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The violation of this section is amisdemeanor, punishable with a fine not exceeding $500 or imprisonmentin the county jail not to exceed six months, or both 6, 880 penalty - the violation of the provisions of this act is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of from $50 to $500, or imprisonment in thecounty jail for from thirty to three hundred and sixty-five days, orboth, for each offence. Filing or attempting to file the certificateof another, or a forged affidavit or identification, is a felonypunishable as forgery in the second degree, but the provisions of thisarticle do not apply to persons who had been practising five years inthe state prior to 1883 6, 881 fees - to the secretary of the board, for examining a genuine diploma, $1 if fraudulent or not owned by the possessor, $20 6, 873 to the clerk, for recording, the usual fees 6, 875 montana board of examiners - the governor, with the advice and consent of thecouncil, appoints seven learned, skilled, and capable physicians whohave been residents for not less than two years, no more than two fromthe same county, to constitute the board of examiners act of february28th, 1889, s 1 meetings of the board for examination are required to be held at thecapital and such other central points as the board may select, on thefirst tuesday of april and october in each year, and at other times asthe board may determine the board must keep a record of all applicantsfor a certificate, with their age, time spent in the study of medicine, name, and the location of all institutions granting to applicantsdegrees or certificates of lectures in medicine or surgery, and whetherthe applicant was rejected or received a certificate, and the registeris prima facie evidence of matters therein recorded 2 qualification - every person wishing to practise medicine or surgeryin any of their dewritingments shall do so only upon complying with therequisites of this act if a graduate in medicine, he must presenthis diploma to the board for verification as to its genuineness ifit be found genuine and issued by a medical school legally organizedand in good standing, whose teachers are graduates of a legallyorganized school, which fact the board determines, and if the personpresenting and claiming the diploma be the person to whom it wasoriginally granted, the board must issue its certificate, which shallbe conclusive of the holder right to practise any person coming tothe state may present his diploma to any member of the board, who mayissue a certificate good till the board next regular meeting ifnot a graduate, the person must present himself to the board for suchexamination as may be required, unless he shall have been in continuouspractice in the state for not less than ten years, of which fact hemust present satisfactory evidence in the form of affidavits to theboard 3 all persons entitled to practise under the ten-year provision and allpersons commencing the practice of medicine and surgery in any ofits branches shall apply to the board for a certificate, and at thetime and place designated by the board, or at the regular meeting, beexamined in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, histology, materia medica, therapeutics, preventive medicines, practice of medicine, surgery, obstetrics, diseases of women and children, diseases of the nervoussystem, diseases of the eye and ear, medical jurisprudence, and suchother branches as the board may deem advisable, and present evidence ofhaving practised the required term of ten years, or of having attendedthree courses of lectures of at least four months each. The examinationmust be both scientific and practical, and of sufficient thoroughnessand severity to test the candidate fitness to practise medicine andsurgery the examination may be held in the presence of the dean of anymedical school or of the president of any medical society of the state after the examination, the board must grant to a candidate who is foundqualified, a certificate to practise medicine and surgery the boardmay refuse or revoke a certificate for unprofessional, dishonorable, or immoral conduct, or may refuse a certificate to any one who maypublicly profess to cure or treat diseases, injuries, or deformitiesin such manner as to deceive the public in paper of refusal orrevocation, the aggrieved applicant may appeal to the district court ofthe county of his application 4 certificates must be recorded within sixty days after their date in theoffice of the county recorder in the county where the holder resides;or in case of removal certificates must be recorded in the county towhich the holder removes the county recorder must indorse on thecertificate the date of its record 5 exceptions - the act does not apply to midwives of skill and experienceattending paper of confinement, nor to commissioned surgeons of theunited states army or navy in the discharge of their official duties, nor to physicians or surgeons in actual consultation from other statesand territories, nor to students practising medicine under the directsupervision of a preceptor, nor to gratuitous services in paper ofemergency 6 penalty - violation of the act is a misdemeanor, punishable with a fineof from $100 to $500, or imprisonment in the county jail from thirty toninety days, or both definition - any person is regarded as practising within the meaning ofthe act who appends “m d ” or “m b ” to his name, for a fee prescribesmedicine, operates in surgery, attends in obstetrics, or recommends forthe use of any sick person the use of any drug or medicine or otheragency of treatment, cure, or relief of any wound, fracture, or bodilyinjury or disease, as a physician or surgeon 7 re-examination - any one failing to pass the examination is entitled toa second examination within six months without fee 8 fees - to the treasurer of the board, for examination, $15 s 4 to the secretary of the board, for examination, in advance, $15 s 8 to the county recorder, for recording, the usual fee 5 to the county attorney, for prosecuting a violation, to be charged ascosts, $5 7 nebraska qualification - it is unlawful for any person