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Which shews the wonderful mystery the all-wisegod hath made in the creation, that one and the same simple shouldperform two contrary operations on the same writing of the body. For themore a medicine cleanses, the more it conglutinates to conclude then, pectoral medicines are such as either cut and cleanseout the compacted humours from the arteries of the lungs, or make thindefluxions thick, or temper those that are sharp, help the roughness ofthe wind-pipe, or are generally lenitive and softening, being outwardlyapplied to the breast chapter iii of medicines appropriated to the heart these are they which are generally given under the notion of cordials;take them under that name here the heart is the seat of the vital spirit, the fountain of life, theoriginal of infused heat, and of the natural affections of man so then these two things are proper to the heart 1 by its heat to cherish life throughout the body 2 to add vigour to the affections and if these be proper to the heart, you will easily grant me, thatit is the property of cordials to administer to the heart in thesewritingiculars of cordials, essay cheer the mind, essay strengthen the heart, andrefresh the spirits thereof, being decayed those which cheer the mind, are not one and the same. For as the heartis variously disturbed, either by anger, love, fear, hatred, sadness, &c so such things as flatter lovers or appease the angry, or comfortthe fearful, or please the hateful, may well be called cordials. Forthe heart, seeing it is placed in the middle between the brain and theliver, is wrought upon by reason, as well as by digestion, yet these, because they are not medicines, are beside my present scope and although it is true, that mirth, love, &c are actions, or motionsof the mind, not of the body. Yet thesis have been induced to think suchaffections may be wrought in the body by medicines the heart is chiefly afflicted by too much heat, by poison, andby stinking vapours, and these are remedied by the second sort ofcordials, and indeed chiefly belong to our present scope according to these three afflictions, viz 1 excessive heat 2 poison 3 melancholy vapours are three kinds of remedies which succour the afflicted heart such as 1 by their cooling nature mitigate the heat of fevers 2 resist poison 3 cherish the vital spirits when they languish all these are called cordials 1 such as cool the heart in fevers, yet is not every thing thatcooleth cordial, for lead is colder than gold, yet is not lead cordialas gold is, essay hold it cordial by a hidden quality, others by reason 2 such as resist poison. There is a two-fold resisting of poison 1 by an antipathy between the medicine and poison 2 by a sympathy between the medicine and the heart of the first we shall speak anon, in a chapter by itself the latterbelongs to this chapter, and they are such medicines, whose nature isto strengthen the heart, and fortify it against the poison, as rue, angelica, &c for as the operation of the former is upon the poison, which afflicteth the heart, so the operation of the latter is upon theheart afflicted by the poison to this class may be referred all such medicines as strengthen theheart either by astral influence, or by likeness of substance, if therebe such a likeness in medicines, for a bullock heart is of likesubstance to man, yet i question whether it be cordial or not 3 and lastly, such as refresh the spirits, and make them lively andactive, both because they are appropriated to the office, and alsobecause they drive stinking and melancholy vapours from the heart, foras the animal spirit be refreshed by fragrant smells, and the naturalspirits by spices, so are the vital spirits refreshed by all suchmedicines as keep back melancholy vapours from the heart, as borrage, bugloss, rosemary, citron pills, the compositions of them, and thesisothers, which this treatise will amply furnish you with chapter iv of medicines appropriated to the stomach by stomach, i mean that ventricle which contains the food till it beconcocted into chyle medicines appropriated to the stomach are usually called stomachicals the infirmities usually incident to the stomach are three 1 appetite lost 2 digestion weakened 3 the retentive faculty corrupted when the appetite is lost, the man feels no hunger when his body needsnourishment when digestion is weakened it is not able to concoct the meat receivedinto the stomach, but it putrifies there when the retentive faculty is spoiled the stomach is not able to retainthe food till it be digested, but either vomits it up again, or causesfluxes such medicines then as remedy all these, are called stomachicals andof them in order 1 such as provoke appetite are usually of a sharp or sourish taste, and yet withal of a grateful taste to the palate, for although loss ofappetite may proceed from divers causes, as from choler in the stomach, or putrefied humours or the like, yet such things as purge this choleror