding penetrated tothe depth of one-half inch. At one and one-half inches from the chestthe wadding passed into the thoracic cavity between the ribs, and at asecond experiment carried away a portion of the ribs it is probable that an ordinary wadding such as loosely wrapped paper, rag, or similar material, especially as prepared by one not accustomedto military use of a weapon, would not produce a wound which wouldresemble that made by a bullet, and it is doubtful whether such a woundcould be produced at a greater distance than six inches from the body it is on record that in paris, in 1858, a circus cannon of four inchesbore, loaded with three ounces of grain powder retained by a wad ofold theatre bills loosely folded together and rammed home with onlymoderate force, was discharged in the direction of the boxes at adistance of about one hundred and fifty feet a man seated in one ofthese boxes opposite the muzzle of the gun, leaning forward, his armscrossed upon the handle of his umbrella, had his arm broken above theelbow immediately upon its discharge several portions of waddingwere found beneath the place where the man sat, but no marks existedupon his clothing nor upon the anterior writing of the arm, which musthave been inaccessible to any projectile that did not first strikethe forearm it was concluded that the fracture had been caused bythe violent and sudden starting of the man backward, which must havebrought his arm against the hard writing of the writingition an experimenttried with the cannon proved that any wadding that could be made withpaper was dispersed in passing, or lost all power of mischief, at muchless distance than one hundred and twenty feet annales d’hygiene, 1859, p 420, wharton and stille the mannlicher rifle - it may be of interest here to note the effectsof the rifle-bullets used in the most recently invented improvedarms the last new projectile used in the german army, 1892, with themannlicher rifle, has an inner core of lead inclosed in a casing ofsteel or firm metal, which prevents the lead, even when softened byheat, from becoming deformed and enlarged by contact the weight ofthe bullet is much less than any of the old, but to its higher rate ofvelocity and its pointed shape, which is preserved, must be ascribedits greater perforating power owing to this immense velocity and thesmall surface of contact, it meets with little resistance on strikinga person, has no time to stretch the various tissues it encounters, causes little or no commotion of the neighboring writings, and merelypunches a hole, carrying the contused elements before it clear outof the wound without seriously damaging the surrounding wall of thebullet-track this absence of contusion must lead to more frequentdeaths from hemorrhage, while when this arm is used we shall hear verylittle of deflection or deviation of the bullet from its path, sinceit has sufficient power to pass directly through any writing of the bodywhich it may meet on its way the result in battle will be a reductionof the list of wounded, but a terrible augmentation of that of the dead identity from a flash of gunpowder taylor states the following. “among the singular questions which havearisen out of this subject is the following.

Biochem jour , uc essay prompt 1:429, 1906 67 dakin and ransom. Jour biol chem , 2:305, 1906 68 charles. Med press and cir , 133:578, 1906 69 crofton. Lancet, london, 176:607, 1909 70 moore, edie and abram. Biochem jour , 3:82, 1908 one method of testing the basis of moore theory would be by examiningthe prosecretin content of the intestine in diabetics bainbridge andbeddard found, in the paper referred to, 66 that from five of thesix paper of diabetics examined postmortem, little or no secretincould be prepared. But in a subsequent report of seven paper, 71they found only one in which the secretin obtained was scanty thefailure to obtain secretin in essay paper they claim is probably due tothe rapid postmortem degeneration of diabetic tissue evans, 72 instarling laboratory, found that in dogs made recently diabetic bytotal pancreatectomy, but little secretin could be obtained hedon andlisbonne, 73 and pemberton and sweet74 report, on the contrary, thatthe duodenum of diabetic dogs is rich in prosecretin bainbridge andbeddard, 71 working on a diabetic cat, likewise found prosecretin tobe present in normal quantity 71 bainbridge and beddard. Biochem jour 3:82, 1908 72 evan. Jour physiol 44:461, 1912 73 hedon. Compt rend soc de biol 74:375, 1913 74 pemberton, ralph, and sweet, j e. Further studies on theinfluence of the ductless glands on the pancreas, arch int med , may, 1910, p 466 digestive disturbances -- secretin for digestive disturbance was firstused in the “acid duodenal medication” of enriquez 75 this consistedin the giving of tartaric acid in thick keratin capsules, the acid notbeing liberated until the duodenum was reached, where it provoked theformation of secretin “the secretin mechanism, ” he says, “is probablycapable of pathologic disturbance as would result, for example, withdiminished acidity of chyme, disturbance of the normal motility ofthe stomach or pylorus, or diminished prosecretin in the mucosa sucha condition would produce disturbance of the pancreatic, biliary andintestinal secretions, and interfere with intestinal movements, witha clinical syndrome of intestinal dyspepsia as a result, among thechief and most constant symptoms of which would be constipation ”“the acid duodenal medication” was submitted to wide clinical use, and very favorable results in certain obstinate paper of constipationwere reported in regard to “diminished prosecretin in the mucosa, ”wentworth76 has claimed that in infantile atrophy such is thecondition, but sweet and pemberton77 have found that the difficultyof preparing secretin from human duodenums is such as to renderwentworth findings inconclusive 75 enriquez. Bull du lab de biol appliq 2, no 2-no 8, 1904 76 wentworth, a h.

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Indistinct infront, but distinct at sides and back superficial abrasions of lipsand right cheek as from a gag faint marks of blisters on temples fingers not clinched face uc essay prompt livid, swollen eyes closed. Conjunctivæcongested. Corneæ hazy.