to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or any of their branches, without havingobtained and registered a certificate no person is entitled to acertificate unless he be a graduate of a legally chartered medicalschool or college in good standing the qualifications are determinedby the state board of health the act does not prevent physiciansresiding in other states from visiting patients in consultation withresident physicians who have complied act of 1891, c 35, s 7 a medical school is defined as a medical school or college whichrequires a previous examination for admission to its courses of study, and which requires for granting the degree of “m d ” attendance onat least three courses of lectures of six months each, no two ofsaid courses to be held within one year, and having a full faculty ofprofessors in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, toxicology, pathology, hygiene, materia medica, therapeutics, obstetrics, gynæcology, principle sic and practice of medicine and surgery, and clinicalinstruction in the last two named but the three-year clause does notapply to degrees granted prior to july, 1891 8 a person intending to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics mustpresent his diploma to the said board, with his affidavit that he isthe lawful possessor of the same and has attended the full course ofstudy required for the degree of “m d , ” and that he is the persontherein named such affidavit may be taken before any person authorizedto administer oaths, and it shall be attested under the hand andofficial seal of the official, if he have a seal false swearing isperjury 9 if investigation of the diploma and affidavit proves the applicantentitled to practise, the board issues its certificate, which must befiled in the office of the county clerk of the county where he resides, or intends to practise 10 the act gave physicians entitled to practise at the time of itsenactment six months in which to comply with its provisions withreference to them 11 the secretaries of the board may issue certificates, without a vote ofthe board, when the proof upon which certificates are granted may havebeen on file in its office for ten days without a vote of the board, when no protest has been filed, and if, in their opinion, the proofcomplies with the act 12 when the holder of a certificate removes to another county, he mustfile and record it in the office of the county clerk in the county towhich he removes 13 the board may refuse certificates to persons guilty of unprofessionalor dishonorable conduct, and may revoke for like causes provided theygive the person an opportunity to be heard 14 penalty - no person is entitled to receive any sum of money formedical, surgical, or obstetrical service unless he shall have compliedwith the act 15 violation of the act is a misdemeanor, punishable with a fine of from$50 to $300 and costs of prosecution, and a person convicted shallstand committed till the fine and costs are paid 16 definition, exceptions - to operate on, profess to heal, prescribe for, or otherwise treat any physical or mental ailment of another, is topractise medicine under this act but it does not prohibit gratuitousservices in paper of emergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeonsin the united states army or navy, nor to nurses in their legaloccupation, nor to the administration of ordinary household remedies17 itinerant vender - to be an itinerant vender of any drug, nostrum, ointment, or appliance for the treatment of disease or injury, or forsuch an one to publicly profess to cure or to treat disease or injuryor deformity by any drug, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient, is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $100, orimprisonment in the county jail from thirty days to three months, orboth, for each offence 18 fees - to the secretaries of the board of health, for certificate attime of application, $5 to the secretaries of the board of health, for taking testimony, samefees as a notary public is allowed for same service 19 to county clerk, for recording, usual register fees for recording10 nevada qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine or surgery whohas not received a medical education and a diploma from essay regularlychartered medical school having a bona fide existence when thediploma was granted act of 1875, c 46, s 1 a copy of the diploma must be filed for record with the county recorderof the county in which the person practises, and at the same time theoriginal, or a certificate from the dean of the medical school of whichhe is a graduate, certifying to his graduation, must be exhibited2 the person filing a copy of a diploma or a certificate of graduationmust be identified as the person named therein, by the affidavit of twocitizens of the county, or his affidavit taken before a notary publicor commissioner of deeds for this state, which affidavit must be filedin the office of the county recorder 3 penalty - practising without complying with this act is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of from $50 to $500, or imprisonment in thecounty jail from thirty days to six months, or both, for each offence filing a diploma or a certificate of another or a forged affidavit ofidentification is a felony 4 exceptions - the act does not apply to a person who in an emergency mayprescribe or give advice in medicine or surgery in a township whereno physician resides, or when no physician or surgeon resides withinconvenient distance, nor to those who had practised medicine or surgeryin the state for ten years next preceding the passage of the act, norto persons prescribing in their own family 6 new jersey board of examiners - the state board of medical examiners, appointedby the governor, consists of nine members, persons of recognizedprofessional ability and honor, five of the old school, three of thehomœopathic, and one of the eclectic, among whom can be no member ofany college or university having a medical dewritingment act 1890, c 190, s 1 the board must hold meetings for examination at the capital on thesecond thursday of january, april, july, and october of each year andat such other times as they deem expedient.

