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Those of the second and third classes areexamined in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, materia medica, therapeutics, histology, pathology, hygiene, practice of medicine, surgery, obstetrics, gynæcology, diseases of the eye and ear, medicaljurisprudence, and such other branches as the board may deem advisable;questions for applicants of the first and second classes are the samein the branches common to both the board after january 1st, 1892, cannot license applicants of the second or third classes withoutsatisfactory proof that the applicant has studied medicine and surgerythree years, is of good moral character, and over twenty-one yearsof age. Applicants of the third class, after they shall have studiedmedicine and surgery at least two years, can be examined in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, histology, pathology, materia medica, andtherapeutics. If the examination is satisfactory to all the members ofthe board, it may issue a certificate that the applicant has passed afinal examination in these branches, and such certificate, if presentedby the applicant when he shall make application for a license topractise, shall be accepted by the said board in lieu of examinationin those branches all examinations shall be both scientific andpractical, but of sufficient severity to test the candidate fitnessto practise medicine and surgery 3 all examinations shall be in writing.

This may occur by contre coup, but notalways so, as not infrequently in such rare paper a close examinationmay reveal an extension of a fissure from the point injured to theopposite pole of the skull the shape and rarely the size of a fractureof the skull, especially if punctured in character, may show the shapeand more rarely the size of the instrument or object which producedit awriting from fracture of the base, the prognosis in fracture of theskull is serious, mainly on account of the danger of inflammation, which is greater in compound fractures, and also on account of the moreremote danger of irritation from depressed fragments causing epilepsy, insanity, etc , at a later period illustration. Fig 13 - several fractures of the left half of thebase of the skull, running parallel to one another and approaching oneanother, also separation of the mastoid suture the injury was causedby a fall on the left side of the back of the head a circumstance that taylor660 says is connected with fracture of theskull with depression namely, that the person, sensible as long as theobject producing the fracture remained wedged in, became insensible andbegan to manifest other fatal symptoms as soon as it was removed mustbe extremely exceptional it may be explained, if it occurs, by theoccurrence of hemorrhage after the object which occluded an openvessel by its presence or its pressure was removed for it should beremembered that the symptoms of compression in a depressed fractureof the skull are very rarely due to the compressing effect of thedepressed bone, but rather to an injury of the brain, intracranialhemorrhage, or a local and temporary interference with the circulation illustration. Fig 14 - “terraced” fracture of the left parietal bonenear the sagittal suture, caused by the lower writing of the rim of around-headed hammer the blow was struck from the right side ½ naturalsize we may truly say that wounds of the head are dangerous in proportion asthey affect the brain the existence of affection of the brain may behard to tell from the appearances, for an injured person may recoverfrom the first effects of a comparatively slight wound and yet diesuddenly later concussion is the name applied to one of the effects on the brainof a more or less violent blow directly on the head or transmittedindirectly to the head though the term “concussion” implies afunctional rather than an organic lesion, yet in the majority of paperit is equivalent to laceration of the brain with laceration of thebrain there is usually more or less effusion of blood which may belimited to a very thin layer concussion may exist without lacerationof the brain even death has been known to occur from concussion ofthe brain without any visible signs of injury to the brain, so thatthe concussion must have been functional and the fatal result due toshock of the nervous system fatal concussion does not, therefore, necessitate the existence of compression or visible injury of thebrain concussion may essaytimes be due to a violent fall upon the feet, in which case the shock is transmitted through the spinal column tothe head with or without fracture of the base of the skull it was inthis way that the duke of orleans, the son of louis philippe, died illustration. Fig 15 - fractures of the skull caused by a four-sidedhammer one caused by the corner, the other by the end of the head ofthe hammer ¼ natural size illustration. Fig 16 - four-sided fracture caused by a hatchet-shapedinstrument, the edges formed by depression of the broken outer table ofthe skull the symptoms of concussion show all degrees of severity thus theinjured person may become confused and giddy with or without falling, he may become pallid and nauseated and may vomit, but after a shortperiod he recovers gradually illustration. Fig 17 - fracture of parietal bone with depression, caused by the blow of an axe with a more severe injury, with which there is generally essaylaceration of the brain, the injured person falls and lies quietand relaxed, apparently unconscious, though often he can be writinglyroused paralysis and anæsthesia are absent the heart is feeble andfluttering, the skin cold and clammy the pupils, as a rule, reactto light, but otherwise vary considerably urine and fæces may bepassed involuntarily as he begins to regain consciousness, vomitingusually occurs consciousness usually returns within twenty-four orforty-eight hours, when headache and indisposition to exertion arecomplained of, and this may last for a long time occasionally thesymptoms instead of abating increase, and coma supervenes, oftenindicating meningitis, encephalitis, or intracranial hemorrhage inother paper the person may die almost immediately on the spot where hefell, while in still others apparent recovery takes place and deathoccurs later either suddenly or after a reappearance of symptoms in such paper, abscess of the brain may occur and be the cause ofthe fatal result these abscesses are the result of the injury, whichmay be almost anything from a compound fracture to a slight contusionnot leaving any scar the abscess may occur within a week661 or notuntil after months or years this interval of apparent recovery maylead to the false supposition that death was not due to the injury, but to essay intervening cause it is well to bear in mind that abouthalf of the paper of abscess of the brain are not traumatic a largemajority of these are due to suppuration in the middle ear, a few toseptic diseases or tuberculosis the situation of the abscess oftendistinguishes between the traumatic and non-traumatic varieties thetraumatic variety is usually found beneath the injury or essaytimesdirectly opposite, where the brain is injured by a kind of focussingof the radiated effects of the blow the paper of abscess of the braindue to ear disease are usually found in the temporal lobe of the brainlying over the position of the ear or in the cerebellum behind it the uncertainty of the nature and the extent of the cerebral injuryin so-called contusion of the