humours, are properly called orecticks, not stomachicals. Theformer strengthen appetite after these are expelled 2 such medicines help digestion as strengthen the stomach, either byconvenient heat, or aromatic viz spicy faculty, by hidden property, or congruity of nature 3 the retentive faculty of the stomach is corrected by bindingmedicines, yet not by all binding medicines neither, for essay of themare adverse to the stomach, but by such binding medicines as areappropriated to the stomach for the use of these use 1 use not such medicines as provoke appetite before you havecleansed the stomach of what hinders it use 2 such medicines as help digestion, give them a good time beforemeat that so they may pass to the bottom of the stomach, for thedigestive faculty lies there, before the food come into it use 3 such as strengthen the retentive faculty, give them a littlebefore meat, if to stay fluxes, a little after meat, if to stayvomiting chapter v of medicines appropriated to the liver be pleased to take these under the name of hepatics, for that is theusual name physicians give them, and these also are of three sorts 1 essay the liver is delighted in 2 others strengthen it 3 others help its vices the palate is the seat of taste, and its office is to judge what foodis agreeable to the stomach, and what not, by that is both the qualityand quantity of food for the stomach discerned.

”in addition to this booklet there is a four-page advertisingleaflet illustrating and describing the “ogden rectal cabinet” andalso the “ogden rectal table and stool ” there is also a littlepostcard-- addressed, of course, to “h l roberts”-- for the physicianto fill in stating that “you may enroll me as intending title of book in essay to attend dr ogden clinic in proctology, to be held at-- -- ” should the recipientnot fill in and mail this enrolment card he gets another form lettercalling attention to the fact that the enrolment card has not beenreceived and stating further that “available hotel facilities make itnecessary to limit our enrolment to twenty students ”careful search fails to disclose that dr willard ealon ogden has everdistinguished himself in the practice of the specialty in which he nowwishes to instruct physicians equally careful search fails to showthat dr ogden has ever published a paper either on any proctologicsubjects or on any other phase of medicine or surgery neither doesthere seem to be any evidence for the claim that dr ogden “has beenassociated with the leading proctologists of america ”-- from thejournal a m a , feb 4, 1922 “patents” patent laws and patent office practicethe inequity of our patent laws, or possibly it would be more correctto say, of the interpretation of our patent laws, has been commented onthesis times in the journal the journal also has had occasion to callattention to patents that have been issued for obviously unscientificand quackish devices and preparations the paper of the preposterousgas-pipe fake “oxydonor” and the creatinin mixture for the allegedconferring of immunity against diphtheria, pneumonia, scarlet fever, syphilis, tuberculosis, etc , are paper in point in a patent issued the early writing of this year for the “discovery” ofa method of flavoring epsom salt, the patent office has, in fatuity, piled pelion on ossa the “inventor” declares that his inventionrelates to a pharmaceutical preparation and a special method oftreatment of the medicinal agents whereby said agent will be renderedmuch more efficient in character he further avows that the “primeobject” of his “invention” is to “disguise the normal taste and imwritingan agreeable odor or smell to salts commonly employed as a cathartic ”parenthetically it may be said that probably not a day passes thatessay physician in the united states does not do substantially the samething when writing a prescription the “inventor” further claims thatthe object of his “invention” is to utilize the salts as a vehicleto carry an antiseptic and anesthetic agent whereby the salts whenadministered as a cathartic “will also act beneficially on the entiredigestive tract” and “whereby cramped and spasmodic conditions are atonce relieved with a resulting cure of flatulency, indigestion, sickand sour stomach, colic and the destruction of worms, etc ”such claims are so absurd that the only excuse for commenting onthem is the effect they have on the public mind the layman readingthe specifications of this patent would naturally conclude that aninvention of great importance had been made-- of such importance as towarrant the government in rewarding its inventor by granting him aseventeen-year monopoly on the sale of his invention the law requires that, to be patentable, inventions shall be new anduseful and shall show a higher degree of skill in their inception thanis naturally to be expected from those who are skilled in the arts towhich the inventions belong it has been decided again and again thatphysicians’ prescriptions are not patentable because it