Who at one time deprecated the art of temporal physiciansin favor of medically skilled saints, at other times fled to humanmedicine for refuge finally the position of the medically learned monk and priest withreference to the general public, during the middle ages, was by nomeans an easy or an agreeable one the people clung with invincibletenacity to the belief in demons and miracles ancient as well aschristian philosophy was firmly pledged to a belief in demons, whoseexistence was supported by the sacred testimony of the gospel it isnot astonishing, therefore, that the people should cling to theirbelief in various forms of supernatural interference with the functionsof organic beings, and thus it may frequently have happened that amedically enlightened priest, fearing the opposition of a people eagerafter celestial medicine, sacrificed his scientific convictions to thecaprices of a mistaken faith unfortunately, only a few had in them themaking of a scientific martyr, and the history of christianity teachesus that it is much easier to be a martyr of faith than a martyr ofscience but what has been stated thus far will by no means acquit the christianpriest of blame which he incurred by favoring medical superstition;such acquittal would be radically futile but we mean to show that theconduct of the servants of our faith, altho not pardonable, is quiteexplicable the historian, in order to present to his readers therelation which had gradually formed between christianity and medicalsuperstition, must show himself prosecutor and defendant at the sametime equally with dogma and priesthood, theistic belief also has been apowerful instrument in the furthering of medical superstition, and thispoint we shall next consider §9 theistic thought as the fosterer of medical superstition - althothe theist, by accepting a physico-mechanical interpretation of naturalphenomena, abandoned his main position, yet the theistic belief by nomeans became obsolete i e , the belief that god, unrestricted bynatural laws, personally directed terrestrial manifestations stillheld its ground this belief remained dominant in thesis minds, in spiteof all that philosophers and naturalists said in regard to the formsand life of organic structures the vitality which this belief hasshown during the development of our race is actually astonishing inspite of the wide acceptance of the physico-mechanical theory of life, the belief that god, without regard to natural laws, unceasinglyinterfered with the course of natural events, and, consequently, also with the conditions of the human body, has not only remainedactive, but has even succeeded in recovering an extensive writing of itslost ground we shall soon see that this is a repetition of what hasoccurred during all periods of human development even to-day, when themechanical theory of life has won its greatest triumphs, and more thantwenty centuries have passed since the great hippocrates preached atheory of medicine, purified from all theistic and theurgic accretions, individuals top ten essay writing services are still met with who presuppose the therapeutic activityof god in all paper of disease as a self-evident fact such a conditionof opinion, history teaches us, always prevails at periods, duringwhich a craving for religious excitement becomes excessively acute it is either a new form of religion which so preoccupies the publicmind and the intelligence that all phenomena are conceived of as inclosest relationship with god, or else essay individual appears who, carried away by religious enthusiasm, teaches that the existence ofnature independent of god is not admissible, and succeeds in enlistingnumerous followers under his banner under similar conditions theisticbelief had occasionally succeeded in regaining its supremacy inthe domain of medicine in taking up the consideration of essay suchinstances we can only treat them briefly, as an exhaustive handling ofthis most interesting material would carry us too far away from ourpresent subject the belief that god was the best physician, not only of the soul butof the body also, was deepened by the dissemination of christianity the sincerity of faith among the christians of the first century was sointense that a great number of them believed that their bodily welfarecould not be watched over more carefully than when it was commendedexclusively to the care of god in all paper of sickness accordingly, they entirely neglected medical aid and treated all diseases onlyby prayers, by anointing, and by laying on of hands this mode oftreatment corresponds to what is contained in the epistle of jamesv. 