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To Kill A Mockingbird Theme Essay


And 3 at to kill a mockingbird theme essay the lower portionof the rectum. And an incision should be made with a pair of scissorsbetween these ligatures the jejunum and ilium should first be removedtogether by seizing the gut with the left hand, keeping it on thestretch, and cutting with a pair of scissors through the mesenteryclose to its intestinal attachment the cæcum, colon, and rectum shouldthen be removed in a similar manner the intestines being placed in large absolutely clean dishes, whichhave previously been rinsed with distilled water, are opened. Greatcare being taken that none of the intestinal contents are lost thesmall intestines should be opened in one dish and the large intestinein another a portion of the intestines where morbid appearances aremost likely to be seen in paper of poisoning are the duodenum, thelower writing of the ilium, and the rectum the comparative intensity ofthe appearances of irritation should be especially noted for example, if the stomach appears normal and the intestines are found inflamed thepossibility of poison from an irritant may be denied the intestines are opened along their detached border by theenterotome care should be taken to distinguish the post-mortemdiscolorations which are usually seen along the intestines from thoseproduced by disease the former are most marked in the dependentportions they are apt to occur in patches which can be readilyrecognized by stretching the wall of the gut the darkish brown orpurple discolorations which are essaytimes seen as the result ofdecomposition are due to the imbibition from the vessels of decomposedhæmoglobin much care and experience are necessary to tell the amountof congestion which is within normal limits and to recognize changes ofcolor produced by decomposition the pathological lesions ordinarily looked for in the examinationof the intestines are ulcers, perforation, hemorrhages, strictures, tumors, and the evidences of various inflammations to obtain anaccurate idea of the various portions of the mucous membrane of theintestines, it is essaytimes necessary to remove their contents whenvery adherent this should be done by allowing as small a portionof distilled water as possible to flow over their surface if anyabnormalities are noticed along the intestinal tract, an accuratedescription should be given of their situation and extent. As also theamount of congestion seen in different portions of the intestinal tract if possible the different portions of the intestines, as well as thestomach, should be examined immediately after being exposed to view, as under the influence of the air those writings which are pale maybecome red, and slight redness may become very pronounced in this wayonly can we estimate the degree of vascularity of the various writingsafter death however, in paper of suspected poisoning, when it isimpossible for the chemist to be present at the autopsy, the medicalexaminer should not open the stomach and intestines, but place themin sealed jars as soon as possible afterward, the chemist beingpresent, they should then be examined in the manner indicated whatmay be lost by waiting, in changes of color which have taken place, will be more than counterbalanced by the data which the chemist willobtain from observing the contents and mucous membrane of the stomachand intestines when they are first exposed the characteristic odorsof certain poisons are so evanescent that they quickly disappear afteropening of the stomach and intestines after a thorough examination of the intestines, they are to be put withtheir contents into wide-mouthed vessels, each writing by itself, andthe basins in which they were opened washed with distilled water andthe washings put into the same bottle as soon as the intestines aretransferred to the jars they should be sealed the stomach - the stomach and duodenum are removed together theyare opened by passing the enterotome into the duodenum and dividingit along its convex border, the incision being continued along thegreater curvature of the stomach as far as the œsophageal opening theyshould be opened in a large glass dish which has been carefully washedwith distilled water the chemist and medical examiner will carefullynote the quantity, odor, color, and reaction of the stomach contents;also whether luminous or not in the dark. The presence or absence ofcrystalline matter, foreign substances, undigested food or alcohol portions of the contents should be placed in a small glass bottle andsealed, so that at a future time they may be examined microscopically only in this way can an absolute knowledge of the character of thestomach contents be obtained in certain medico-legal paper the abilityto decide the character of the stomach contents is of the utmostimportance the mucous membranes of the stomach and duodenum must benext carefully examined for evidences of hemorrhages, erosions, tumors, and