History

Title Of An Essay


“hartung digifolin merits our attention, especially because it seems to possess all the pharmacodynamic properties of galenic preparations of digitalis without showing any of their disadvantages ”this claim scarcely needs comment, since it is well established thatthe chief “disadvantages” of digitalis are inherent in the principleswhich produce the desired effects of digitalis and may be avoidedto a large extent by a carefully regulated dosage of any digitalispreparation in short, the advertising for digifolin asserts that thisdigitalis preparation has all the advantages of digitalis itself, butnone of its disadvantages this claim has been refuted so frequentlythat manufacturers must be aware that it is untenable further theclaims now made for digifolin are essentially those made nearly fouryears ago at which time the attention of the american agent was calledto their unwarranted character the council declared digifolin-ciba inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies because the therapeutic claims advanced for it are misleadingand unwarranted -- from the journal a m a , april 2, 1921 essay of loeser intravenous solutions report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized the publication of the following reporton “loeser intravenous solution of hexamethylenamin, ” “loeserintravenous solution of hexamethylenamin and sodium iodid, ” “loeserintravenous solution of sodium salicylate, ” “loeser intravenoussolution of salicylate and iodid, ” “loeser intravenous solution ofsodium iodid” and “loeser intravenous solution of mercury bichlorid, ”put out by the new york intravenous laboratory, inc w a puckner, secretary the intravenous solutions of “hexamethylenamin, ” “hexamethylenaminand sodium iodid, ” “sodium salicylate, ” “sodium salicylate and sodiumiodid, ” “sodium iodid” and “mercuric chlorid” marketed by the new yorkintravenous laboratory, inc , are solutions of official substances soldunder their official names they would, therefore, be outside the scopeof the council, were it not that special and general therapeutic claimsare made for them such special claims, for instance, are contained inan advertisement in the illinois medical journal for oct 20, 1920, which gives, under the various drugs, a list of diseases in which thedrugs are said to be “indicated ” the council is unable to agree withessay of these recommendations the fundamental objection, however, isthe general claim of superiority and safety of the intravenous method the intravenous solutions named above would naturally have little saleif such special claims were not made for them while the claims may notbe made directly, they are carried by such display phrases as “for theprogressive physician seeking improved clinical results” and “a safepractical office technique ”the council continues to hold that intravenous medication, generally, is not as safe as oral medication even with relatively harmlesssubstances a fact again illustrated by the results of hanzlik andkarsner, 1920, journal pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 14, 379, and that it does not give “improved clinical results” exceptunder rather narrowly confined circumstances-- namely, if the drugundergoes decomposition in the alimentary tract, if it is not absorbed, if it causes serious direct local reaction or if time is an urgentelement each intravenous preparation for which advantage over oraladministration is claimed, directly or by implication, must be examinedfrom these points of view the council has recognized intravenous preparations which satisfiedthese requirements it is evident, however, that hexamethylenamin, sodium iodid and sodium salicylate do not when given orally they donot undergo material decomposition in the digestive tract, they arerapidly absorbed, they cause no direct local reaction, and in theconditions in which they are used the hour or so which is required forabsorption is immaterial, especially as they are used continuously foressay time mercuric chlorid does indeed produce essay local irritation, but there is as yet no convincing evidence that its intravenousinjection causes less injury than oral administration more experienceunder controlled conditions is needed before the intravenous use ofmercuric chlorid can be approved especially objectionable are thefixed proportion mixtures of sodium iodid with sodium salicylate andwith hexamethylenamin the dosage of all three drugs has to be adaptedto individual conditions this is impossible when giving them in fixedproportions the council voted not to accept “loeser intravenous solution ofhexamethylenamin, ” “loeser intravenous solution of hexamethylenaminand sodium iodid, ” “loeser intravenous solution of sodiumsalicylate, ” “loeser intravenous solution of salicylate and iodid, ”“loeser intravenous solution sodium iodid” and “loeser intravenoussolution of mercury bichlorid” for new and nonofficial remedies becausethey are sold under misleading claims regarding their alleged safetyand efficiency in view of this fundamental objection the individualclaims for each preparation were not passed on -- from the journala m a , april 16, 1921 “national iodine solution” not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary “national iodine solution” is a proprietary sold by the national drugco , philadelphia, pa from inquiries received by the council onpharmacy and chemistry it is evident that the product is extensivelybrought to the attention of physicians by means of circulars the nameimplies that it is a solution of iodin and the inference is given thatit has the advantages of iodin without the disadvantages compositionin view of the foregoing, the council took up the investigation of“national iodine solution, ” and in turn asked the a m a chemicallaboratory to analyze it the chemist report follows:according to the label of national iodine solution, “each fluidouncerepresents three grains proteo-albuminoid compound of iodin national”. Also an alcohol declaration of 7 per cent is made otherwise no information is given as to the composition either of the“solution” or of “proteo-albuminoid compound of iodine ”each bottle contained about 115 c c nearly 4 ounces of a yellowishsolution, acid in reaction, having an odor resembling witch hazel. Itsspecific gravity at 25 c was 0 9860 qualitative tests indicated thepresence of zinc, alcohol, sulphate, an iodin compound the solutiongave tests which indicated a very small amount of free iodin. Mostof the iodin was in the form of ordinary iodid, a small amount ofvegetable extractives, and traces of aluminum and potassium if anyprotein was present, it was in amounts too small to be identified, though a small amount of a nitrogenous compound was present the amountof solids in “national iodine solution” was equivalent to 0 72 percent, and the amount of ash, to 0 2 per cent quantitative estimationsyielded the following. Alcohol by volume 7 0 per cent zinc zn 0 096 per cent iodin free and combined 0 029 per cent sulphate so₄--    0 146 per cent protein n × 6 36 0 012 per cent the above findings indicate that each 100 c c contains about 7 c c ofalcohol, 0 5 gram of zinc sulphate u s p znso₄7h₂o , 0 03 gramof iodin, 0 01 gram of protein calculated as such from nitrogen timesthe factor 6 36 and essay hamamelis water expressed in equivalentapothecary terms, each fluidounce contains essentially.