14-16 “is any sick among you?. let him call for the elders of the church. Andlet them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the lord:“and the prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the lord shall raisehim up. And if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him “confess your faults one to another, and pray one for another, thatye may be healed the effectual fervent prayer of a righteous manavaileth much ”the extent of this treatment by prayer is shown by the fact that evenprominent fathers of the church for instance, st benedict died543 were addicted to it moreover, an attempt was made to increase the therapeutic value ofprayer by various accessories and aids thus the gospel was placed uponthe affected writing of the body, or clothing of a writingicularly pious manwas spread over the patient it appears that the sudarium and the coatof the apostle paul were held to possess such healing power, and were, therefore, frequently employed as instruments of healing thus we readin the act of the apostles xix. 12 “so that from his body were broughtunto the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and the diseases dewritinged fromthem, and the evil spirits went out of them ”in fact, medical superstition went so far that it divined a potentcurative virtue even in the shadow of the apostle peter thus, actsv. 15 “insomuch that they brought forth the sick into the streets, and laid them on beds and couches, that at least the shadow of peterpassing by might overshadow essay of them ”probably we shall not be wrong in regarding this procedure as theorigin of that relic cult which was destined to attain such astonishingdimensions in medical practise the mode of treatment by means of prayer was, perhaps, intimatelyconnected with the idea that bodily ailments were divinely ordained tomake the wrath of god distinctly perceptible by man this conception ofpathological processes was a very ancient one we meet with it amongthe egyptians, and we read in the book of exodus that god visited uponpharaoh and his people various bodily afflictions, such as pestilence, black smallpox, death, as in the case of the first-born afterwardchristianity adopted this view of sickness as providential, and thebelief assumed very peculiar forms and dimensions in the middleages in those times any disease occurring epidemically was actuallyconsidered to be an act of retribution on the writing of the divinebeing, a scourge with which god punished sinful christians thus, for instance, syphilis, which originated in naples in 1495, duringthe struggle between the reigning house of aragon and the french, was instantly declared to be the chastisement of god the emperormaximilian declares, in an edict issued august 7, 1495, at worms:“quod novus ille et gravissimus hominum morbus nostris diebus exortus, quem vulgo malum francicum vocant, post hominum memoriam inauditussæpe grassetur, quæ nos justissimæ dei iræ merita debent admonere” gregorovius vii , 386, foot-note 1 but it is very astonishing to observe the causes which aroused thewrath of god so mightily that countless numbers of men were sweptaway thus, for instance, the pious bishop of zeeland, peter paladius, assures us that miliary fever, that terrible disease which devastatedeurope five times from 1486 to 1551, was sent by god, who was angry atthe excessive passion for finery which prevailed at that time medicalscience, as founded on theism, assumed menacing forms, where, in themiddle ages, it associated itself with magic, but as we shall moreexhaustively enlarge upon this point in chapter iv we need merelyrefer here to that writing of our work it is indeed surprising that the above-mentioned manifestations alloccurred in periods in which medicine had already acknowledged thephysico-mechanical interpretation of all organic processes.