is assumedthat an educated physician will utilize his knowledge of pharmacy indevising proper compounds of medicines to meet the indications ofdisease when a physician prescribes a dose of epsom salt to be takenin one of the official aromatic waters, he does not produce or create anew invention by so doing of course, in one sense every prescriptionis an invention-- an invention to meet the conditions presented by thepatient-- but such inventions are not patentable, because they representthe ordinary skill of a physician in carrying on his vocation if the patent office goes on granting patents for such “inventions” asflavored epsom salt, and it should be found financially profitable tosecure such patents and place the products on the market, it will onlybe a matter of time before the materia medica will be so restrictedthat a physician will be unable to write a prescription withoutinfringing on essaybody patent the splendid conception of the framers of our constitution in providinga plan for promoting progress in science and useful arts by grantingto inventors for a limited time the exclusive use of their inventions, in exchange for the publication of full knowledge thereof, is beingdebased no branch of our government is of greater importance to theprogress of the country than the patent office, provided that office isintelligently administered when the patent office is used, however, for an extention of the nostrum business, founded on the abuse ofpatent and trade-mark laws, it becomes a menace to the public health the objects of the patent law are being defeated by the practices ofthe patent office -- editorial from the journal a m a , june 23, 1917 our archaic patent lawsin this issue we publish two reports of the council on pharmacy andchemistry which illustrate the weaknesses of the present working of theunited states patent laws in the first report the council presentsan investigation of a recently granted patent, and shows that thepatent was issued on the mere claims of the applicant and without thepresentation of any evidence for such claims the second report-- “needfor patent law revision”-- is an appeal to the patent office for amore enlightened administration of the patent law, and it presents afew illustrations of the unfair protection which has been granted bythe patent office the protest of the council appears at an opportunetime in science299 the “patent office society, ” an associationof employees of the u s patent office, announces that a committeehas been created on request of the national research council to makea study of the u s patent office and its service to science andarts it states that this committee will meet in washington shortlyto consider the adequacy of the present patent office equipment andthe simplification of procedure as well as responsiveness to presentnational and international requirements the committee also hopesto coordinate, in the interest of an improved public service, theendeavors of the various national societies, manufacturing interests, patent bar associations and all others aiming at genuine patent reform unquestionably, there is a growing conviction that in the case ofmedicines the monopoly given by the patent laws, if granted at all, should be granted with greater consideration of the public welfare too often the united states patent law has been used to obtain anunfair monopoly on a medicament or to abet quackery there is noquestion that one of two things is needed. Either a radical changein the patent law itself or the application of more brains in itsadministration -- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 12, 1918 299 dec 28, 1917, p 629 patents perpetuated by trade namesthe patent on aspirin300 acetylsalicylic acid, controlled bythe bayer company, american representative of the farbenfabriken ofelberfeld company, will expire next year 1917 the journal haspreviously stated that the grant of this patent was regrettable andworked injustice to american citizens it is unnecessary again to gointo the grounds for this statement. Neither in the farbenfabrikenhome country, gerthesis, nor in any other country except in the unitedstates, has a patent been granted for this product owing to theirmonopoly, the manufacturers have been able to exact a much higherprice for acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, in this country, thanelsewhere naturally, the bayer company, the american agents, view withdisfavor the prospect of being compelled to share this rich field withcompetitors the foregoing furnishes the answer to inquiries which havereached us from all over the country with regard to the campaign ofpublicity which the bayer company has inaugurated in the lay press apresumably authentic and apparently candid exposition of the methodsused and the motives behind the aspirin advertising is furnished inprinters’ ink:301300 granted feb 27, 1900 301 printers’ ink, june 29, 1916, p 189. July 13, 1916, p 100 “the manufacturers of aspirin are about to launch