Outwardly in unguents, and plaisters for outward as self-healis like bugle in form, so also in the qualities and virtues, servingfor all the purposes whereto bugle is applied to with good success, either inwardly or outwardly, for inward wounds or ulcers whatsoeverwithin the body, for bruises or falls, and such like hurts if it beaccompanied with bugle, sanicle, and other the like wound herbs, itwill be more effectual to wash or inject into ulcers in the writingsoutwardly where there is cause to repress the heat and sharpness ofhumours flowing to any sore, ulcers, inflammations, swellings, or thelike, or to stay the fluxes of blood in any wound or writing, this is usedwith essay good success. As also to cleanse the foulness of sores, andcause them more speedily to be healed it is an especial remedy for allgreen wounds, to solder the lips of them, and to keep the place frothesis further inconveniencies the juice hereof used with oil of roses toanoint the temples and forehead, is very effectual to remove head ache, and the same mixed with honey of roses, cleanses and heals all ulcers, in the mouth, and throat, and those also in the secret writings and theproverb of the germans, french, and others, is verified in this, thathe needs neither physician nor surgeon that hath self-heal andsanicle to help himself the service-tree it is so well known in the place where it grows, that it needs nodescription time it flowers before the end of may, and the fruit is ripe inoctober government and virtues services, when they are mellow, are fit tobe taken to stay fluxes, scouring, and casting, yet less than medlers if they be dried before they be mellow, and kept all the year, theymay be used in decoctions for the said purpose, either to drink, or tobathe the writings requiring it. And are profitably used in that manner tostay the bleeding of wounds, and of the mouth or nose, to be applied tothe forehead and nape of the neck. And are under the dominion of saturn shepherd purse it is called whoreman permacety, shepherd scrip, shepherd pounce, toy-wort, pickpurse, and casewort descript the root is small, white, and perishes every year theleaves are small and long, of a pale green colour, and deeply cut inon both sides, among which spring up a stalk which is small and round, containing small leaves upon it even to the top the flowers are whiteand very small. After which come the little paper which hold the seed, which are flat, almost in the form of a heart place they are frequent in this nation, almost by every path-side time they flower all the summer long. Nay essay of them are sofruitful, that they flower twice a year government and virtues it is under the dominion of saturn, and ofa cold, dry, and binding nature, like to him it helps all fluxes ofblood, either caused by inward or outward wounds. As also flux of thebelly, and bloody flux, spitting blood, and bloody urine, stops theterms in women.