The statement that it contains “alcohol 11 per cent ” andthat it is “made in gerthesis ” no other statement of the composition orstrength of top ten essay writing services “styptysate” is furnished nor is the name of the germanmanufacturer disclosed in an advertising circular entitled “styptysate, a new reliablehemostatic, ” it is declared that in recent years the plant, shepherdpurse capsella bursa pastoris, “has been submitted to clinicaltests in the form of a concentrated dialysate, known as styptysate, by loewy, oppenheim, krummacher and others, and that their reportscoincide in regard to styptysate as a hemostatic par excellence, writingicularly in uterine hemorrhages, even in paper where ergot andhydrastis had failed to produce satisfactory results ” the circularalso reprints essay “short clinical reports” without reference to theirauthorship. One ascribed to krummacher and two ascribed to “b h m , kansas city, mo , ” and the following references. “a krummacher, m d , monthly review for obstetrics and gynecology, berlin, vol xlix, 4, and vol lii ” “h oppenheim, m d , medical clinic, berlin, 1920, 35 ”shepherd purse is a weed common in the united states and in europe like most other herbs, it has essay reputation as a folk medicine itis used by eclectics and homeopaths, being included in the homeopathicpharmacopeia of the united states shepherd purse receives noconsideration at the hands of the authors of standard works on materiamedica, pharmacology or therapeutics from an examination of recent german medical publications, it appearsthat the use of shepherd purse was proposed as a substitute forergot and hydrastis, when the latter drugs became scarce in gerthesis these publications, in the main, emanate from those in the employ ofpharmaceutical firms and deal with proprietary preparations or they arewritten by physicians who used these proprietary preparations at thesolicitation of the manufacturers for this reason the reported resultsmust be accepted with reserve one of the proprietary preparations discussed in the germanpublications is styptysate, manufactured by isalfabrik johannesbuerger, wernigerode it is said to be produced by submitting the juiceof fresh shepherd purse to dialysis and preserving the dialysateby the addition of alcohol there is no statement as to the drugstrength or the chemical or biological standards, if any, used inits manufacture. Hence, the preparation is essentially a secret one as first produced, the preparation seems to have been fortified bythe addition of cotarnin. The dose was then given as ten to fifteendrops later, as the cost of cotarnin went up, this drug was omitted, and the drug strength increased. The dose of the new preparation isgiven as twenty-five to thirty drops just what relation, if any, thestyptysate of ernst bischoff co , inc , bears to that of the isalfabrikjohannes buerger, wernigerode, cannot be determined from the bischoffadvertising if it has any relationship the announcement that nonarcotic order is required when ordering styptysate would indicatethat the new preparation is supplied. The old one with its additionof cotarnin would require a narcotic order on the other hand, therecommended dose of the cotarnin-free preparation is twenty-five tothirty-drops, whereas the product sold by bischoff and co is to begiven in doses of ten to fifteen drops-- that is, in the amount proposedfor the cotarnin-fortified product what justification is there for the claim that styptysate has beensubmitted to clinical tests by loewy, oppenheim and krummacher andfound to be a hemostatic par excellence and efficient even whereergot had failed to give satisfactory results?.

Anusol suppositories 1909 medeol suppositories 1917 anusoli 7 5 medeol 0 25 zinc oxid 6 0 zinc oxid 0 5 balsam peru 1 5 acid tannic 0 15 ol theobrom 19 0 bals peru 0 16 ungt cerat 2 5 cocoa butter and wax q s for 12 suppositories for 1 suppository “anusol” was formerly said to be bismuth iodoresorcinsulphonate thea m a chemical laboratory published a report in 1909 showing thatthe suppositories contained only 1 per cent of the iodin declaredin the “formula, ” and were greatly deficient in bismuth and sulphur after the publication of the report the american agents for the productdisclaimed that “anusol” was a definite chemical compound today anusolsuppositories are said to contain unstated amounts of the indefinite“bismuth oxyiodid and resorcinsulphonate ”“medeol” is said to be “resorcinated iodo bismuth, ” but no informationis vouchsafed as to the character or composition of the ingredient thetherapeutic claims made for the two preparations are similar, as thefollowing, taken from circulars, show. Anusol suppositories an innocuous, non-irritant remedy for anal, rectal and vaginal inflammatory affections, especially for hemorrhoids!. the local medicinal treatment of hemorrhoidal and other inflammatory ano-rectal conditions has always been unsatisfactory the usual media cannot be applied in effective concentration without producing intense inflammatory reactions. They are either ineffective or intolerable anusol suppositories are absolutely