an extensive advertising campaign to clinch the market as far as possible before the expiration of their patent rights next year the purpose of the campaign is to identify the product with the trademark of the bayer company and to this extent hamper competition after the expiration of the patent ”the business of the bayer company, the article goes on to say, has beenhurt by the sale of worthless or even harmful imitations put on themarket by irresponsible and unauthorized persons when the present warstopped importations from gerthesis “the public knew aspirin, but did not know who made it italics ours when the bayer company, inc , took over the manufacture of aspirin in this country, the first steps were taken to identify the product with the firm who made it of course, there are good reasons why the makers were loth to advertise the product or to exploit their trademark as every one knows, the advertising of a medical proposition is an extremely ticklish subject it is easy to make a misstep aspirin is one of those proprietary drugs that are extensively prescribed by physicians if anything were done that might possibly associate this drug with the patent medicines that are in disfavor with the profession, the valuable influence and cooperation of thousands of doctors might be lost it is believed that this knotty phase of the question is being answered in the present advertising since nothing is mentioned about ‘medicine, ’ ‘cures’ or ‘ailments, ’ it is anticipated that there will be but little objection to the copy all that the advertising attempts to do is to link up the name ‘bayer’ with aspirin the nearest the copy gets to medical talk is in this sentence in very small type at the bottom of the advertisement, ‘the trademark “aspirin” reg u s patent office is a guarantee that the monoacetic acid ester of salicylic acid in these tablets is of the reliable bayer manufacture ’”from this it appears that, not content with seventeen years ofmonopoly, the aspirin people are attempting to retain a hold onthe market in perpetuo by associating the name of the companywith the trade name “aspirin ” there can be no better time than thepresent, therefore, for the medical profession to substitute, forthe nondescriptive name “aspirin, ” the descriptive and correct nameacetylsalicylic acid -- editorial from the journal a m a , aug 12, 1916 patenting therapeutic agentsin the past, therapeutic agents and apparatus have been controlledby patents and trademarks for profit if there have been exceptions, they have been rare the principles of medical ethics of the americanmedical association contain this statement. “it is unprofessionalto receive remuneration from patents for surgical instruments ormedicines ” this does not mean that the patenting is wrong in itself;there are occasions when it is wise, if not necessary, to obtain apatent in the interest of the public, and, in the case of surgicalinstruments and medicines, of the medical profession in certaininstances it is absolutely necessary that the article produced shallmaintain a definite standard of quality and purity-- and, it may beadded, shall be sold at a reasonable price enterprising pharmaceuticalmanufacturers have usually been ready to appropriate the results ofscientific research by investigators or therapeutic measures suggestedby practicing physicians not infrequently, in such instances, thedesire for financial gain has caused the marketing of such productswith extravagant, if not false, claims as to their value yet thepatent laws may be used so as to protect and benefit the public and themedical profession in research laboratories, work is being carried onresulting in the production of new therapeutic agents it is importantthat these agents shall be so controlled that they may be madeavailable without subordination to commercial interests it has becomepractically necessary, therefore, for research workers to protecttheir products in the interest of the public welfare and scientificmedicine it has not been an easy matter to decide how best to bringabout the desired results this question has been before the board oftrustees of the american medical association. And, in 1914, the houseof delegates passed a resolution authorizing the board to accept at itsdiscretion patents for medical and surgical instruments and appliances;as trustees, for the benefit of the profession and the public, provided that neither the association nor the patentee should receiveremuneration from these patents the rockefeller institute for medicalresearch has solved the problem in a similar manner in connection withthe report of the discovery of several new arsenic compounds, jacobsand heidelberger, 302 working in the rockefeller institute, say:302 jacobs, w a , and heidelberger, m. Aromatic arsenic compounds, ii, the amides and alkyl amides of n-- arylglycine arsonic acids, j am chem soc 41:1587 oct 1919 it may be appropriate to mention here that this substance and related compounds, described in the