The herb described usually grows uponheaths mosses i shall not trouble the reader with a description of these, since myintent is to speak only of two kinds, as the most principal, viz ground moss and tree moss, both which are very well known place the ground moss grows in our moist woods, and at the bottomof hills, in boggy grounds, and in shadowy ditches and thesis other suchlike places the tree moss grows only on trees government and virtues all sorts of mosses are under the dominionof saturn the ground moss is held to be singularly good to break thestone, and to expel and drive it forth by urine, being boiled in wineand drank the herb being bruised and boiled in water, and applied, eases all inflammations and pains coming from an hot cause. And istherefore used to ease the pains of the gout the tree mosses are cooling and binding, and writingake of a digesting andmolifying quality withal, as galen saith but each moss writingakes of thenature of the tree from whence it is taken. Therefore that of the oakis more binding, and is of good effect to stay fluxes in man or woman;as also vomiting or bleeding, the powder thereof being taken in wine the decoction thereof in wine is very good for women to be bathed in, that are troubled with the overflowing of their courses the same beingdrank, stays the stomach that is troubled with casting, or hiccough;and, as avicena saith, it comforts the heart the powder thereoftaken in drink for essay time together, is thought available for thedropsy the oil that has had fresh moss steeped therein for a time, andafterwards boiled and applied to the temples and forehead, marvellouslyeases the head-ache coming of a hot cause. As also the distillations ofhot rheums or humours in the eyes, or other writings the ancients muchused it in their ointments and other medicines against the lassitude, and to strengthen and comfort the sinews. For which, if it was goodthen, i know no reason but it may be found so still motherwort descript this hath a hard, square, brownish, rough, strong stalk, rising three or four feet high at least, spreading into thesis branches, whereon grow leaves on each side, with long foot-stalks, two atevery joint, which are essaywhat broad and long, as if it were roughor crumpled, with thesis great veins therein of a sad green colour, anddeeply dented about the edges, and almost divided from the middle ofthe branches up to the tops of them which are long and small grow theflowers round them at distances, in sharp pointed, rough, hard husks, of a more red or purple colour than balm or horehound, but in thesame manner or form as the horehound, after which come small, round, blackish seeds in great plenty the root sends forth a number of longstrings and small fibres, taking strong hold in the ground, of a darkyellowish or brownish colour, and abides as the horehound does.

You cannot err intaking of it syrupus violarum or syrup of violets college take of violet flowers fresh and picked, a pound, clearwater made boiling hot, two pounds, shut them up close together intoa new glazed pot, a whole day, then press them hard out, and in twopounds of the liquor dissolve four pounds and three ounces of whitesugar, take away the scum, and so make it into a syrup without boiling syrup of the juice of violets, is made with its double weight of sugar, like the former culpeper this syrup cools and moistens, and that very gently, itcorrects the sharpness of choler, and gives ease in hot vices of thebreast, it quenches thirst in acute fevers, and resist the heat of thedisease. It comforts hot stomachs exceedingly, cools the liver andheart, and resists putrefaction, pestilence, and poison college julep of violets is made of the water of violet flowersand sugar, like julep of roses culpeper it is cooling and pleasant purging syrups syrupus de cichorio cum rhubarbaro or syrup of succory with rhubarb college take of whole barley, the roots of smallage, fennel, andsparagus, of each two ounces, succory, dandelyon, endive, smoothsow-thistles, of each two handfuls, lettuce, liverwort, fumitory, topsof hops, of each one handful, maiden-hair, white and black, cetrachs, liquorice, winter cherries, dodder, of each six drams, to boil thesetake sixteen pounds of spring water, strain the liquor, and boil init six pounds of white sugar, adding towards the end six ounces ofrhubarb, six drams of spikenard, bound up in a thin slack rag the whichcrush often in boiling, and so make it into a syrup according to art culpeper it cleanses the body of venemous humours, as boils, carbuncles, and the like. It prevails against pestilential fevers, itstrengthens the heart and nutritive virtue, purges by stool and urine, it makes a man have a good stomach to his meat, and provokes sleep but by my author leave, i never accounted purges to be proper physicin pestilential fevers. This i believe, the syrup cleanses the liverwell, and is exceeding good for such as are troubled with hypocondriacmelancholy the strong may take two ounces at a time, the weak, one, oryou may mix an ounce of it with the decoction of senna syrupus de epithymo or syrup of epithimum college take of epithimum twenty drams, mirobalans, citron, andindian of each fifteen drams, emblicks, belloricks, polypodium, liquorice, agrick, thyme, calaminth, bugloss, stœchas of each sixdrams, dodder, fumitory, of each ten drams, red roses, annis-seeds andsweet fennel seeds of each two drams and an half, sweet prunes ten, raisins of the sun stoned four ounces, tamarinds two ounces and anhalf, after twenty-four hours infusion in ten pints of spring water, boil it