free from narcotic, caustic or other injurious ingredients and may unhesitatingly be used by both sexes, at any age and under all conditions medeol suppositories an innocuous, non-irritant, efficient antiphlogistic for use in inflammatory diseases of the rectum, anus and vagina especially in hemorrhoids hitherto most of the local remedies used in these conditions have either been too irritating to be employed in sufficient concentration to be efficient or they have lacked efficiency per se medeol suppositories do not contain any narcotic or any caustic or other constituent having violent action. Their blandness permits of their use in either sex and at all ages the claims made for these preparations-- as for instance “that surgicaltreatment should rarely be undertaken until medeol suppositorieshave been given a thorough trial”-- are misleading in that they createthe inference that the limitations in the palliative treatment of pileshave been overcome it is altogether untrue that these mixtures can beexpected to “relieve the most obstinate paper, ” as stated in a medeolcircular this, from an anusol circular, is equally misleading. “if dietetic and other requirements are complied with, even the most obstinate chronic paper will frequently readily yield to treatment with anusol suppositories ”the council declared medeol suppositories inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies because their composition is secret rules 1 and2. Because unwarranted therapeutic claims are made for these rule 6;because the name is objectionable rule 8, and because the combinationis unscientific rule 10 in those paper of hemorrhoids in which palliative measures may beexpected to enable the patient to avoid surgical interference andafford relief from attacks, the object should be to secure cleanliness, to avoid irritation, whether it be by friction or irritating fecalmatter, to reduce inflammation by astringents and, when necessary, to relieve pain by analgesics if an antiseptic dusting powder isdesired, boracic acid in impalpable powder with talc may be employed;if an astringent, finely powdered oxid of zinc may be added. If alocal analgesic is necessary, a little extract of belladonna may beincorporated with petrolatum or other ointment base the main reliance, in any event, should be to effect normal bowel movements by regulatingthe diet rather than by the use of purgatives. The use of warm waterto insure cleanliness. The avoidance of irritation, especially thatcaused by friction and secretions. A mild astringent to reduceinflammation -- from the journal a m a , march 9, 1918 guaiodine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on guaiodine, marketed by the intravenous productscompany, denver, has been adopted by the council and its publicationauthorized w a puckner, secretary a referee of the committee on pharmacology, in submitting to thecouncil a report from the a m a chemical laboratory on guaiodine, advises that the laboratory examination shows that instead ofcontaining free “colloidal” iodin as claimed, the preparation isessentially an iodated fatty oil, containing only combined iodin equally misleading, in view of the laboratory findings, are theimplied claims that the antiseptic action of guaiodine corresponds tothat of free iodin guaiodine is advertised mainly for the treatment of gonorrhea whileit may be true that the guaiacol contained in guaiodine has essaybeneficial effect, especially when preceded by potassium permanganateirrigation as advised, the advertised claim that “guaiodine acts as aspecific for gonorrhea in a majority of paper” is utterly false the “case records” offered to establish the therapeutic value ofguaiodine are in themselves sufficient to condemn the “evidence ” thefollowing are fair samples. “the second boy came a day or so later with a slight discharge with the characteristic burning and itching, and with symptoms of a beginning gonorrhea, and judging from the source of the infection, it was believed to be so two injections of guaiodine were given when the discharge ceased ” “i have several paper that were completely cured in a very short time i note this, that the first dose causes a cessation of the discharge and the second seems to increase the flow, but the color is changed i give three doses, and then use a mild wash, and in ten days they are well i am very pleased with this preparation and very truly believe that it is the best there is to date for the positive cure of gonorrhea ” report of the chemical laboratoryguaiodine is manufactured by the intravenous products company, denver, colorado the “literature” which accompanies the product describesguaiodine as. “ an electro-chemically prepared iodin, suspended in oil, containing iodin, the same strength as the u s p tincture of iodin, or 7 per cent , together with a therapeutic dose of guaiacol ”the intravenous products company claims that guaiodine is made by an“electro-chemical process of preparing colloidal iodine, ” discoveredby one e b page, and that by this process the tendency of iodin toproduce iodism has been “overcome ” it is said to be “pre-eminentlyan