present and following papers of the series, are covered by u s patents nos 1280119-27 patents have also been applied for in foreign countries all discoveries made at the rockefeller institute are made freely available to the public, in accordance with the philanthropic purposes of the institution in order to insure purity of product and protection against exploitation, it has been deemed necessary in certain instances to protect the discoveries by patents it is the purpose of the institute to permit any drugs which may prove of practical therapeutic value to be manufactured under license by suitable chemical firms and under conditions of production which will insure the biological qualities of the drugs and their marketing at reasonable prices other than through the issuance of license, the rockefeller institute does not writingicipate in any way in the commercial preparation or sale of the manufactured chemicals. And it receives no royalties or other pecuniary benefits from the licenses it issues here we have medicine at its best the altruism of pure scienceoperating for the benefit of the general public. Scientifictherapeutics freed from commercial domination -- editorial from thejournal a m a , oct 18, 1919 pharmaceutical barnumsdoes the public love to be humbugged?. we doubt it that we, whethersage or fool, are humbugged is undeniable we are humbugged justto the extent that we are ignorant there lies one of the mostpowerful factors operating to the advantage of the “patent medicine”maker and the quack the layman ignorance of the possibilities andlimitations of drugs is wide and deep hence the ease with which heis fooled on this subject a seeming frankness in advertising beingthe order of the day, the nostrum maker makes a pretense of tellingwhat is in his stuff without disclosing any facts that will tend tolift the veil of mystery and thus destroy his greatest asset so theexploiter of nostrums to the medical profession, realizing that atleast a pretense must be made of giving the composition of medicamentsoffered to the physician, declares that his clay poultice has for itsbase “anhydrous and levigated argillaceous mineral ” this sounds muchmore imposing than dry and finely powdered clay, and satisfies by itsvery sonorousness now comes a product exploited chiefly to membersof the dental profession but also, it seems, to physicians tablets, “activated tablets, ” if you please!. they are “an anodyne, analgesicfebrifuge sedative, exorcising sic!. antineuralgic and antirheumaticaction ” and their composition?. simply “an activated, balancedcombination of the mono-acetyl-derivative of para-amidophenetoltogether with a feebly basic substance in the alkaloidal state from thethea-sinensis ” as clear as the missouri river!.

There was a brownish-red dry streak on each side of theneck in the laryngeal region corresponding to the handkerchief, andalso two small abrasions title of book in essay of skin which might have been made by thehands. He concluded, however, that she had been choked to death by thehandkerchief, because there were no ecchymoses 23 rehm. Friedreich blätter f ger med , 1883, xxxiv , pp 325-332 - woman, age 37 choked by the hand on the neck, and at thesame time assailant knee pressed against her abdomen, pressing heragainst a wall, causing hemorrhage around the pancreas death stated asdue to asphyxia 24 schüppel. Vier ger öff med , xiii , 1870, pp 140-156 - woman, just delivered of child, and boy ten years old, were burnt to death ina fire which consumed their house examination of the bodies showedupon the neck of the boy a groove, and his tongue protruded thehusband was charged with murder, was imprisoned, and committed suicide 25 weiss. Ibid , xxvii , 1877, pp 239-244 - woman strangulated bythe bands of her nightcap 26 isnard and dieu. Rev cas jud , paris, 1841, p 101 - man, age 65 marks of fingers on face and neck opinion that he had beenassaulted by two men the two murderers confessed 27 friedberg. Gericht gutacht , 1875, pp 211-224 - woman foundhanging to branch of tree, but in half-lying position, feet on ground opinion given that she had been strangled and then hung 26 tardieu. “pendaison, ” p 223 - new-born infant question whetherits death was due to asphyxia from compression of neck by the motherwith her hand to hasten delivery he doubted the possibility of themother thus assisting her child but the direction of the sevenexcoriations on its face contradicted the mother statement thetraces of finger-nails were distinct the lungs and alimentary canalshowed that the child had lived opinion given, infanticide 29 ibid , p 219 - woman, advanced in years, habits dissipated;found strangled four excoriations on left side of larynx, one onright. Blood in subcutaneous tissue marks of nails and long scratcheson wrist injuries on face and left breast she had been strangled byone hand on her neck while the other was over her mouth and nose facelivid. Eyes congested. Frothy bloody liquid flowing from mouth andnose.