away to six, then take it from the fire and strain it, and withfive pounds of fine sugar boil it into syrup according to art culpeper it is best to put in the dodder, stœchas and agarick, towards the latter end of the decoction it purges melancholy, andother humours, it strengthens the stomach and liver, cleanses the bodyof addust choler and addust blood, as also of salt humours, and helpsdiseases proceeding from these, as scabs, itch, tetters, ringworms, leprosy, &c a man may take two ounces at a time, or add one ounce tothe decoction of epithimum syrupus e floribus persicorum or syrup of peach-flowers college take of fresh peach-flowers a pound, steep them a whole dayin three pounds of warm water, then boil a little and strain it out, repeat this infusion five times in the same liquor, in three pounds ofwhich dissolve two pounds and an half of sugar and boil it into a syrup culpeper it is a gentle purger of choler, and may be given even infevers to draw away the sharp choleric humours syrupus de pomis purgans or syrup of apples purging college take of the juice of sweet smelling apples two pounds, thejuice of borrage and bugloss of each one pound and an half, senna twoounces, annis seeds half an ounce, saffron one dram, let the senna besteeped in the juices twenty-four hours, and after a boil or two strainit, and with two pounds of white sugar boil it to a syrup accordingto art, the saffron being tied up in a rag, and often crushed in theboiling culpeper the syrup is a cooling purge, and tends to rectify thedistempers of the blood, it purges choler and melancholy, and thereforemust needs be effectual both in yellow and black jaundice, madness, scurf, leprosy, and scabs, it is very gentle the dose is from oneounce to three, according as the body is in age and strength an ounceof it in the morning is excellent for such children as break out inscabs syrupus de pomis magistralis or syrup of apples magisterial college take of the juice and water of apples of each a poundand an half, the juice and water of borrage and bugloss of each nineounces, senna half a pound, annis seeds, and sweet fennel seeds, ofeach three drams, epithimum of crete, two ounces, agarick, rhubarb, ofeach half an ounce, ginger, mace, of each four scruples, cinnamon twoscruples, saffron half a dram, infuse the rhubarb and cinnamon awritingby itself, in white wine and juice of apples, of each two ounces, letall the rest, the saffron excepted, be steeped in the waters abovementioned, and the next day put in the juices, which being boiled, scummed, and strained, then with four ounces of white sugar boil itinto a syrup, crushing the saffron in it being tied up in a linen rag, the infusion of the rhubarb being added at the latter end culpeper out of doubt this is a gallant syrup to purge choler andmelancholy, and to resist madness syrupus de rhubarbaro or syrup of rhubarb college take of the best rhubarb and senna of each two ounces andan half, violet flowers a handful, cinnamon one dram and an half, ginger half a dram, bettony, succory and bugloss water of each onepound and an half, let them be mixed together warm all night, and inthe morning strained and boiled into a syrup, with two pounds of whitesugar, adding towards the end four ounces of syrup of roses culpeper it cleanses choler and melancholy very gently, and istherefore fit for children, old people, and weak bodies you may add anounce of it to the decoction of epithimum or to the decoction of senna syrupus rosaceus solutivus or syrup of roses solutive college take of spring water boiling hot four pounds, damask roseleaves fresh, as thesis as the water will contain. Let them remain twelvehours in infusion, close stopped. Then press them out and put in freshrose leaves. Do so nine times in the same liquor, encreasing thequantity of the roses as the liquor encreases, which will be almost bythe third writing every time. Take six writings of this liquor, and with fourwritings of white sugar, boil it to a syrup according to art culpeper it loosens the belly, and gently brings out choler andflegm, but leaves a binding quality behind it syrupus e succo rosarum or syrup of the juice of roses college it is prepared without steeping, only with the juice ofdamask roses pressed out, and clarified, and an equal proportion ofsugar added to it culpeper this is like the other syrupus rosaceus solutivus cum agarico or syrup of roses solutive with agarick college take of agarick cut thin an ounce, ginger two drams, sal gem one dram, polipodium bruised two ounces, sprinkle them with whitewine and steep them two days over warm ashes, in a pound and an half ofthe infusion of damask roses prescribed before, and with one pound ofsugar boil it into a syrup according to art culpeper it purges flegm from the head, relieves the sensesoppressed by it, provokes the menses, purges the stomach and liver, and provokes urine syrupus rosaceus solutivus cum helleboro or syrup of roses solutive with hellebore college take of the bark of all the myrobalans, of each fourounces, bruise them grossly, and steep them twenty-four hours in twelvepounds of the infusion of roses before spoken, senna, epithimum, polypodium of the oak, of each four ounces, cloves an ounce, citronseeds, liquorice, of each four ounces, the bark of black helleboreroots six drams, let the fourth writing of the liquor gently exhale, strain it, and with five pounds of sugar, and sixteen drams of rhubarbtied up in a linen rag, make it into a syrup according to art culpeper the syrup, rightly used, purges melancholy, resistsmadness syrupus rosaceus solutivus cum