antiseptic and germicide ” guaiodine is a dark brown, oily liquidwith a specific gravity of 0 9845 at 15 6 c and an odor suggestiveof guaiacol its solubilities were those of a fat free iodin wasabsent in the recently purchased specimen traces were presentin an older one steam distillation indicated that the productconsisted of volatile and nonvolatile constituents the volatilematter was concluded to consist, in the main, of guaiacol or essayguaiacol-like body, and the nonvolatile matter to be an iodized fattyoil quantitative determinations indicated that guaiodine containedabout 7 25 per cent of iodin in combination, and that it is composedapproximately of 3 per cent volatile matter and 97 per cent nonvolatile matter hence guaiodine appears to be an iodized fatty oilto which a small amount of guaiacol or essay guaiacol-like substance hasbeen added the council actionon the recommendation of the referee, the council voted that guaiodinebe declared inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because offalse statements as to composition and action -- from the journala m a , april 6, 1918 several “mixed” vaccines not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe “mixed” vaccines which are discussed in the reports that followwere considered by the council during the past year because inquirieshad been received in regard to them in publishing these reports it is desirable that the attitude of thecouncil toward “mixed” vaccines again be stated in view of the rapiddevelopment of bacterial therapy, the possibility for harm that attendsthe use of bacterial vaccines and the skepticism among experiencedclinicians as to the value of vaccines representing a combination oforganisms, the council has felt that it should scrutinize the claimsfor such agents with exceptional care and that there should be admittedto new and nonofficial remedies only those vaccine mixtures for whichthere is acceptable evidence to indicate that the use of the writingicularmixtures is rational in considering the subject the council has borne in mind the fact thatin thesis institutions in which paper are studied and the results oftherapeutic measures carefully observed and controlled, vaccines of anysort are practically never used-- certainly here the stock mixed vaccinehas no recognition experienced clinicians have generally come to theconclusion that mixed vaccines have no specific action and that anyeffect they may produce is due to a non-specific protein reaction as set forth in the reports, in no case was the evidence submittedby the proprietors sufficient to establish the claims made for thepreparations hence none was accepted for new and nonofficial remedies the preparations that form the basis for the accompanying reports areonly a few of the thesis that are being made and sold by essay biologicalhouses doubtless thesis of those not dealt with in this report areequally irrational and sold under claims equally-- or probably evenmore-- unwarranted than those with which the present report deals w a puckner, secretary mixed vaccines-abbottin response to inquiry the council undertook a consideration of thefollowing “mixed{”} vaccines sold by the abbott laboratories:m catarrhalis-combined-bacterin, said to contain killed micrococcuscatarrhalis, bacillus friedländer, pneumococci, streptococci, staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus albus b coli-combined-bacterin, said to contain killed streptococcusviridans, streptococcus hemolyticus and bacillus coli pertussis-combined-bacterin, said to contain killed bacilluspertussis, pneumococci, streptococci, staphylococcus albus, staphylococcus aureus and micrococcus catarrhalis streptococcus-rheumaticus-combined-bacterin, said to contain killed“streptococci rheumaticus, viridans, etc ” and pneumococci streptococcus-viridans-combined-bacterin, said to contain killedstreptococcus viridans, streptococcus hemolyticus, pneumococcus andstaphylococcus albus the abbott laboratories were asked to assist in the investigation ofthese products and to submit evidence to establish their eligibilityfor admission to new and nonofficial remedies the manufacturer wasinformed that the council accepts “mixed” vaccines or bacterins, provided the usefulness of these products is established by acceptableclinical evidence, and references to the literature bearing on thevalue of the preparations were requested the abbott laboratories submitted specimens of the products, theadvertising matter therefor and a considerable list of references tocurrent literature. All of which was transmitted to the committee onserums and vaccines for consideration in due time a referee of thecommittee submitted the following report. The committee reportthe referee has studied the literature covered by the referencessubmitted in general the articles are favorable to the use ofvaccines, though thesis of these papers do not consider “mixed”vaccines. Indeed, a number of the articles do not discuss treatmentat all, but are devoted entirely to the consideration of etiologyof the disease thesis of the papers are by those who are obviouslyoverenthusiastic