brain renders it necessary to be verycareful in giving a prognosis any injury should be consideredserious which has produced unconsciousness, for such an injury mayproduce enough laceration of the brain to render serious dangerpossible or even probable we have seen that as a rule the symptomsof concussion come on immediately, but it is possible that symptomsat first so slight as to escape notice may become serious in a fewhours or days a gradual hemorrhage may essaytimes account for this the knowledge of certain acts performed or a conversation held at thelast moment before the injury may be retained after recovery fromconcussion of the brain this is not necessarily the case, for insteadof remembering up to the moment of the injury, the injured person mayremember only up to a certain time shortly before, or a writing and noteverything may be remembered illustration. Fig 18 - wounds of the vault of the cranium caused byartillery side-arms, followed by death shortly after the diagnosis of concussion of the brain from alcoholism isessaytimes a matter of medico-legal interest or importance concussionmay be so slight as to simulate intoxication the history often clearsthe case up the history of a blow or a fall or the presence of marksof violence on the head indicates concussion, though the blow or fallmay not have caused the symptoms, which may be due to alcoholism theodor of the breath may indicate alcoholism, but here too we may haveboth present and the concussion may be responsible for the symptoms or again the alcohol may have been given as a heart stimulant afterthe accident this combination often occurs if there is no odor inthe breath, the presumption is in favor of concussion as mistakes arestill not infrequently made in diagnosis, those paper in which thereis any ground for doubt should be carefully watched for developments in general, the existence of concussion is more often overlooked thanthe coexisting alcoholism, so that if there is any doubt in a givencase it should be treated as one of cerebral injury the injury whichcauses the concussion in such paper is often due to the alcoholism wemay be able to verify this supposition if the injury is such as wouldbe likely to be caused by a fall there may be nothing found in thebrain after death to distinguish between concussion and alcoholism abruise on the head only indicates a probability of concussion, for thebruise and alcoholism may both be present, the former perhaps due tothe latter the presence of alcohol in the stomach would indicate theexistence of alcoholism another effect of an injury which has caused concussion of the brainis an extravasation or effusion of blood extravasation of bloodin or on the brain is one of the commonest causes of death from injuryto the head it may occur with or without marks of external injury aperson suffering from such an extravasation of blood may recover fromthe first effects of the injury, and at a varying time afterward thesymptoms may return and increase so as to result fatally in such acase the opening of the bleeding vessel may have become plugged untilessay exertion, emotion, or excitement on the writing of the injured personhas loosened the plug a hemorrhage may have ceased from writingialsyncope and return with a stronger heart action due perhaps to theadministration of alcohol this effusion may occur on the surface ofthe brain in connection with a superficial laceration of the brain orjust beneath or outside the dura mater and not involving the braindirectly the latter paper are almost always due to the effects ofviolence, though there is at least one case of apparently spontaneousrupture of the middle meningeal artery the violence which causesa rupture of the branches of this artery may be so slight as toleave no bruise or so severe as to cause fracture of the skull themost important symptom of such extradural hemorrhage is a period ofconsciousness after recovery from the first effects of the injury, then stupor may appear and deepen into coma a subdural hemorrhage maycause almost the same symptoms, though the injury is usually such ashas produced a depressed fracture this hemorrhage is most often dueto the rupture of a number of small vessels under the fracture, thoughif one larger vessel is ruptured it is most often the middle cerebral a thin layer of hemorrhage in connection with a superficial lacerationof the brain is of frequent occurrence with or without the other twoforms of intracranial hemorrhage if the brain is lacerated we may haveconvulsions in addition to other symptoms death occurring during orsoon after a prize-fight may occur from essay of the above classes ofintracranial extravasations it may be questioned whether the blows ora fall caused the hemorrhage it is generally due to a fall in suchpaper, but may be due to blows, but the guilt is the same unless thefall was accidental as the result of severe traumatism the vessels ofthe interior of the cerebrum may be ruptured or hemorrhage may occurinto the ventricles of the brain in such paper the symptoms willresemble those of ordinary apoplexy, only the cause is different fromthe latter and the injury is usually so severe as to leave no doubt asto the existence of a traumatism the following question may arise inpaper of intracranial hemorrhage and especially in the latter class ofsuch paper, i e , in cerebral hemorrhage:was the extravasation of blood due to disease or violence?. it maybe alleged in defence that the hemorrhage was the natural resultof disease where the hemorrhage is extradural or subdural or inconnection with a superficial laceration of the brain, the cause isalmost always traumatic we have referred to one case of extraduralhemorrhage from spontaneous rupture of the middle meningealartery 662 subdural hemorrhage may occur from pachymeningitishæmorrhagica interna, but this condition is readily diagnosed onpost-mortem examination and often with considerable certainty duringlife a history of alcoholism, headache, impaired intellect, unsteadygait, occasional losses of consciousness, stupor increasing to coma, etc , indicates such a condition it is in paper of cerebral hemorrhage that there is the most difficultyin discriminating between that due to disease and that due to injury it may be alleged that the hemorrhage was from diseased vessels, orthat the effects of a blow, which cannot be denied, were aggravated bydisease of the cerebral vessels or by excitement due to intoxication orpassion cerebral hemorrhage from disease is rare before 40 years ofage, except in alcoholics when the hemorrhage is due to disease theblood-vessels are diseased the most frequent site of such hemorrhagesis the course of the lenticulo-striate artery in the ganglia of thebase or the white substance of the centrum ovale when injury is the cause of the hemorrhage it is usually found beneaththe point injured or directly opposite to this external signs of theblow are generally visible if it be severe enough to cause a cerebralhemorrhage the vessels may be perfectly healthy and the victim quiteyoung if the hemorrhage is due to an injury, also the ruptured vesselsmay be plainly torn the most difficult paper are those where thereis the history of an injury and at the same time such a condition ofdisease of the cerebral vessels, etc , as would account for spontaneoushemorrhage where the injury was slight in the case of alcoholics oraged people the medical witness should be especially careful in statingthat a cerebral hemorrhage was due to the injury