senna or syrup of roses solutive with senna college take of senna six ounces, caraway, and sweet fennel seeds, of each three drams, sprinkle them with white wine, and infuse them twodays in three pounds of the infusion of roses aforesaid, then strainit, and with two pounds of sugar boil it into a syrup culpeper it purges the body of choler and melancholy, and expelsthe relics a disease hath left behind it. The dose is from one ounceto two, you may take it in a decoction of senna, it leaves a bindingquality behind it syrupus de spina cervina or syrup of purging thorn college take of the berries of purging thorn, gathered inseptember, as thesis as you will, bruise them in a stone mortar, andpress out the juice, let the fourth writing of it evaporate away in abath, then to two pounds of it add sixteen ounces of white sugar, boil it into a syrup, which perfume with mastich, cinnamon, nutmegs, anni-seeds in fine powder, of each three drams syrups made with vinegar and honey mel anthosatum or honey of rosemary flowers college take of fresh rosemary flowers a pound, clarified honeythree pounds, mix them in a glass with a narrow mouth, set them in thesun, keep them for use culpeper it hath the same virtues with rosemary flowers, to which irefer you, only by reason of the honey it may be essaywhat cleansing mel helleboratum or honey helleborated college take of white hellebore roots bruised a pound, clear waterfourteen pounds, after three days infusion, boil it till half beconsumed, then strain it diligently, and with three pounds of honey, boil it to the thickness of honey mel mercuriale or honey of mercury college boil three pounds of the juice of mercury, with two poundsof honey to the thickness of honey culpeper it is used as an emollient in clysters mel mororum, vel diamoron or honey of mulberries college take of the juice of mulberries and blackberries, beforethey be ripe, gathered before the sun be up, of each a pound and ahalf, honey two pounds, boil them to their due thickness culpeper it is vulgarly known to be good for sore mouths, as alsoto cool inflammations there mel nuceum, alias, diacarion et dianucum or honey of nuts college take of the juice of the outward bark of green walnuts, gathered in the dog days two pounds, boil it gently till it be thick, and with one pound of honey, boil it to the thickness of honey culpeper it is a good preservative in pestilential times, aspoonful being taken as soon as you are up mel passalatum or honey of raisins college take of raisins of the sun cleansed from the stones twopounds, steep them in six pounds of warm water, the next day boil ithalf away, and press it strongly, and with two pounds of honey, let theexpressed liquor boil to its thickness culpeper it is a pretty pleasing medicine for such as are inconsumptions, and are bound in body mel rosatum commune, sive foliatum or common honey of roses college take of red roses not quite open two pounds, honey sixpounds, set them in the sun according to art mel rosatum colatum or honey of roses strained college take of the best clarified honey ten pounds, juice of freshred roses one pound, set it handessayly over the fire, and when itbegins to boil, put in four pounds of fresh red roses, the whites beingcut off. The juice being consumed by boiling and stirring, strain itand keep it for use culpeper they are both used for diseases in the mouth mel rosatum solutivum or honey of roses solutive college take of the often infusion of damask roses five pounds, honey rightly clarified four pounds, boil it to the thickness of honey culpeper it is used as a laxative in clysters, and essay use it tocleanse wounds college after the same manner is prepared honey of the infusion ofred roses mel scilliticum or honey of squils college take one squil full of juice, cut in bits, and put it in aglass vessel, the mouth close stopped, and covered with a skin, set inthe sun forty days, to wit, twenty before and after the rising of thedog star, then open the vessel, and take the juice which lies at thebottom, and preserve it with the best honey college honey of violets is prepared like as honey of roses oxymel, simple college take of the best honey four pounds, clear water and whitewine vinegar, of each two pounds, boil them in an earthen vessel, taking the scum off with a wooden scummer, till it be come to theconsistence of a syrup culpeper it cuts flegm, and it is a good preparative against avomit oxymel compound college take of the bark of the root of fennel, smallage, parsley, bruscus, asparagus, of each two ounces, the seeds of fennel, smallage, parsley, annis, of each one ounce, steep them all the roots beingfirst cleansed and the seeds bruised in six pounds of clear waterand a pound and a half of wine vinegar, the next day boil it to theconsumption of the third writing, boil the rest being strained, with threepounds of honey into a liquid syrup according to art culpeper first having bruised the roots and seeds, boil them in thewater till half be consumed, then strain it and add the honey, and whenit is almost boiled enough, add the vinegar oxymel helleboratum or oxymel helleborated college take of rue, thyme, dittany of crete, hyssop, pennyroyal, horehound, carduus, the roots of celtick, spikenard without leaves, the inner bark of elders, of each a handful, mountain calaminth twopugils, the seeds of annis, fennel, bazil, roman nettles, dill, ofeach two drams, the roots of angelica, marsh-mallows, aron, squillsprepared, birthwort, long, round, and climbing, turbith, english orris, costus, polypodium, lemon pills, of each an ounce, the strings