of acute or chronic inflammations the appearance of the rugæ andtheir interspaces, principally in the region of the greater curvature, should be noted. Because here traces of poison and its effects aremost frequently seen if the stomach is inflamed, the seat of theinflammation should be exactly specified, as also that of any unusualcoloration the condition of the blood-vessels are also noted vascularity orredness of the stomach after death should not be confounded with theeffects of poison or the marks of disease it may occur in everyvariety of degree or character and still be within normal limits vascularities which we might call normal are seen in the posterior writingof the greater end and in the lesser curvature, and may cover spacesof various extent rigot and trosseau have proven by experiment thatvarious kinds of pseudo-morbid redness may be formed which cannot bedistinguished from the varieties caused by inflammation. That theseappearances are produced after death and often not until five or eighthours afterward, and that they may be made to shift their place andappear where the organ was previously healthy, merely by altering theposition of the stomach ulcers, or perforations of the stomach as theresults of disease, as also the digestion of the stomach after death, have been mistaken for the effects of irritant poisons when perforation of the stomach is the result of caustic poisons, theedges of the opening are very irregular, and are of the same thicknessas the rest of the organ the writings not perforated are more or lessinflamed, and traces of the action of the caustic are found in themouth, pharynx, and œsophagus this is the opposite condition to thatseen in spontaneous perforation in considering perforation of the stomach the following points given bytaylor are well to remember.

Comp rend soc de biol , 74:338, 1913 conclusions1 secretin is quickly destroyed by gastric juice and by trypsin 2 secretin is not absorbed in active form from the alimentary tract 3 the presence of secretin or prosecretin cannot be demonstrated inthe commercial preparations “secretogen, ” “elixir secretogen” and“duodenin” even when the therapeutic dose of the preparations is givenintravenously in the case of “secretogen, ” intravenous injection of100 times the therapeutic dose reveals occasionally an insignificanttrace of secretin discussion of resultsit is, of course, objectionable that preparations containing nosecretin should be advertised to the medical profession as containingthis substance the more important blunder, however, consists in theattempt to offer such preparations for oral administration, becauseeven chemically pure secretin would be equally ineffective when takenby mouth there is as yet no reliable evidence that lack of secretinis a primary or important factor in any disease even should this beestablished, secretin therapy, to be effective, must be intravenous secretin has not yet been prepared in sufficiently pure state to renderpossible intravenous injection in man without injurious effects andeven when this has been attained, the very fleeting action of secretinwill in all probability render secretin therapy as futile in all thediseases in which it is theoretically indicated as epinephrin therapyis in addison disease but there remains the alleged favorable effect from secretin therapyby mouth in various diseases in man it is, perhaps, impertinent forlaboratory men to comment on these clinical results the ordinary“testimonials” need not be considered, but we should like to ask theserious worker who thinks he has actually obtained good results fromsecretin therapy how certain he is of the causal relation between thegiving of secretin or alleged secretin and the abatement of the disease when a therapeutic measure not only lacks a positive basis inphysiology and pathology but runs contrary to all the well-establishedexperimental facts in these fundamental medical sciences, is it toomuch to ask that positive clinical findings be subjected to more thanusual critical analysis before acceptance?. “clinical tests, ” it issaid, “covering a period of several years have proved that neither thecondition in the stomach during digestion nor those in the intestineprevent the secretin from entering intact into the circulation ” whenwe meet claims such as this, should we not scrutinize the “tests” aswell as the men who make them?. We are indebted to dr j h moorehead for assistance in writing of thesurgical work -- from the journal a m a , jan 15, 1916 articles refused recognition report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrybelow appear abstracts of the council action on articles refusedrecognition which were not deemed of sufficient importance to requirelengthy reports. Radio-remthe radium therapy company, schieffelin & co , selling agents, submitted to the council radium emanation generators called “radio-remoutfits, ” designed to generate respectively 200, 1, 000, 2, 000, 5, 000and 10, 