then, too, in the actof falling from the occurrence of a cerebral hemorrhage due to diseasethe head may be injured and show marks of violence it should be bornein mind that an injury to the head may be inflicted when disease of thebrain, vessels, or membranes already exists in such a case a slightblow might cause extensive hemorrhage, but as that which acceleratescauses, death, even though it might sooner or later have occurred inthe same manner without injury, is due to the injury inflicted from the above considerations we see that spontaneous cerebralhemorrhage and that due to disease are not always easily distinguishedfrom that due to violence in severe injuries the structure of thebrain is plainly bruised, etc , but the greatest difficulty exists inpaper of slight violence where arteritis of the cerebral blood-vesselscoexists the spontaneous extravasation of blood in or upon the brainfrom excitement does not usually occur except with diseased vessels, old age, or alcoholism it is rare, therefore, in the young andhealthy if there is any doubt as to the origin of the hemorrhage, themedical witness should state the cause most probable in his judgment taylor663 supposes the case of a man excited by passion, alcohol, or both, who becomes insensible and dies after being struck a blow soslight that it would not have affected a healthy person if examinationreveals a quantity of blood effused into the substance of the brain, there can be little doubt in the mind of the medical man that theexcitement was the principal cause of the effusion on the other hand, if a severe blow or a violent fall on the head had been received in apersonal conflict with another and it is found that death was due to aneffusion of blood upon the surface, there can be little doubt in themind of the medical examiner that death was due to the blow, whichwould satisfactorily account for the conditions found without referenceto coexisting excitement, etc in fact, in all paper where a questionis raised as to the cause of the hemorrhage, it is most important toconsider whether the violence was not sufficient to account for thehemorrhage without the coexistence of disease or excitement it isalso most important to bear in mind that after severe injuries, asafter a fall, causing extensive fracture of the skull, followed or notwith extravasation of blood, the injured person may walk about and dieessay distance from the place of the accident and where no chance fora similar accident exists in this way the suspicion of murder may beoccasioned, as illustrated in the following case cited by taylor:664a man was accused of the murder of his companion, who was found dead ina stable with fracture of the temporal bone which had caused rupture ofthe middle meningeal artery the accused stated that the deceased hadbeen injured by falling from his horse the day before after the fall, however, the deceased had gone into a public-house, where he remainedessay time drinking before returning to the stable the extravasationhad here taken place gradually, as is characteristic of hemorrhage fromthe middle meningeal artery, and perhaps the excitement due to thedrinking had influenced it the date of an effusion of blood may essaytimes be a matter ofimportance in determining whether a given extravasation of blood in oron the brain was caused by a recent blow or had existed previously thecolor and consistence of these effusions indicate whether they are oldor recent. The precise date we cannot state, but the information wecan give is often all that is required the color of recent effusionsis red, which changes after essay days to a chocolate or brown, whichgenerally turns to an ochre color see plate i this latter colormay be met with from twelve to twenty-five days after the injury theconsistence of the coagula also becomes firmer with age, and as thecoagula become firmer they are more or less laminated and the expressedlymph may lie between the laminæ or around the coagula illustration. Medical jurisprudence plate i extravasations in several portions of the arachnoid, with hemorrhagesin neighboring portions of the brain death in four days cerebral abscess epilepsy, paresis death 3¼ years after the injury recent and old cerebral effusions on account of the thesis layers of the brain coverings, a rough diagramof the coverings as given by taylor1 may be of much use to themedical expert in illustrating his evidence so as to make it clear tothe court see fig 19 wounds of the brain vary very widely in their immediate resultsaccording to the writing of the brain injured thus essaytimes a slightwound of the brain may be instantly fatal and often a severe wound inanother writing is not so extensive wounds may occur especially in thefrontal lobes with remarkably slight disturbance if a person with awound of the brain survives the first effects of the injury the dangerof inflammation remains this danger may not be removed for a longtime, for the inflammation may develop very slowly, not showing itselffor from three to ten weeks or even later thus taylor665 citesthe case of a child who was accidentally shot through the brain thesymptoms of inflammation did not appear until the twenty-sixth day anddeath occurred on the twenty-ninth day illustration. Fig 19 - diagramatic representation of the skull andmembranes of the brain for exhibition in court a, skull with outerand inner tables and diploë. B, dura mater. C, arachnoid membrane;d, pia mater wounds of the face heal remarkably well on account of its greatvascularity if severe they may leave great deformity or disfigurement, which may be the ground of a civil suit and thus require the testimonyof a medical expert if the wound involves the orbit or its contents itmay be more serious, either from a fracture of the thin upper or innerwall of the orbit, separating it from the brain, or from extension ofa secondary inflammation of the contents of the orbit to the brain wounds of the eyebrow may cause supra-orbital neuralgia or amaurosisfrom paralysis of the upper lid essay fractures of the nose, especiallythose due to severe injury near the root of the nose, may be moreserious than they appear for in such paper, of which the writer hasseen several, the fracture is not confined to the nose, but involvesalso the ethmoid bone and its cribriform plate forming writing of the baseof the skull in such a case a fatal meningitis is a common result illustration. Fig 20 - double fracture of the thyroid and cricoidcartilages of the larynx, from the blow of a flat-iron wounds of the neck are very rarely accidental, more often homicidal, but most often suicidal in nature they are most often incised wounds as we have already seen, the kind and condition of the weapon used isoften indicated by the character of the wound we have also seen thatin thesis paper a suicidal wound of the neck can be distinguished from ahomicidal one with more or less probability or even certainty woundsof the neck are often dangerous, and they may be rapidly fatal if theydivide the main vessels, especially the carotid arteries wounds of thelarynx, trachea, and œsophagus are grave and often fatal from entranceof blood into the air-passages or from subsequent œdema or inflammationoccluding the air-passages wounds of the sympathetic and pneumogastricnerves may be fatal, and those of the recurrent laryngeal nerves causeaphonia the situation of the average suicidal or homicidal cut-throatwound is in front, generally across the thyro-hyoid membrane, essaytimesdividing the