of blackhellebore, spurge, agerick, added at the end of the decoction, of eachtwo drams, the bark of white hellebore half an ounce, let all of thembeing dried and bruised, be digested in a glass, or glazed vesselclose stopped, in the heat of the sun, or of a furnace, posca, made ofequal writings of water and vinegar, eight pounds, sapa two ounces, threedays being expired, boil it little more than half away, strain it, pressing it gently, and add to the liquor a pound and a half of honeyroses, wherein two ounces of citron pills have been infused, boil it tothe thickness of honey, and perfume it with cloves, saffron, ginger, galanga, mace, of each a dram oxymel julianizans college take of the bark of caper roots, the roots of orris, fennel, parsley, bruscus, chicory, sparagus, cypress, of each half anounce, the leaves of harts-tongue, schænanth, tamarisk, of each half ahandful, sweet fennel seed half an ounce, infuse them in three poundsof posca, which is essaything sour, afterwards boil it till half beconsumed, strain it, and with honey and sugar clarified, of each half apound, boil it to the thickness of honey culpeper this medicine is very opening, very good againsthypocondriac melancholy, and as fit a medicine as can be for thatdisease in children called the rickets college oxymel of squills simple, is made of three pounds ofclarified honey. Vinegar of squills two pounds, boil them according toart culpeper it cuts and divides humours that are tough and viscous, and therefore helps the stomach and bowels afflicted by such humours, and sour belchings if you take but a spoonful in the morning, an ablebody will think enough oxymel scilliticum compositus or oxymel of squills compound college take of origanum, dried hyssop, thyme, lovage, cardamomsthe less, stœchas, of each five drams, boil them in three pounds ofwater to one, strain it and with two pounds of honey, honey of raisinshalf a pound, juice of briony five ounces, vinegar of squills a poundand a half, boil it, and scum it according to art culpeper this is good against the falling-sickness, megrim, head-ache, vertigo, or swimming in the head, and if these be occasionedby the stomach as thesis times they are, it helps the lungs obstructed byhumour, and is good for women not well cleansed after labour, it opensthe passage of the womb syrup of purslain mesue college take of the seeds of purslain grossly bruised, half apound, of the juice of endive, boiled and clarified, two pounds, sugartwo pounds, vinegar nine ounces, infuse the seeds in the juice ofendive twenty-four hours, afterwards boil it half away with a gentlefire, then strain it, and boil it with the sugar to the consistence ofa syrup, adding the vinegar towards the latter end of the decoction culpeper it is a pretty cooling syrup, fit for any hot diseaseincident to the stomach, reins, bladder, matrix, or liver. It thickensflegm, cools the blood, and provokes sleep you may take an ounce of itat a time when you have occasion compound syrup of colt-foot renod college take six handfuls of green colt-foot, two handfuls ofmaiden-hair, one handful of hyssop, and two ounces of liquorice, boilthem in four pints, either of rain or spring water till the fourth writingbe consumed, then strain it, and clarify it, to which add three poundsof white sugar, boil it to the perfect consistence of a syrup culpeper the composition is appropriated to the lungs, andtherefore helps the infirmities, weaknesses, or failings thereof aswant of voice, difficulty of breathing, coughs, hoarseness, catharrs, &c the way of taking it is with a liquorice-stick, or if you please, you may add an ounce of it to the pectoral decoction before mentioned syrup of poppies, the lesser composition college take of the heads of white poppies and black, when both ofthem are green, of each six ounces, the seeds of lettice, the flowersof violets, of each one ounce, boil them in eight pints of water tillthe virtue is out of the heads. Then strain them, and with four poundsof sugar boil the liquor to a syrup syrup of poppies, the greater composition college take of the heads of both white and black poppies, seedsand all, of each fifty drams, maiden-hair, fifteen drams, liquorice, five drams, jujubes, thirty by number, lettice seeds, forty drams, ofthe seeds of mallows and quinces, tied up in a thin linen cloth ofeach one dram and an half, boil these in eight pints of water tillfive pints be consumed, when you have strained out the three pintsremaining, add to them, penids and white sugar, of each a pound, boilthem into a syrup according to art culpeper all these former syrups of poppies provoke sleep, butin that, i desire they may be used with a great deal of caution andwariness. Such as these are not fit to be given in the beginning offevers, nor to such whose bodies are costive, yet to such as aretroubled with hot, sharp rheums, you may safely give them. The last isappropriated to the lungs. It prevails against dry coughs, phthisicks, hot and sharp gnawing rheums, and provokes sleep it is an usualfashion for nurses when they have heated their milk by exercise orstrong liquor then run for syrup of poppies to make their young onessleep i would fain have that fashion left off, therefore i forbear thedose. Let nurses keep their own bodies temperate, and their childrenwill sleep well enough syrup of eupatorium or maudlin mesue college take of the roots of smallage, fennel, and succory, ofeach two ounces, liquorice, schænanth, dodder, wormwood, roses, ofeach six drams, maidenhair, bedeguar, or instead thereof, the rootsof carduus mariæ, suchaha or instead