Stretching and loosening are ascribed to the moveablewritings of the body, as to the muscles and their tendons, to theligaments and membranæ. But softness and hardness to such writingsof the body as may be felt with the hand. I shall make clear by asimilitude, wax is softened, being hard, but fiddle-strings areloosened being stretched and if you say that the difference lying onlyin the writings of the body is no true difference, then take notice, thatsuch medicines which loosen, are less hot, and more moistening, thansuch as soften, for they operate most by heat, these by moisture the truth is, i am of opinion the difference is not much, nay, scarcesensible, between emolient and loosening medicines. Only i quoted thisin a chapter by itself, not so much because essay authors do, as becauseit conduceth to the increase of knowledge in physic, for want of which, this poor nation is almost spoiled the chief use of loosening medicines is in convulsions and cramps, andsuch like infirmities which cause distention or stretching they are known by the very same marks and tokens that emolientmedicines are chapter iv of drawing medicines the opinion of physicians is, concerning these, as it is concerningother medicines, viz essay draw by a manifest quality, essay by ahidden, and so quoth they they draw to themselves both humours andthorns, or splinters that are gotten into the flesh. However this iscertain, they are all of them hot, and of thin writings. Hot because thenature of heat is to draw off thin writings that so they may penetrate tothe humours that are to to be drawn out their use is various, viz use 1 that the bowels may be disburdened of corrupt humours 2 outwardly used, by them the offending humour i should have said thepeccant humour, had i written only to scholars, is called from theinternal writings of the body to the superfices 3 by them the crisis of a disease is much helped forward 4 they are exceedingly profitable to draw forth poison out of the body 5 writings of the body over cooled are cured by these medicines, viz by applying them outwardly to the place, not only because they heat, but also because they draw the spirits by which life and heat arecherished, to the writing of the body which is destitute of them. Youcannot but know that thesis times writings of the body fall away in flesh, and their strength decays, as in essay persons arms or legs, or thelike, the usual reason is, because the vital spirit decays in thosewritings, to which use such plaisters or ointments as are attractive which is the physical term for drawing medicines for they do not onlycherish the writings by their own proper heat, but draw the vital andnatural spirits thither, whereby they are both quickened and nourished they are known almost by the same tokens that attenuating medicinesare, seeing heat. And thinness of writings is in them both, they differonly in respect of quantity, thinness of writings being most proper toattenuating medicines, but attractive medicines are hotter chapter v of discussive medicines the nature of discussing or sweating medicines is almost the samewith attractive, for there are no discussive medicines but areattractive, nor scarce any attractive medicine but is in essay measureor other discussing the difference then is only this. That discussivemedicines are hotter than attractive, and therefore nothing else needbe written of their nature use their use may be known even from their very name. For diseasesthat come by repletion or fulness, are cured by evacuation or emptying;yet neither blood nor gross humours are to be expelled by sweating, or insensible transpiration as they call it but the one requiresblood-letting, the other purgation, but scrosus or thin humours andfilthy vapours, and such like superfluities, are to be expelled bysweat, and be wary in this too, for thesis of them work violently, andviolent medicines are not rashly to be given caution 2 besides, swellings are essaytimes made so hard by sweatingmedicines, that afterwards they can never be cured. For what is thinbeing by such medicines taken away, nothing but what is perfectly hardremains. If you fear such a thing, mix emolients with them caut 3 again, essaytimes by using discussives, the humours offending which physicians usually call the peccant humours is driven to essaymore noble writing of the body, or else it draws more than it discusseth;in such paper, concoct and attenuate the matter offending before you goabout to discuss it from hence may easily be gathered at what time of the diseasediscussive medicines are to be used, viz about the declining of thedisease, although in diseases arising from heat of blood, we essaytimesuse them in the encrease and state of them they are known by the same marks and tokens