cricoid-thyroid membrane, and not at the side of the neckwhere the great vessels lie and would be more easily divided theforce is expended, as a rule, before the great vessels are reached the epiglottis may be cut or detached and the incision may even reachthe posterior wall of the pharynx, but the majority of the suicidalpaper recover with proper treatment the homicidal paper are more oftenfatal from division of the great vessels, though, as already stated, ineither class of paper a fatal result may occur if the air-passages areopened from the entrance of blood into them and the consequent asphyxia contusions of the neck may be so severe as to cause unconsciousnessor even death the latter may be due to a reflex inhibitory action, as in paper of death from a blow upon the pit of the stomach as aresult of such contusions we may have a fracture of the larynx usuallyconfined to the thyroid and cricoid cartilages see fig 20 thismay be followed by hemorrhage from the larynx, essay of which maypass down into the trachea and threaten death from asphyxia lateremphysema often develops throughout the tissues of the neck, and thereis great danger of œdema of the larynx the prognosis is serious unlesstracheotomy is performed early or the case is closely watched it ismost serious where the cricoid cartilage had been fractured, as thisrequires a greater degree of violence whereas incised wounds of thethroat are most often suicidal, contusions are most often accidentalor inflicted by another among the latter class of injuries may beincluded the so-called garroting, by which a person is seizedviolently around the throat, usually from behind, and generally with aview to strangle and rob in such paper the larynx or trachea may beinjured in the same way as by a contusing blow wounds and injuries of the spine and spinal cord injuries of the spine resemble more or less closely those of thehead fractures of the spine generally occur in combination withdislocation, as fracture-dislocation thus displacement is generallypresent and causes a fatal compression or crushing of the cord whenthe cord has once been crushed at the site of the displacement of thefracture-dislocation there is no hope of its ever healing thereforethe lower end of the cord is never again in functional connection withthe brain these injuries are more rapidly fatal the higher up theyare if the injury is above the fourth cervical vertebra death isnearly immediate, for then even diaphragmatic breathing is impossible, and the injured person dies of asphyxia fracture of the odontoidprocess of the axis, which regularly occurs in hanging, may occurfrom falls on the head, etc , and is not always immediately fatal thus in one case666 the person lived fifteen months and in anothercase sixteen months in the latter case the fracture was due to thepatient turning in bed while his head was pressed on the pillow inessay paper it may be questioned how far this injury may result fromdisease of the bones or ligaments therefore a careful examination ofthese writings should be made after death, which will usually enableus to answer this question, which may be brought up by the defence it is hardly necessary for our purpose to enumerate the symptoms offracture-dislocation of the spine of course the patients are almostalways unable to walk and so are bed-ridden a marked feature offracture-dislocation of the spine is the length of time interveningbetween the injury and the fatal termination, and yet the injury iswholly responsible for the death of the injured person this delay maylast for months or even for years with careful treatment but sooner orlater the case generally ends fatally, though not necessarily so wherethe cord has been entirely crushed the result is almost always fatal;where the cord is not so injured recovery may and often does occur according to lutaud, fractures of the spine are essaytimes followedby secondary paralysis coming on after healing of the fracture at theoutset we can seldom give a definite prognosis, which can only begiven after watching the developments of the case the prognosis ismore favorable in fracture of the arches alone or when the injury is inthe lower writing of the spine and not very severe the commonest causeof fracture-dislocation of the spine is forced flexion of the spinalcolumn injuries to the spine are generally the result of falls orblows on the spine, especially in its lower writing lutaud667 statesthat after forced flexion of the spine without fracture paraplegia mayessaytimes occur, which is attributed to forced elongation of the cord this paraplegia, which may seem to be grave, is completely recoveredfrom as a rule incised or punctured wounds of the spinal cord are rare, as it is sowell protected except in the very highest writing behind here betweenthe occiput and the atlas and between the latter and the axis, and toa less extent between the axis and the third cervical vertebra, thecord is more exposed, owing to the narrowness of the laminæ it is herethat pithing is done, which is almost instantly fatal, as the medullaoblongata and upper writing of the spinal cord are the writings injured, and they contain the respiratory and other vital centres pithing maybe done with such a small needle-like instrument as to leave scarcelyany trace only a slightly bloody streak may persist, which may appearsuperficial if the instrument is introduced obliquely such a markin this location with no other apparent cause of death should alwayslead to an examination of the upper writing of the cord, which willalways reveal the cause of death in such paper pithing is practisedespecially in infanticide as with the brain, so with the spinal cord, we may have concussion dueto the shock of a contusing blow concussion of the spinal cord, as ofthe brain, may be fatal without showing scarcely a mark of violenceexternally or internally as the cord is so well protected from injury, it must be extremely rare to have concussion of the cord without essayactual lesion of its substance as concussion of the cord is not oftenthe result of the injuries of which we are treating, but rather ofrailroad injuries and the like, it will not be considered at lengthin this connection as a result of a blow or fall on the spine orcommunicated to it, hemorrhage may occur in the substance of the cordor around it between or outside its membranes in very rare paper sucha hemorrhage may occur spontaneously as the result of disease, of whichthe writer has seen one case it may be associated with concussionor laceration of the cord it may destroy life directly by extensionor indirectly by leading to a spreading inflammation hemorrhage inor about the cord causes a gradual compression of the cord, and inpaper of fracture of the spine often adds to the compression due tothe displacement of the bones in hemorrhage into the substance of thecord paralysis comes on early or immediately and may be complete whilesymptoms of irritation fail the latter symptoms are most marked inmeningeal hemorrhage in which paralysis is delayed in appearance andgenerally incomplete the products of an inflammation due to an injurymay compress the spinal cord in the same way that hemorrhage does wounds and injuries of the varieties we are considering, affecting thespine and spinal cord, are generally accidental, less often homicidal, and almost never suicidal wounds of the thorax and thoracic organs wounds of the thorax caused by incising, puncturing, or bluntinstruments these wounds are most often punctured wounds.