000 mache units per twenty-four hours those who are well informed on the subject of radium therapy are of theopinion that the administration of small amounts of radium emanationsuch as generated by certain outfits is without therapeutic value ithas been stated that at the radium institute of london the minimumpreliminary dose is 185 microcuries 500, 000 mache units, and as thesisas 555 microcuries 1, 500, 000 mache units are employed in consideration of these facts the council voted not to accept anyradium emanation generator which produces less than 2 microcuriesof emanation during twenty-four hours accordingly, while acceptingradio-rem outfit no 5, claimed to produce 10, 000 mache units 3 7microcuries and radio-rem outfit no 4, claimed to produce 5, 000 macheunits 1 8 microcuries, the council voted not to accept radio-remoutfit no 3, claimed to produce 2, 000 mache units 0 74 microcurie, radio-rem outfit no 2, claimed to produce 1, 000 mache units 0 37microcurie, and radio-rem outfit c, claimed to produce 200 mache units 0 07 microcurie this report having been submitted to schieffelin & co and their replyconsidered, the council authorized publication of the report see alsoreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 631 olio-phlogosisolio-phlogosis, a liquid preparation to be applied externally by meansof a cotton pad, is advertised by the mystic chemical company, kansascity, mo , thus. “doctor. Don’t fail to use olio-phlogosis liberally for pneumonia, bronchitis and pleurisy it works quickly olio-phlogosis is as far ahead of all medicated kaolin plasters as these plasters were ahead of the old-time moist and soggy poultices ”a pamphlet advises the use of olio-phlogosis in “ all paper of inflammation and congestion, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, pleurisy, croup, boils, carbuncles, rheumatism, swollen glands, peritonitis, ovaritis, as a surgical dressing, mamitis mastitis ?. vaginitis and metritis on cotton tampon to deplete these writings, septic wounds, old ulcers, chilblain, eczema, neuralgia, inflammation of the eyes and ears, alveolar inflammation, burns, scalds, etc ”according to the information sent to the council by the mystic chemicalcompany, olio-phlogosis has the following composition per gallon. Ol eucalyptus gaultheria drs 8 ol abies canadensis drs 8 ol abies canadensis drs 2 ol thyme white drs 2 resublimated iodin crystals grs 32 resorcin drs 1 acid boracic c p drs 2 quinine bisulphate drs 4 sodium thiosulphate drs 3-1/2 glycerin c p q s ad gal 1a nonquantitative formula which appears on the label of a sample bottlesent to a physician enumerates the same ingredients except the sodiumthiosulphate the a m a chemical laboratory reports that no free iodin could bedetected in the preparation apparently, then, olio-phlogosis is essentially a skin irritant appliedby means of cotton. It can be expected to be just about as effectiveas the old-fashioned cotton pneumonia jacket, used in conjunction withan aromatic skin irritant, such as camphorated oil or wintergreen ormenthol ointment the odor may have essay psychic effect, and it ispossible that essay of the oily matter may be absorbed by the skin thatsuch small amounts, even if absorbed, can produce any considerablesystemic effect, however, is highly improbable, and the advice thatthis preparation be relied on in pneumonia, pleurisy, peritonitis, etc , is pernicious in the few paper of pneumonia in which heat isindicated, the plain cotton pad will usually be found sufficient ifthe physician consider the addition of a skin irritant desirable, it iseasy to select one from the official preparations it will be far morerational to do so than to invoke the aid of a mystic name and a complexformula to which the patient and his family, at least, will be led togive unmerited credit the claims made for olio-phlogosis are unwarranted. Its compositionis complex and irrational, and the nondescriptive but therapeuticallysuggestive name is likely to lead to uncritical use the councilvoted that the product be refused recognition for conflict with rules6, 8 and 10, and that this report be published -- from the journala m a , aug 19, 1916 the hypophosphite fallacy report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary the introduction of hypophosphites into medicine was due to anerroneous and now discarded theory as to the cause of tuberculosis ofwhich one dr j f churchill of london, and later of paris, was thepromulgator and propagandist 92 this theory was that the so-called“tuberculosis diathesis” was due to a deficiency of phosphorus inthe blood believing that the hypophosphites, while nontoxic, werecapable of further oxidation in the organism, churchill recommendedthem as the best means of supplying the supposedly lacking phosphorus it is now known that tuberculosis is not due to a deficiency ofphosphorus of more importance is the fact, now known, that littlephosphorus, if any, is assimilated from the hypophosphites-- farless