attenuating medicines are, viz by their burning and biting quality, they being very hot, and ofthin writings, void of any biting quality, therefore they contract not thetongue in tasting of them chapter vi of repelling medicines repelling medicines are of contrary operation to these three lastmentioned, viz attenuating, drawing, and discussive medicines. It istrue, there is but little difference between these three, essay holdnone at all. And if you will be so nice, you may oppose them thus andso medicines making thick, correspond to attenuating medicines, or suchas make thin, repelling medicines are opposed to such as draw, and suchas retain the humours and make them tough, are opposite to such asdiscuss, essay hold this niceness needless 2 the sentence of authors about repulsive medicines is various for seeing an influxion may be caused thesis ways, a repulsive hath gotas thesis definitions for such things as cool, bind, stop, and make thick, stay influxions, and therefore repulsives are by authors opposed, not only toattractives, but also to attenuating, and discussing medicines but properly such things are called repulsives, which do not only stayinfluxions, for so do such medicines which stop and make thick butsuch as drive the humours flowing to, or inherit in the place, to essayother place the truth is, binding is inherent to repulsives, so is not coldness normaking thick. Yet such as are binding, cold and thin in operation, aremost effectual your taste will find repulsives to be, tart, or sharp, or austere, witha certain binding which contracts the tongue use 1 their use is manifold, as in hot tumours, head-aches, or thelike use 2 by these in fevers are the vapours driven from the head, vinegar of roses is notable time of giving they are most commodious in the beginning andencrease of a disease, for then influxions most prevail but seeing that in the cure of tumours there are two scopes, 1 thatthat which flows to it may be repelled 2 that that which is alreadyin it may be discussed. Repulsives are most commodiously used in thebeginning, discussives in the latter end in the middle you may mix them, with this proviso, that repulsivesexceed in the beginning, discussives in the latter end caution 1 if the matter offending be of a venomous quality, eitherabstain from repulsives altogether, or use purging first, lest thematter fly to the bowels and prove dangerous, especially if the bowelsbe weak 2 also forbear repulsives, if the pain be great 3 lastly, have a care lest by repulsives you contract the pores somuch, that the matter cannot be removed by discussives chapter vii of cleansing medicines cleansing medicines can neither be defined by heat, nor coldness, because essay of both sorts cleanse a cleansing medicine, then, is of a terrene quality, which takes awaythe filth with it, and carries it out definition here, to avoid confusion, a difference must be madebetween washing and cleansing a thing which washeth, carries away by fluxion, as a man washeth thedirt off from a thing a cleansing medicine by a certain roughness or nitrous quality, carriesaway the compacted filth with it this also is the difference between cleansing and discussing medicines, the one makes thick humours thin, and so scatters them, but a cleansingmedicine takes the most tenacious humour along with it, without anyalteration besides, of cleansing medicines, essay are of a gentler nature, essay aremore vehement these are not known one and the same way. For essay are sweet, essaysalt, and essay bitter the use of cleansing is external, as the use of purges are internal they are used to cleanse the sanies and other filth of ulcers, yea, andto consume and eat away the flesh itself, as burnt alum, precipitate, &c when these must be used, not only the effects of the ulcers, but alsothe temperature of the body will tell you for if you see either a disease of fulness, which our physicians callplethora or corrupted humours which they call cacochyma youmust empty the body of these, viz fulness by bleeding, and corrupthumours, or evil state of the body, by purging before you use cleansingmedicines to the ulcer, else your cure will never proceed prosperously chapter viii of emplasters by emplasters, here, i do mean things glutinative, and they are quitecontrary to things cleansing they are of a far more glutinous and tenacious substance they differ from things stopping because they do not stop the pores somuch, as stick to them like birdlime they have a certain glutinous heat, tempered both with coldness andmoisture from these plasters take their names their taste is either none at all, or not discernable whether hot orcold, but fat, insipid, or without taste, or sweet, and viscous infeeling their use is to stop flowing of blood, and other