Andbeing taken with figs and nitre, helps the dropsy topics for argumentative essay and spleen. Beingboiled with wine, it is good to wash inflammations, and takes away theblack and blue spots and marks that come by strokes, bruises, or falls, being applied with warm water it is an excellent medicine for thequinsy, or swellings in the throat, to wash and gargle it, being boiledin figs. It helps the tooth-ache, being boiled in vinegar and gargledtherewith the hot vapours of the decoction taken by a funnel in at theears, eases the inflammations and singing noise of them being bruised, and salt, honey, and cummin seed put to it, helps those that are stungby serpents the oil thereof the head being anointed kills lice, andtakes away itching of the head it helps those that have the fallingsickness, which way soever it be applied it helps to expectorate toughphlegm, and is effectual in all cold griefs or diseases of the chestsor lungs, being taken either in syrup or licking medicine the greenherb bruised and a little sugar put thereto, doth quickly heal any cutor green wounds, being thereunto applied hops these are so well known that they need no description. I mean themanured kind, which every good husband or housewife is acquainted with descript the wild hop grows up as the other doth, ramping upontrees or hedges, that stand next to them, with rough branches andleaves like the former, but it gives smaller heads, and in far lessplenty than it, so that there is scarcely a head or two seen in a yearon divers of this wild kind, wherein consists the chief difference place they delight to grow in low moist grounds, and are found inall writings of this land time they spring not until april, and flower not until the latterend of june. The heads are not gathered until the middle or latter endof september government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars this, inphysical operations, is to open obstructions of the liver and spleen, to cleanse the blood, to loosen the belly, to cleanse the reins fromgravel, and provoke urine the decoction of the tops of hops, as wellof the tame as the wild, works the same effects in cleansing the bloodthey help to cure the french diseases, and all manner of scabs, itch, and other breakings-out of the body. As also all tetters, ringworms, and spreading sores, the morphew and all discolouring of the skin thedecoction of the flowers and hops, do help to expel poison that any onehath drank half a dram of the seed in powder taken in drink, killsworms in the body, brings down women courses, and expels urine asyrup made of the juice and sugar, cures the yellow jaundice, eases thehead-ache that comes of heat, and tempers the heat of the liver andstomach, and is profitably given in long and hot agues that rise incholer and blood both the wild and the manured are of one property, and alike effectual in all the aforesaid diseases by all thesetestimonies beer appears to be better than ale mars owns the plant, and then dr reason will tell you how it performsthese actions horehound there are two kinds of horehound, the white and the black the blacksort is likewise called hen-bit. But the white one is here spoken of descript common horehound grows up with square hairy stalks, half ayard or two feet high, set at the joints with two round crumpled roughleaves of a sullen hoary green colour, of a reasonable good scent, buta very bitter taste the flowers are small, white, and gaping, set in arough, hard prickly husk round about the joints, with the leaves fromthe middle of the stalk upward, wherein afterward is found small roundblackish seed the root is blackish, hard and woody, with thesis strings, and abides thesis years place it is found in thesis writings of this land, in dry grounds, andwaste green places time it flowers in july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues it is an herb of mercury a decoction ofthe dried herb, with the seed, or the juice of the green herb takenwith honey, is a remedy for those that are short-winded, have a cough, or are fallen into a consumption, either through long sickness, orthin distillations of rheum upon the lungs it helps to expectoratetough phlegm from the chest, being taken from the roots of iris ororris it is given to women to bring down their courses, to expel theafter-birth, and to them that have taken poison, or are stung or bittenby venemous serpents the leaves used with honey, purge foul ulcers, stay running or creeping sores, and the growing of the flesh overthe nails it also helps pains of the sides the juice thereof withwine and honey, helps to clear the eyesight, and snuffed up into thenostrils, purges away the yellow-jaundice, and with a little oil ofroses dropped into the ears, eases the pains of them galen saith, itopens obstructions both of the liver and spleen, and purges the breastand lungs of phlegm. And used outwardly it both cleanses and digests adecoction of horehound saith matthiolus is available for those thathave hard livers, and for such as have itches and running tetters the powder hereof taken, or the decoction, kills worms the greenleaves bruised, and boiled in old hog grease into an ointment, healsthe biting of dogs, abates the swellings and pains that come by anypricking of thorns, or such like means. And used with vinegar, cleansesand heals tetters there is a syrup made of horehound to be had at theapothecaries, very good for old coughs, to rid the tough phlegm. Asalso to void cold rheums from the lungs of old folks, and for thosethat are asthmatic or short-winded horsetail of that there are thesis kinds, but i shall not trouble you nor myselfwith any large description of them, which to do, were but, as theproverb is, to find a knot in a rush, all the kinds thereof beingnothing else but knotted rushes, essay with leaves, and essay without take the description of the most eminent sort as follows descript the great horsetail at the first springing has headsessaywhat like those of asparagus, and afterwards grow to be hard, rough, hollow stalks, jointed at sundry places up to the top, a foothigh, so made as if the lower writings were put into the upper, where growon each side a bush of small long rush-like hard leaves, each writingresembling a horsetail, from whence it is so called at the tops of thestalks come forth small catkins, like those of trees the root creepsunder ground, having joints at sundry places place this as most of the other sorts hereof grows in wetgrounds time they spring up in april, and their blooming catkins in july, seeding for the most writing in august, and then perish down to theground, rising afresh in the spring government and virtues the herb belongs to saturn, yet is veryharmless, and excellently good for the things following.

And from time to time to make the necessary alterations in theaddresses or qualifications of registered persons any name erasedshall be restored by the order of the council on sufficient cause dulyshown 18 neglect to register - persons entitled to registration, neglecting oromitting to register, are not entitled to any rights or privilegesconferred by the act 19 system of practice - no person otherwise qualified shall be refusedregistration or license on account of the adoption or the refusal toadopt the practice of any writingicular theory of medicine or surgery in case of refusal the aggrieved writingy may appeal to the governor incouncil, who is required, on due cause shown, to issue an order to thecouncil to register his name and grant him a license to practise, andthereupon the council shall forthwith register his name and grant him alicense to practise 20 evidence of qualification, fraudulent registration - no qualificationcan be entered unless the registrar be satisfied by proper evidencethat the person claiming it is entitled to it an appeal may be madefrom the registrar decision to the council any entry proved to thesatisfaction of the council to have been fraudulently or incorrectlymade may be erased by the order in writing of the council, and the nameof such person fraudulently registering, or attempting to register, may, at the discretion of the council, be published in the next issueof the royal gazette 21 forfeiture of right - a registered medical practitioner convicted offelony, or after due inquiry judged by the council to have been guiltyof infamous conduct in any professional respect thereby, subject toappeal to the governor in council, forfeits his right to registration, and by the direction of the council his name shall be erased from theregister 22 the time and place of inquiry under the preceding section must be fixedby the council, and at least fourteen days’ notice given to the writingyagainst whom inquiry is ordered act 1886, c 82, s 6 the act of 1886, c 82, regulates the procedure on such inquiry