thereof the roots of avens, theflowers or roots of bugloss, annis seeds, sweet fennel seeds, ageratum, or maudlin, of each five drams, rhubarb, mastich, of each three drams, spikenard, indian leaf, or instead of it put roman spike, of eachtwo drams, boil them in eight pints of water till the third writing beconsumed, then strain the decoction, and with four pounds of sugar, clarified juice of smallage and endive, of each half a pound, boil itinto a syrup culpeper it amends infirmities of the liver coming of cold, opens obstructions, helps the dropsy, and evil state of the body. Itextenuates gross humours, strengthens the liver, provoake urine, and isa present succour for hypocondriac melancholy you may take an ounce ata time in the morning, it opens but purges not honey of emblicks augustanus college take fifty emblick myrobalans, bruise them and boil them inthree pints of water till two be consumed, strain it, and with the likeweight of honey, boil it into a syrup culpeper it is a fine gentle purger both of flegm and melancholy:it strengthens the brain and nerves, and senses both internal andexternal, helps tremblings of the heart, stays vomiting, provokesappetite you may take a spoonful at a time rob, or sapa. And juices culpeper 1 rob, or sapa, is the juice of a fruit, made thick bythe heat either of the sun, or the fire, that it is capable of beingkept safe from putrefaction 2 its use was first invented for diseasesin the mouth 3 it is usually made, in respect of body, essaywhatthicker than new honey 4 it may be kept about a year, little more orless rob sive sapa, simplex or simple rob, or sapa college take of wine newly pressed from white and ripe grapes, boilit over a gentle fire to the thickness of honey culpeper whenever you read the word rob, or sapa throughout thedispensatory, simply quoted in any medicine without any relation ofwhat it should be made, this is that you ought to use rob de barberis or rob of barberries college take of the juice of barberries strained as much as youwill, boil it by itself or else by adding half a pound of sugar toeach pound of juice to the thickness of honey culpeper it quenches thirst, closes the mouth of the stomach, thereby staying vomiting, and belching, it strengthens stomachsweakened by heat, and procures appetite of any of these robs you maytake a little on the point of a knife when you need rob de cerasis or rob of cherries college take of the juice of red cherries essaywhat sowerish, asmuch as you will, and with half their weight in sugar boil them likethe former culpeper see the virtue of cherries, and there you have a method tokeep them all the year rob de cornis or rob of cornels college take of the juice of cornels two pounds, sugar a pound andan half, boil it according to art culpeper of those cornel trees are two sorts, male and female, thefruit of the male cornel, or cornelian cherry is here to be used thefruit of male cornel, binds exceedingly, and therefore good in fluxes, and the immoderate flowing of the menses rob cydoniorum or rob of quinces college take of the clarified juice of quinces, boil it till twowritings be consumed and with its equal weight in sugar boil it into a rob miva vel gelatina eorundem or jelly of quinces college take of the juice of quinces clarified twelve pounds, boilit half away, and add to the remainder, old white wine five pounds, consume the third writing over a gentle fire, taking away the scum allyou ought let the rest settle, and strain it, and with three pounds ofsugar boil it according to art culpeper both are good for weak and indisposed stomachs college rob of sour plums is made as rob of quinces, the use ofsugar is indifferent in them both rob of english currants is made in the same manner, let the juice beclarified culpeper the virtues are the same with rob of barberries rob baccarum sambuci or rob of elder berries college take of the juice of elder berries, and make it thick withthe help of a gentle fire, either by itself, or a quarter of its weightin sugar being added culpeper both rob of elder berries, and dwarf-elder, are excellentfor such whose bodies are inclining to dropsies, neither let themneglect nor despise it they may take the quantity of a nutmeg eachmorning, it will gently purge the watery humour college in the same manner is made rob of dwarf-elder, junipers, and paul betony, only in the last, the sugar and juice must be equalin weight succus glycyrrhizæ simplex or juice of liquorice simple college infuse liquorice roots cleansed and gently bruised, threedays in spring water, so much that it may over-top the roots thebreadth of three fingers, then boil it a little, and press it hard out, and boil the liquor with a gentle fire to its due thickness culpeper it is vulgarly known to be good against coughs, colds, &c and a strengthner of the lungs succus glycyrrhizæ compositus or juice of liquorice compound college take of the water of tender oak leaves, of scabious, ofeach four pounds, english liquorice scraped and bruised two pounds, boil them by degrees till they be soft, then press out the liquorstrongly in a press, to which add three pounds of juice of hyssop, anddry it away in the sun in a broad earthen vessel culpeper the virtues are the same with the former succus pronorum sylvestrum or juice of sloes, called acacia college take of sloes hardly ripe, press out the juice, and make itthick in a bath culpeper it stops fluxes, and procures appetite college so are the juices of wormwood, maudlin, and fumitory madethick, to wit, the herbs bruised while they be tender, and the juicepressed out and after it