fluxes, to causesuppuration, to continue the heat, that so tumours may be ripened also they are mixed with other medicines, that they may the better bebrought into the form of an emplaster, and may stick the better to themembers chapter ix of suppuring medicines these have a great affinity with emolients, like to them intemperature, only emolients are essaywhat hotter yet is there a difference as apparent as the sun when he is upon themeridian, and the use is manifest for, emolients are to make hard things soft, but what suppures, rather makesa generation than an alteration of the humour natural heat is the efficient cause of suppuration, neither can it bedone by any external means therefore such things are said to suppure, which by a gentle heatcherish the inbred heat of man this is done by such medicines which are not only temperate in heat, but also by a gentle viscosity, fill up or stop the pores, that so theheat of the writing affected be not scattered for although such things as bind hinder the dissipation of the spirits, and internal heat, yet they retain not the moisture as suppuringmedicines properly and especially do the heat then of suppuring medicines is like the internal heat of ourbodies as things then very hot, are ingrateful either by biting, as pepper, or bitterness.

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” “bernoulli, ” page 287 the statement of such a luminary of the church as gregory of tours hasundoubtedly gained ecclestiastical credence for the medical efficacynot only of the tomb of st martin, but of all the relics relating tothat saint it remained only to distribute the superior medical powerwhich was contained in the holy tombs and relics in such a form aswould enable all patients, wherever they happened to be, to make use ofthem this task, apparently most difficult, was settled very easily it was discovered that everything which came in contact with a relicactually absorbed a sacred and miraculous power contained in the same, and what had been absorbed was by no means imponderable quite thecontrary essaything of material substance, and, therefore, physicallydemonstrable, passed from the relic into the objects surrounding it it was indeed a celestial fluid, but, nevertheless, of so terrestriala nature that the priests were able to demonstrate its transferenceby means of a common pair of scales thus it was customary that thesilk shreds which were deposited by the pilgrims upon the tomb of theapostle peter were weighed before they were placed there and weighedagain after their removal this weighing always and without exceptionindicated a considerable increase in their weight the pilgrim thencould travel homeward and be thoroughly consoled, as the scale haddemonstrated to him the amount of miraculous power contained in hissilk rag it was really astonishing, under essay circumstances, whatan enormous amount of curative fluid could flow from such a holy tombinto a single terrestrial object this was what happened to a king ofthe suavians he had a sick son, for whose cure every remedy had provedunavailing he at last sent an embassy to tours to obtain a relic ofst martin, but this relic was destined to be manufactured with theassistance of the embassy the priests were quite willing to complywith the desire of their royal petitioner, and thus a piece of silk, duly weighed beforehand, was placed upon the tomb of st martin afterthis silk had remained for one night upon the holy sepulchre, and theembassy had knelt beside praying fervently, the silk absorbed so muchcurative power that the register of the scale was raised to its highestpossible notch knowing, then, that any desired object could be saturated with themiraculous power contained in a relic, they used to apply thiscelestial power through medicaments, and to accomplish this a numberof methods were in use the most popular was to scrape the tombstoneson the graves of the saints as thoroughly as possible the powderthus obtained was then put into water or wine, and thus a medicinewas acquired which possessed an astonishing curative power it wasefficacious even in the severest ailments of the body let us listen towhat gregory of tours has reported concerning the medicinal virtues ofsuch tombstone potions he says. “oh, indescribable mixture, incomparable elixir, antidotebeyond all praise!. celestial purgative if i may be permitted touse the expression, which throws into the shade every medicalprescription, which surpasses in fragrance every earthly aroma, andis more powerful than all essences. Which purges the body like thejuice of scammony, clears the lungs like hyssop, and the head likesneezewort. Which not only cures the ailing limbs, but also, and thisis much more valuable, washes off the stains from the conscience!.