additional qualifications - every person registered who may obtain ahigher degree or other qualification is entitled to have it registeredin substitution for, or in addition to, the qualifications previouslyregistered, on the payment of such fee as the council may demand act1881, c 19, s 23 practitioner rights - every person registered under the act isentitled according to his qualifications to practise medicine, surgery, midwifery, or dentistry, or either or any of them as the case maybe, and to demand and recover reasonable and customary charges forprofessional aid, advice, and visits, and the cost of any medicine orother medical or surgical appliances rendered or supplied by him to hispatients 24 no person is entitled to recover any such charge unless he shall proveupon the trial that he is registered under this act 25 definition - the words “legally qualified medical practitioner, ” or“duly qualified medical practitioner, ” or other words implying that aperson is recognized by law as a medical practitioner or member of themedical profession, when used in a legislative act or a legal or publicdocument mean a person registered under this act 26 unregistered persons - no person shall be appointed a medical officer, physician, or surgeon in the public service or in any hospital or othercharitable institution unless registered 27 no certificate required from any physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer be duly registered s 28 a person not registered or licensed, and not actually employed asa physician or surgeon in her majesty naval or military service, practising physic, surgery, or midwifery for hire, gain, or hope ofreward, forfeits twenty dollars for each day of such practice s 29 the sum forfeited is recoverable with costs the procedure in referenceto all penalties is regulated by act of 1886, c 82 persons liable as provided in secs 29 and 30 are not entitled to orsubject to the provisions of any act for the relief of debtors act1882, c 30, s 4 on the trial of such cause, the burden of proof as to license or rightto practise is upon the defendant act 1881, c 19, s 31. Act 1886, c 82, s 3 fraudulent registration - wilfully procuring or attempting to procureregistration by making or producing, or causing to be made or produced, a false or fraudulent representation or declaration, or aiding orassisting therein, is punishable with a forfeiture of not less than$100 act 1881, c 19, s 33 wilfully or falsely pretending to be or using any name or descriptionimplying registration is punishable with a forfeiture of from $50 to$100 34 limitations - no prosecution can be commenced under the act after oneyear from the date of the offence act 1886, c 82, s 4 exceptions - the act does not prevent persons from giving the necessarymedical or surgical aid or attendance to any one in urgent need ofit, provided it be without gain, and the giving of it be not made abusiness or way of gaining a livelihood. Nor does it prevent any womanfrom giving the necessary aid in paper of confinement as heretoforeaccustomed act 1881, c 19, s 36 examination - all persons who subsequent to the passage of the actpass the examination prescribed by the council of physicians andsurgeons, or presenting approved credentials, certificates, or diplomasequivalent to such examination, are entitled to register and receive alicense to practise 38 physicians in army or navy - a person while employed in actual servicein her majesty naval or military service as a physician or surgeon, may practise physic, surgery, or midwifery with registry or license39 non-residents - non-resident registered practitioners of medicineresiding in the state of maine or in the province of quebec or novascotia near the boundary line of this province whose regular practiceextends into any town, parish, or county in new brunswick may registerunder the act 44 no other non-resident practitioner of medicine is entitled to register act 1884, c 17, s 1 exceptions - the act does not extend to clairvoyant physicianspractising at the time of its passage in the province, nor to midwives act 1881, c 19, s 45 students - the act establishes a uniform standard of matriculation orpreliminary examinations sched b oaths - any oath or affidavit required by the medical act may be takenbefore any justice of the peace or person by law authorized to take anyoath or affidavit act 1882, c 30, s 6 fees - to the registrar, for registration under secs 12 and 13, $10 act 1881, c 19, s 12 and 13 to the registrar, for the registration of an additional qualification, such fee as the council may demand act 1881, c 19, s 23 to the registrar, or his deputy, annual fee from each practitioner, tobe fixed by the council, not more than $2 nor less than $1 act 1882, c 30, s 5 each registered medical practitioner must, if required by the council, pay to the registrar, or a person deputed by him, an annual feedetermined by the council, not less than $1 nor more than $2, payablejanuary 1st each year, and recoverable as a debt with costs in the nameof the council act 1882, c 30, s 5 if any practitioner omit to pay the registration fee before theregistrar causes the register to be printed in the royal gazette, theregistrar shall not cause the name of such practitioner to be printed, and he shall thereupon cease to be deemed a registered practitioner;but afterward, on paying such fee, he shall be entitled to all hisrights and privileges as a registered practitioner from the time ofpayment act 1884, c 17, s 2 newfoundland medical board - there is a board composed of seven regularly qualifiedmedical practitioners of not less than five years’ standing, appointedas provided in the act, and known as the “newfoundland medical board, ”whose duties relate, among other things, to the making and enforcing ofmeasures necessary for the regulation and the practice of medicine act1893, c 12, s 2, 3, 19 the board is authorized to appoint examiners and fix times ofexaminations 5 the secretary of the board is the registrar 7 register, evidence - it is the duty of the registrar on or beforejanuary 1st in each year to cause to be published in the royalgazette of newfoundland a list of the names of all persons appearingon the register at that date, with their places of residence, titles, diplomas, and qualifications as conferred by any college or body, withthe date 8 such register is called the medical register, and a copy thereofis prima facie evidence that the persons therein specified areregistered according to the act. And the absence of a name therefrom isprima facie evidence that such person is not so registered s 9 qualification - the members of the board form a body of medicalexaminers of diplomas and degrees, whose certificate shall be the onlylicense permitting the practice of medicine, surgery, or midwifery, except as hereinafter provided, provided the applicant for such licenseshall previously have obtained a medical diploma from a recognizedcollege or university, or as hereinafter provided 10 every person is entitled to have his name entered on the registeron satisfying the board that he holds a degree or diploma from essayregular university or school of medicine in good standing, and he shallthen receive from the board a license bearing its seal, on the paymentto the registrar of $5, and shall have his name entered on the register11 no such licensed practitioner shall be entitled to practise in any yearwithout taking out from the board, before the 1st of january in everyyear, a certificate of practice for which he shall pay $1 s 12 students - the act provides the requirements for entering on the studyof medicine, surgery, or midwifery in the colony 13, 14, 17 duties of board - the board is required to examine all degrees andother credentials produced or given in evidence under the act forthe purpose of enabling the owners to practise, and, if it be deemednecessary, to oblige the owner to attest on oath or affidavit that heis the person whose name is mentioned therein, and that he has becomepossessed of the same by lawful means 16 the board is required to cause every member of the professionpractising in newfoundland to enter his name, age, place of residence, date of license or diploma and where it was obtained, on the register18 neglect to register - a person entitled to be registered, who neglectsor omits to apply, is not entitled to any of the rights or privilegesconferred by the act so long as the neglect or omission continues25 additional qualification - a person registered who obtains a higherdegree or diploma is entitled to have it inserted in the register inaddition to or in substitution for those previously registered s 26 rights of registered persons - a person properly registered under theact is entitled to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery in anywriting of the colony, and to demand and recover reasonable charges forprofessional aid or advice with the cost of medicine or other medicaland surgical appliance supplied by him 27 unregistered persons - no person whose name is not registered under theact is entitled to recover any fees for any medical or surgical advice, or for any services whatsoever rendered in the capacity of a medicalman, nor to recover the payment of charges for any medicine or medicalor surgical appliance which may have been both prescribed and suppliedby him this clause is not intended to interfere with the practice ofmidwifery by competent females as hereinafter provided 28 offences and penalties - except as hereinafter provided, if a personnot registered or licensed under the act practises medicine, surgery, or midwifery for hire, gain, help sic or reward, or wilfully andfalsely pretends to be a physician, doctor of medicine, surgeon, orgeneral practitioner, or takes or uses any name, title, addition ordescription, implying or calculating sic to deceive or lead thepublic to infer that he is registered under this act, or who proposesby public advertisement, card, circular, or otherwise, to practisemedicine, surgery, or midwifery, or give advice therein, or in anywiselead people to infer that he is qualified to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, he shall forfeit $20 for each day that he sopractises or leads people to infer that he is a practitioner, or shallsuffer imprisonment not exceeding twelve months 29 persons violating the above regulations are subject to the penalties ofthe act, and in all paper the burden of proof as to qualification isupon the defendant or practitioner 30 expulsion of member - the newfoundland medical board may try and expelany member of the profession for acts of malpractice, misconduct, orimmoral habits, provided five-sevenths of the whole number record theirsignatures to such a measure 32 exceptions - the act does not prevent private persons from giving thenecessary medical or surgical aid in times of urgent need, providedsuch aid or attention is not given for gain or hire, nor the giving ofit made a business or a way of gaining a livelihood 34 every person residing in the colony and who shall have practisedmedicine, surgery, and midwifery for five years consecutively in onelocality previous to the passage of the act, on the proof of the same, shall have his name registered and receive a license to practise underthe act. Provided, the board may grant a license to any person who mayhave practised for a shorter period, on being satisfied by examination, or inquiry, that such person is reasonably competent and fit. Andfurther provided, that the board may, after examination and inquiry, license persons with a reasonable amount of competence to practisein specified localities, in which no qualified practitioners reside37 any person while employed in actual service in any naval or militaryservice as physician or surgeon may practise medicine, surgery, andmidwifery after having been registered 38 definition - the words “legally qualified medical practitioner” or“duly qualified medical practitioner, ” or any other words importing aperson recognized by law as a medical practitioner or a member of themedical profession, when used in any act of the legislature or legal orpublic document, mean a person registered under this chapter, unless asotherwise provided 39 medical appointments - no person shall be appointed as a medicalofficer, physician, or surgeon in any branch of the public service orany hospital or other charitable institution unless he be registeredunder the provisions of this chapter 40 theories of medicine or surgery - no person otherwise fully qualifiedshall be refused registration, or a license to practise, on account ofhis adopting or refusing to adopt the practice of any writingicular theoryof medicine or surgery in case of such refusal by the board, the writingyaggrieved may appeal to the governor in council, who, on due causeshown, shall issue an order to the board to register the name of suchperson and grant him a license 41 midwives - the act does not prevent competent females from practisingmidwifery 42 fees - to the registrar, for license, $5 11 to the board, each year, for a certificate of practice, $1 s 12 northwest territories college of physicians and surgeons - the members of the medicalprofession are a body corporate under the name of “the college ofphysicians and surgeons of the northwest territories” ord 5 of 1888, s 2 every person registered according to ordinance 11 of 1885 is a memberof the said college and shall be held to be registered under thisordinance from the date of its passage 3, as amended ord 9of 1891-92 every person registered under this law is a member of the college4 council - there is a council of said college elected by the membersfrom the members registered in pursuance of this ordinance s 5, 6, 7 the council appoints among other officers a registrar 26 register, qualification - persons registered under ordinance 11 of 1885are entitled to register under this ordinance 31 the council is required to cause the registrar to keep a register ofthe names of all persons who have complied with this ordinance, andthe rules and regulations of the council respecting the qualificationsrequired from practitioners of medicine or surgery only those personswhose names are inscribed in the register are deemed qualified andlicensed to practise medicine or surgery, except as hereinafterprovided 32 the registrar is required to keep his register correct and to make thenecessary alterations in the addresses or qualifications of personsregistered 33 the council is required to admit on the register. A any person possessing a diploma from any college in great britainand ireland having power to grant such diploma entitling him topractise medicine and surgery, and who shall produce such diploma andfurnish satisfactory evidence of identification. B any member of the college of physicians and surgeons of theprovinces of manitoba, ontario and quebec upon producing satisfactoryevidence of the same and of identification. C any person who shall produce from any college or school ofmedicine and surgery in the dominion of canada requiring a four-years’course of study and sic a diploma of qualification. Provided hefurnish to the council satisfactory evidence of identification, andpass if deemed necessary, before the members thereof, or such examinersas may be appointed for the purpose, a satisfactory examinationtouching his fitness and capacity to practise as a physician andsurgeon, upon payment to the registrar of fifty dollars 34, as substituted by ord 14, 1890, amended by ord 9, 1891-92 powers of council - the members of the council are required to makeorders, regulations, or by-laws for the regulation of the register andthe guidance of examiners, and may prescribe subjects and modes ofexamination, and may make all regulations in respect of examinations, not contrary to the ordinance, that they may deem expedient andnecessary 36 the council may by by-law delegate to the registrar power to admit topractice and to register any person having the necessary qualificationsentitling him to be registered by the council ord 24, 1892, s 4 the council may direct the name of any person improperly registeredto be erased from the register and such name shall be erased by theregistrar ord 24, 1892, s 5 forfeiture of rights - if a medical practitioner be convicted of anyfelony or misdemeanor or after due inquiry be judged by the council tohave been guilty of infamous conduct in any professional respect, thecouncil may, if it sees fit, direct the registrar to erase the name ofsuch practitioner from the register, and the name shall be erased ord 5, 1888, s 37, as substituted by ord 24, 1892, s 1 rights of registered persons - every person registered under theordinance is entitled to practise medicine and surgery, includingmidwifery, or any one of them, as the case may be, and to demand andrecover with costs his reasonable charges for professional aid, advice, and visits, and the cost of medical or surgical appliances rendered orsupplied by him to his patients 38 limitation - a period of one year after the term of professionalservice is established as a limitation to actions for negligence ormalpractice against members of the college 39 register, evidence - the registrar, under the direction of the council, is required to publish a register of the names and residences andthe medical titles, diplomas, and qualifications conferred by anycollege or body, of all persons appearing on the register on the dayof publication the register is called “northwest territories’ medicalregister, ” and a copy for the time being, purporting to be so printedand published, is prima facie