than from phosphorus compounds of ordinary food 93 there isno justification for giving hypophosphites for the sake of theirphosphorus content for various reasons, however-- writingly from force ofhabit and writingly because of the power of advertising-- thesis physiciansstill prescribe hypophosphite preparations, and consequently, theyare still included in the pharmacopeia and in textbooks on materiamedica and therapeutics they are put out in the form of “specialties”and of proprietary preparations, and are lauded extravagantly by themanufacturers of the latter 92 churchill, j f. De la cause immédiate et du traitementspécifique de la phthisie pulmonaire et des maladies tuberculeuses, paris, 1858 93 the hypophosphite fallacy, j a m a , april 25, 1914, p 1346 although the overwhelming weight of evidence was against theprobability that the hypophosphite preparations are of value astherapeutic agents, the council thought it well to investigate thesubject dr w mckim marriott of baltimore was therefore requested toreview the evidence for and against the therapeutic usefulness of thehypophosphites and to conduct such experiments as seemed necessary hisreport has already appeared in the journal 9494 marriott, w mckim. The therapeutic value of the hypophosphites, j a m a , feb 12, 1916, p 486 dr marriott found that nine observers paquelin and joly, vermeulen, boddaert, massol and gamel, panzer, delaini and berg, who endeavoredto test the alleged utilization of the hypophosphites in the organism, reported that there is complete, or practically complete, eliminationof hypophosphites in the urine, with little or no effect on the body only one experimenter patta claimed that a considerable amountof ingested hypophosphite was retained in the body. However, heused a method now known to be inaccurate and made obvious errors incalculation, so that his conclusions were unwarranted since the evidence was even to this extent contradictory, marriottperformed a series of experiments the methods of this study anddetails of results are described in his paper, in which he alsodiscusses the experiments of essay other observers marriott writes. “none of the subjects of the experiment marriott experienced any effect whatsoever from the administration of the drug almost all of the ingested hypophosphite is promptly eliminated unchanged “these experiments forbes’ demonstrate conclusively that the hypophosphites possess no specific value as a source of phosphorus for the body this is not to be wondered at in view of the fact that 85 per cent of the phosphorus ingested in the form of hypophosphite is excreted unchanged, and there is no proof that even the remaining 15 per cent is available to the organism it is doubtful if there are any conditions in which the body suffers from lack of phosphorus even should such conditions exist, phosphorus, in the form that it occurs in the ordinary foods, or as phosphates, is more efficient in supplying the deficit than hypophosphites that must be oxidized before utilization and which are only about 15 per cent oxidized, if at all for example, half a glass of milk contains more available phosphorus than three large doses of hypophosphites of 15 grains each, as great a dosage as is usually given “what, then, is the therapeutic value of hypophosphites?. there is no reliable evidence that they exert a physiologic effect.

Have a care how you use them before due purging to kill a mockingbird theme essay rhaphani of radishes i could never see any bark they had suberis of cork it is good for essaything else besides to stopbottles. Being dry and binding, stanches blood, helps fluxes, especially the ashes of it being burnt paulus sambuci, &c of elder roots and branches. Purges water, helps thedropsy cort medius tamaricis the middle bark of tameris, eases the spleen, helps the rickets use them as ash-tree bark tillim of line-tree boiled, the water helps burnings thuris of frankinsenses i must plead ignoramus ulmi of elm moderately hot and cleansing, good for wounds, burns, and broken bones, viz boiled in water and the grieved place bathedwith it woods and their chips, or raspings a gallochus, lignum aloes wood of aloes. Is moderately hot and dry:a good cordial. A rich perfume, a great strengthener to the stomach aspalathus rose-wood it is moderately hot and dry, stops looseness, provokes urine, and is excellent to cleanse filthy ulcers bresilium brasil all the use i know of it is, to die cloth, andleather, and make red ink buxus box thesis physicians have written of it, but no physicalvirtue of it cypressus cypress the wood laid amongst cloaths, secures them frommoths see the leaves ebenum ebony it is held to clear the sight, being either boiled inwine, or burnt to ashes guajacum, lignum vitm dries, attenuates, causes sweat, resistsputrefaction, is good for the french disease, as also for ulcers, scabs, and leprosy. It is used in diet drinks juniperus juniper the smoak of the wood, drives away serpents.