on the subject of the use of biologic preparations one paper-- not included in the references submitted by the abbottlaboratories-- records an alarming reaction following a dose of mixedvaccine. No claim is made that improvement followed the following comments on the submitted references are offered:m catarrhalis-combined-bacterin -- only four of the nine referencesgiven deal with the therapeutic use of the vaccine the reportedresults in general were favorable, but essaytimes in the discussionevoked by certain of the papers, views the reverse of those expressedby the author were brought forward the enthusiasm of one writer isshown in his statement that following the use of vaccine in paper ofcarbuncle complicating diabetes the sugar in the urine disappearedor was reduced one observer, who reports excellent results in nasalpharyngeal catarrh, speaks of certain vaccines as “bulk goods, ” whileanother considers “-- -- no 7” as the proper thing it is evidentthat the reports are not based on careful, scientific data, or suchunscientific definition of the product employed would not be used b coli-combined-bacterin -- in the references cited in support ofthis preparation the following general statements are noted. Oneenthusiastic writer says, “it must be recognized that we have nosatisfactory explanation of the action of vaccines, and their useat present is empirical ” one author dwelt on the superiority ofautogenous vaccines but admits that occasionally stock vaccines areindicated one vaccine therapist in concluding an article states, “itis simply impossible to practice modern urology without our modernbiologic products ” yet it is a well-known fact that thesis successfuland capable genito-urinary surgeons avoid the use of vaccines, mixed orsimple pertussis-combined-bacterin -- these reports are uniformly favorable, but are not controlled and their value is not to be compared witha recent report from the new york city dewritingment of health whichindicates that the vaccine is practically valueless it is noted, further, that one of the articles cited which dealt rather fully withthe treatment of pertussis did not mention vaccines streptococcus-rheumaticus-combined-bacterin -- the references citedin support of the preparations by the manufacturer give no supportwhatever for the use of mixed stock vaccines the first reference dealswith the relation of streptococcus viridans to arthritis deformans andendocarditis and reports the following paper. Case 1 -- vaccine case-- improvement after eight months case 2 -- slight improvement following use of vaccine case 3 -- slight improvement following use of vaccine case 4 -- marked improvement case 5 -- prompt improvement case 6 -- vaccine not mentioned case 7 -- vaccine followed by slight improvement in each of the paper other methods of treatment were used the papershows the etiologic relation of streptococcus viridans rather thanthe value of vaccines there is no indication that stock vaccineswere used, though the paper is not clear on this point the secondpaper deals with the application of vaccine therapy in the treatmentof arthritis this paper is by a man who is avowedly an enthusiast onvaccine therapy the indications are that he generally used a mixedautogenous vaccine, but the reports of paper are not always clear this writer apparently makes no serious attempt at the classificationof the joint conditions he treats the third reference is a purelyexperimental study and has no bearing on the use of vaccines intreatment the fourth article was admitted by the manufacturer to be“negative as regards evidence ” the fifth reference specifically statesthat “the vaccine must be autogenous ” the sixth reference deals withthe experimental production of appendicitis by the use of diplococci, and has not the most remote bearing on the use of vaccines in thetreatment of rheumatism streptococcus-viridans-combined-bacterin -- the article which bearsevidence of more care than the others admits that we are not inposition to state the value of vaccines in pyorrhea but the authorbelieves they may have value supplementary to local treatment it is not surprising that a large number of favorable reports canbe accumulated when we appreciate how promptly men report what theyconsider to be their successes and how commonly they leave theirfailures unrecorded bearing in mind the fact that these stock mixedvaccines, though before the profession for thesis years, have notbeen used, or continued in use, in hospitals where work is rigidlycontrolled and that they are used practically not at all in the largegovernment hospital service, a candid critic must hold that there isno substantial evidence in favor of the therapeutic use of a mixedvaccine, certainly not for stock “goods” and that probably there is buta limited field for the employment of autogenous vaccines the referee calls attention to a shift in the advertising matter onvaccines-- the tendency to recommend vaccines to be used in conjunctionwith drugs a heading in the abbott booklet reads, “the biologics donot replace drugs”.

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