evidence that the persons thereinspecified are registered according to the act the absence of a namefrom such copy is prima facie evidence that such person is not soregistered in case a person name does not appear on such copy, a certified copyunder the hand of the registrar of the entry of the name of such personon the register is evidence that such person is registered s 40 neglect to register - a person neglecting to register is not entitledto the rights or privileges conferred and is liable to all penaltiesagainst unqualified or unregistered practitioners 4 offences and penalties - to practise or profess to practise withoutregistration, for hire or reward, is punishable with a penalty of $10042 to wilfully or falsely pretend to be a physician, doctor of medicine, surgeon, or general practitioner, or assume any title or descriptionnot actually possessed and to which the person is not legally entitledunder this ordinance, is punishable with a penalty of from $10 to $5043, as amended by ord 24, 1892, s 2 to take or use a name or description implying or calculated to leadpeople to infer registration or recognition by law as a physician, surgeon, or licentiate in medicine or surgery is punishable with apenalty of from $25 to $100 44 unregistered persons - no person is entitled to recover for any medicalor surgical advice or attendance or the performance of any operationor medicine which he may have prescribed 45. Nor to beappointed as medical officer, physician, or surgeon in any branch ofthe public service or in any hospital or other charitable institutionnot supported wholly by voluntary contributions, unless registered46 no certificate required from a physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer is registered 47 costs - in prosecutions, payment of costs may be awarded in addition tothe penalty, and in default of payment the offender may be committed tothe common jail for not more than one month 48 burden of proof - in prosecutions, the burden of proof as toregistration is upon the person charged 49 proof - the production of a printed or other copy of the register, certified under the hand of the registrar, for the time being issufficient evidence of all persons registered. A certificate onsuch copy purporting to be signed by any person in the capacity ofregistrar of the council under this ordinance is prima facie evidencethat he is registered without proof of his signature or of his being infact registrar 50 limitation of prosecutions - prosecutions must be commenced within sixmonths from the date of the offence 51 stay - the council may stay proceedings in prosecutions where deemedexpedient 52 prosecutor - any person may be prosecutor or complainant 53 definition - “legally qualified medical practitioner” or “dulyqualified medical practitioner, ” or any other words implying legalrecognition as a medical practitioner or member of the medicalprofession, when used in any law or ordinance, mean a person registeredunder this ordinance 55 homœopathists - homœopathic physicians may be registered under thisordinance on complying with the terms of sec 34 58 fees - to the council from each member annually as the council maydetermine, not more than $2 and not less than $1 35 to the registrar, for registration, $50 56, as substitutedby ord 24, 1892, s 3 nova scotia medical board - there is a provincial medical board consisting ofthirteen regular qualified medical practitioners of not less than sevenyears’ standing, seven nominated and appointed by the governor incouncil, and six by the nova scotia medical society r s , 5th ser , c 24, s 1 the board appoints a secretary who is the registrar of the board3, 4 register, evidence - the registrar is required before the 1st of augusteach year to cause to be printed and published in the royal gazetteof the province, and in such other manner as the board shall appoint, a correct register of the names and residences and medical titles, diplomas, and qualifications conferred by any college or body, with thedates thereof of all persons appearing on the register as existing onjune 30th such register is called “the medical register, ” and a copythereof for the time being, purporting to be so printed and published, is prima facie evidence that the persons specified are registeredaccording to this chapter the absence of a name from such copy isprima facie evidence that such person is not so registered in thecase of a person whose name does not appear in such copy, a certifiedcopy, under the hand of the registrar, of the entry of his name onthe register is evidence that such person is registered under theprovisions of this chapter 5 students - no person can begin or enter on the study of physic, surgery, or midwifery, for the purpose of qualifying himself topractise in the province, unless he shall have obtained from theprovincial medical board a certificate that he has satisfactorilypassed a matriculation examination in the subjects specified in thechapter 6 the chapter prescribes the prerequisites to admission to preliminaryexaminations 7, 12 qualification - subject to the exceptions hereinafter, no personcan lawfully practise physic, surgery, or midwifery unless his namebe registered and unless he shall have received from the provincialmedical board a license to practise 8 no person is entitled to be registered or to receive a licenseto practise unless he satisfy the board that he has passed thematriculation or preliminary examination. That after passing suchexamination he has followed his studies during a period not less thanfour years one of which may be under the direction of one or moregeneral practitioners duly licensed. That during such four years hehas attended at essay university, college, or incorporated school ofmedicine in good standing, courses of lectures amounting together tonot less than twelve months on general anatomy, on practical anatomy, on surgery, on the practice of medicine, on midwifery, on chemistry, on materia medica and pharmacy, and on the institutes of medicine orphysiology, and one three-months’ course of medical jurisprudence;that he has attended the general practice of a hospital in whichare not less than fifty beds under the charge of not less than twophysicians or surgeons, for a period of not less than one year or twoperiods of not less than six months each. That he has also attendedtwo three-months’ courses or one six-months’ course of clinicalmedicine, and the same of clinical surgery.

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Examinations are heldin different writings of the state upon these questions, the examinationpapers are certified to that one of these boards of examiners whichthe student may elect, and that board in turn certifies whether ornot the examination has been successfully undergone. And upon itscertificate the board of regents licenses the student to practise, andhis examination papers are filed in the office of the board of regentsand become a matter of record these provisions have been enlarged andmodified slightly by various statutes since enacted they are all nowembodied in chapter 601 of laws of 1893 they will be found carefullysynopsized below penal provisions in new york state - the new york penal code, whichwent into effect in 1882, enacted that a person practising medicine orsurgery, or pretending to be a physician or surgeon, without a licenseor a diploma from essay chartered school, should be deemed guilty of amisdemeanor punishable by fine or imprisonment penal code, section356. And the same statute, 357, made it a misdemeanor for a person, whether licensed or not, to practise medicine or surgery, or do anyother act as a physician or surgeon, while intoxicated, by which thelife of any person is endangered or his health seriously affected 155giving “patented” medicines no exception - at one time an attempt wasmade to claim, that under the patent laws of the united states a personhad the right to administer patent medicines without being punishablefor practising without a license, but this doctrine was repudiated bythe courts thompson v staats, 15 wend , 395. Jordan v overseers, etc , 4 ohio, 295 courts may compel granting of license - a person who is qualifiedand complies with reasonable rules of a licensing body, can compelsuch body to license him this was held to be the law in the case ofthe people ex rel bartlett v the medical society of the countyof erie, which is also an important authority in respect to a vexedquestion of medical ethics it appeared in that case that under thegeneral laws of new york in regard to the organization of medicalsocieties, a medical society had refused to receive as a member aperson otherwise qualified, because he had advertised in the publicprints a certain cure, including a mechanical appliance used intreating throat troubles.