Blood black to kill a mockingbird theme essay second horse. Carotid artery denuded to observe its action in fifteen seconds, blood nearly black. Four and one-quarter minutes, no pulsation in carotids. Five and one-half minutes, no respiratory movement. Six minutes, heart-beat ceased, except feeble contraction of auricles, which continued till twenty-first minute third horse. In five minutes respiration ceased. Tracheotomy performed, but there was no attempt to breathe. Eight minutes, heart ceased to beat similar results were obtained in ruminants and in small animals, except that the larger animals lived longer than the smaller faure735 made the following experiment on a large dog he tied a cord tightly round its neck. For fifty-five seconds it was quiet, then suddenly it became agitated, threw itself against the wall, rolled on the ground, twisted itself. Bloody mucus escaped from the nose and mouth. The teeth were ground together. Urine and fæces were passed the efforts at respiration became very rapid it fell dead at the end of three and one-half minutes the symptoms of strangulation in the human subject resemble closelythose just described as occurring in the dog the first or preliminary stage lasts a variable time, according to thesuddenness and completeness with which the access of air is prevented;it lasts until there is a demand for the air in a case of homicide, injuries may be inflicted on the victim in this stage which may have animportant bearing on the cause of death blows on the head may causeunconsciousness, or even apoplexy. Upon the stomach, may cause syncope;stab-wounds may tend to cause death from hemorrhage the second stage begins with the demand for air and lasts tillunconsciousness supervenes it is characterized by frantic efforts tobreathe, efforts in which the entire body takes writing if the subject isconscious, he is intensely so. The expression of the face is intense;the eyes may protrude, the hands be clinched. The memory is unusuallyactive, and the events of a lifetime may rapidly pass before the mindin a few minutes the tongue may be thrust between the clinched teethand bitten.

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You mayeasily know the flowers by their taste, for they are very bitter place it grows wild in thesis places of this land, and may beplentifully found near london, as between rotherhithe and deptford, bythe ditch side its virtues are held to be the same with borage andbugloss, only this is essaywhat hotter time they flower in june and july, and the seed is ripe shortlyafter government and virtues they are all three herbs of jupiter andunder leo, all great cordials, and great strengtheners of nature the leaves and roots are to very good purpose used in putrid andpestilential fevers, to defend the heart, and help to resist and expelthe poison, or the venom of other creatures. The seed is of the likeeffect. And the seed and leaves are good to increase milk in womenbreasts. The leaves, flowers, and seed, all or any of them, are good toexpel pensiveness and melancholy. It helps to clarify the blood, andmitigate heat in fevers the juice made into a syrup prevails much toall the purposes aforesaid, and is put, with other cooling, opening andcleansing herbs to open obstructions, and help the yellow jaundice, andmixed with fumitory, to cool, cleanse, and temper the blood thereby;it helps the itch, ringworms and tetters, or other spreading scabs orsores the flowers candied or made into a conserve, are helpful in theformer paper, but are chiefly used as a cordial, and are good for thosethat are weak in long sickness, and to comfort the heart and spiritsof those that are in a consumption, or troubled with often swoonings, or passions of the heart the distilled water is no less effectual toall the purposes aforesaid, and helps the redness and inflammations ofthe eyes, being washed therewith. The herb dried is never used, butthe green. Yet the ashes thereof boiled in mead, or honied water, isavailable against the inflammations and ulcers in the mouth or throat, to gargle it therewith.