be clarified, boil over the fire to its justthickness lohoch, or eclegmata culpeper because this word also is understood but by few, we willfirst explain what it is 1 the word lohoch is an arabick word, called in greek eclegma, in latin linctus, and signifies a thingto be licked up 2 it is in respect of body, essaything thicker thana syrup, and not so thick as an electuary 3 its use was against theroughness of the windpipe, diseases, and inflammations of the lungs, difficulty of breathing, colds, coughs, &c 4 its manner of receptionis with a liquorice stick, bruised at the end, to take up essay andretain it in the mouth, till it melt of its own accord lohoch de farfara or lohoch of coltsfoot college take of colts-foot roots cleansed eight ounces, marsh-mallow roots four ounces cleansed, boil them in a sufficientquantity of water, and press the pulp out through a sieve, dissolvethis again in the decoction, and let it boil once or twice, then takeit from the fire, and add two pounds of white sugar, honey of raisinsfourteen ounces, juice of liquorice two drams and an half, stir themstoutly with a wooden pestle, mean season sprinkle in saffron andcloves, of each a scruple, cinnamon and mace, of each two scruples, make them into a lohoch according to art culpeper it was invented for the cough lohoch de papavere or lohoch of poppies college take white poppy seeds twenty four drams, sweet almondsblanched in rose water, pine-nuts cleansed, gum arabick and tragacanth, of each ten drams, juice of liquorice an ounce, starch three drams, theseeds of lettuce, purslain, quinces, of each half an ounce, saffron adram, penids four ounces, syrup of meconium three pounds, make it intoa lohoch according to art culpeper it helps salt, sharp and thin distillations upon thelungs, it allays the fury of such sharp humours, which occasion bothroughness of the throat, want of sleep, and fevers.

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2 as 3 per cent sterile solution in ampoules;137 3 tablets 137 an ampoule title of an essay labeled as follows. “coagulen-ciba, 20 c c in sterile solution ready for use to be shaken importé de suisse op no 968” was found to measure only 15 c c another ampoule with the same label and op no 9641 contained considerable sediment methods of study. The alleged thromboplastic activity was tested by the method of howell and a modification of this method by fenger as described in “new and nonofficial remedies ” in the howell method dog or cat blood is used, while beef blood at body temperature is used in fenger method in other respects the methods are essentially the same briefly these consist of noting the acceleration of coagulation time in a mixture of equal writings of serum and the thromboplastic agent to which about an equal writing of oxalate plasma is added under these conditions cephalin causes clotting in about 1 minute or even less as compared with 20 to 30 minutes or more of the control the effects were compared with freshly prepared cephalin and other thromboplastic agents, using saline 0 9 per cent nacl as control the effect of different concentrations was also studied the literature of the manufacturers claims that coagulen is harmless this was tested by making intravenous and subcutaneous injections into guinea-pigs, using saline and cephalin as controls bloods of 4 different species were used, namely, cat, dog, beef and human dog peptonized blood and plasma were also tried the 15 different tests that were made in vitro were carried out with 3 different samples of fresh dry coagulen from manufacturer, 2 old samples one from council on pharmacy and chemistry and one of our own, 3 fresh specimens of sterile solution in ampoules from manufacturer, one old specimen and 4 small ampoules council on pharmacy and chemistry the tablets were not tested since these are made from dry coagulen and the results would hardly be expected to show anything different results. The results obtained may be briefly summarized as follows. 1 0 1 per cent to 5 per cent coagulen did not accelerate the coagulation time of blood and oxalate plasmas in the majority of tests any more than the controls of saline, while 0 1 per cent cephalin was found to shorten the coagulation time from 1/3 to 1/2 2 there was no difference between the behavior of old and fresh specimens 3 no acceleration of coagulation in vitro was observed even with the highest concentrations tried, namely 25 and 50 per cent 4 irrigations made with fresh dry coagulen in solution and sterile solution in ampoules on superficial bleeding from the foot-pads of 3 normal and peptonized dogs and local application to hemorrhages from dissected femoral arteries and bone and liver wounds of 3 dogs showed that coagulen was no more active than normal saline toxicity. Subcutaneous and intravenous injections of different doses of coagulen solutions fresh ampoules and dry coagulen in solution in 8 guinea-pigs produced definite anaphylactoid symptoms with injury to the circulatory and respiratory systems as indicated by cardiac dilatation, abdominal congestion and pulmonary hemorrhages, congestion, distention and essaytimes thrombi on the other hand, the control animals injected with saline and cephalin remained practically unharmed conclusions. The results obtained justify the following conclusions. 1 coagulen is entirely inactive as a thromboplastic and hemostatic agent 2 coagulen is distinctly injurious when injected systemically 3 the claims of hemostatic efficiency and harmlessness for coagulen by the manufacturer appear exaggerated and unjustified recommendations.