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Three Paragraph Essay Example


Guinea-pig 4, 3 c c , and guinea-pig 5, 4 c c guinea-pig 6 was three paragraph essay example used as a control result. Guinea-pigs 1 and 2 recovered about four hours after injection guinea-pig 3 died three days after and guinea-pigs 4 and 5 four and two hours after, respectively conclusions. Guinea-pigs weighing on the average of 400 gm may be injected peritoneally with one or two c c or intrapleurally with 0 5 to 1 c c of chlorlyptus without having fatal results from the injection experiment 16 -- toxic and irritant action of eucalyptus oil -- three normal guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 1 c c of oil of eucalyptus in the peritoneum, and guinea-pig 2 with 0 5 c c in the pleural cavity guinea-pig 3 was used as a control result. Guinea-pig 1 died about three hours after injection, and guinea-pig 2 about two hours after the injection autopsy. Both guinea-pigs showed marked congestion and a moderate degree of exudate in the peritoneum experiment 17 -- toxic and virulent action of eucalyptus -- three normal guinea-pigs were selected for the experiment, as in experiment 16 the injection was made in the pleural cavity guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c and guinea-pig 2 with 1 c c of eucalyptus oil result. Guinea-pig 1 died the following day, and guinea-pig 2 one hour after the injection experiment 18 -- toxic and irritant action of dichloramin-t, 0 5 per cent in chlorcozane -- one guinea-pig was used for each experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c and guinea-pig 2 with 1 c c of dichloramin-t peritoneally result. Both animals became restless immediately after the injection, and died twelve hours after of acute hemorrhagic peritonitis experiment 19 -- effect of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus suspended in salt solution and one of that solution injected into the peritoneum of the guinea-pig -- three guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c of staphylococcus suspension as control guinea-pig 2 was given the same, and immediately after received 1 c c of chlorlyptus guinea-pig 3 was injected with the same amount, and chlorlyptus was injected twenty-four hours after injection results. Guinea-pig 1 was sick and weak with loss of appetite for essay days, but gradually recovered guinea-pig 2 died over night autopsy. There was a large amount of exudate in the peritoneal cavity, irritation of the intestine, and other signs of acute inflammation a moderate degree of congestion.

“theresult of my experiments on the dead body in regard to gunshot woundscould only be to make more complete the proof of the resistance ofthe dead corporeal tissues, in contradistinction to the tissues whenalive after i had already learned this peculiarity from my experimentswith contused wounds, this peculiar resistent property was found to beconfirmed in a most remarkable manner” “forensic medicine, ” vol i , p 271 if the number of bullets known to have been fired, or, more importantstill, which have been found exceeds the number which could have beendischarged from the weapon in question, a very large element of doubtand uncertainty is introduced which must be quieted by other and morecircumstantial evidence should two different weapons be in question, it is very necessary to establish from which of them the bullets havebeen discharged this can be done mainly by weight and evident calibreof the bullets, or essay other peculiarity. Possibly in disputed papereven by analysis of the metal wounds by shot-guns - in most of what has been said it has beensupposed that the injury has been inflicted by an arm of the kindcommonly described under the terms pistol, revolver, or rifle gunshotwounds are, however, occasionally inflicted with shot-guns and a chargeof shot varying in size from small bird-shot up to that generally knownas buck-shot it is characteristic of such missiles that they separateafter their discharge from the gun, and a determination of the degreeof their separation is approximately a determination of the distanceof the mark from the muzzle of the weapon in suicide or accidentaldischarges of a shot-gun the muzzle is so near the body that the chargeof shot acts very much as would a single bullet of the size of thebore of the gun, and near wounds thus inflicted, while necessarilylarge, have about them a minimum laceration and disturbance of tissue, so that perhaps only by their size could one say, viewing the woundalone, that the weapon used had been a shot-gun on the other hand, ata distance of a few feet the shot begin to separate to such an extentthat there is much more laceration of tissue, and after separation toan indeterminate, because variable, number of feet we get such marksas individual shot may make this distance is indeterminate because itis predicated on the size of the gun, the dimensions of shot, and theweight of the charge of powder the writer, for instance, has recentlyseen one case where the muzzle of the gun could not have been more thantwo feet away from the surface of the foot at which it was discharged, the consequence being a round and very slightly ragged hole through themid-tarsal region from dorsum to sole it is possible for a single grain of shot to produce death such acase is related by ollivier d’angers. A thief scaling a wall receivedat a distance of fifteen paces a charge of shot from a fowling-piece;he fell dead immediately the charge had struck him in the breast, centring over a space of three or four inches, but one shot hadpenetrated the aorta over the attachment of the sigmoid valves, andanother had traversed the entire wall of this vessel powder-marks - a very important writing of evidence in case of near woundsof gunshot character pertains to the powder-marks upon the clothingand skin naturally every one knows that when a weapon is dischargednear a given surface there will be more or less powder-marking uponthat surface, the same being due to writingicles of gunpowder which areincompletely or not at all consumed, and which are black becauseof the charcoal they contain. But the circumstances under whichpowder-marks of a given character can be inflicted are so extremelyvariable that no statistics or information of value in a generalway can be given thus the fineness of the marks will depend uponthe fineness of the powder, and the area covered and the depth ofthe marking upon the same, upon the distance of the muzzle from thesurface. And the only way to make out the exact distance of the muzzlefrom the surface at the time of the infliction of a given wound is touse the same weapon, if possible, with cartridges or charges out of thesame lot as that used at the time of injury distances could, perhaps, be stated in round numbers, but their value would only be remotelyapproximate, and in a given case the best evidence is to be obtained byexperiment with the fire-arm in question dimensions of perforations - at different times a great deal ofweight has been attached to the dimension of the perforation throughsuch objects as wood, glass, or even through the bones of the body, made by the bullet which is supposed or known to have destroyedlife wrong inferences have been drawn essaytimes from a study ofundischarged bullets or cartridges similar, at least before firing, to that which has been taken from a given body it has been stated, for instance, that such a bullet was too large to have passed throughsuch an aperture or to have made such a hole, or that it was so muchsmaller than a certain hole that it was not the writingicular missilewhich made that perforation upon this matter has hinged a great dealof uncertainty and consequently a good deal of study the size ofopening which a bullet of given calibre will make through wood dependsupon the distance of the weapon, the firing charge, the velocity ofthe bullet, the extent to which its shape has been altered by passingthrough the given barrier, by the heat of the explosion, by the impactof the air upon the heated and consequently softened metal, and by thedensity and thickness of the wood, as well as by the resistance whichit may have offered mainly from its being fixed in place or movable there is, however, ordinarily less question about the size of a similarhole through a piece of glass or bone it is generally supposed thata bullet passing through a window-pane will shatter it this depends, however, mainly upon the perfection of fixation of the glass in itsresting-place if for purposes of experiment panes of glass be tackedinto a shutter and bullets be fired at them from varying distances, they will be practically invariably shattered it is, however, quitedifferent if the pane of glass be firmly fixed in a frame by means ofputty which has become old and hard, and especially if the window-frameitself be closely fitted in the casing under these circumstances abullet will often make a clearly punched hole, or one with very fewradiating lines of fracture experiment, therefore, to secure evidenceshould be made under circumstances exactly parallel to those whichnecessitate such evidence evidence from examination of the dead body fractures - considerable evidence of great interest with respect tothe effect of a bullet-wound upon the skull and the possibility offractures being produced at the base by contre coup will be found inthe statement of the case of the people v elisha b fero, publishedby dr charles t porter, of albany, in the journal of psychologicalmedicine, april, 1870 mrs fero was murdered while in her bed andwas found to have been bruised about the head and body, her husbandclaiming that the deed was that of a robber who had attacked themboth he was found with slight bruises or scratches about the face andblack marks as if from burnt powder between the middle fingers of hisright hand the first autopsy appears to have been carelessly made, but a flattened conical ball weighing twenty-six and one-half grainswas found lodged in the middle of the right cerebral hemisphere ithad not gone completely through the brain its base fitted the shellsof the metallic cartridges used in fero revolver eight days afterdeath a second examination was made, after which the head was removedand preserved in 95% alcohol a theory of the prosecution was thatmrs fero was murdered by her husband. That he shot her, as well asstruck her numerous blows upon both sides of the head and its frontand back with essay broad, heavy, and elastic body, making fracturesfound on autopsy not the least interesting writing of the testimonyis that referring to the condition of tissues alleged to have beenbruised after long preservation in alcohol the expert testimony inthis case appeared to show that such fractures as were found, withoutreference to the fact of external bruises, were due to the unskilfulmanner in which the skull-cap was removed in this connection itis well right here to emphasize the fact that fresh fractures canbe produced in the skull by too forcible or injudicious effortsto remove the calvarium when making autopsies, or that fracturespreviously existing can be extended or complicated in the same way shaw in his “manual of anatomy” says. “the question whether there hasbeen a fracture of the cranium previous to death is essaytimes moredifficult to decide than a person not accustomed to make dissectionsmight imagine if the fracture has occurred immediately before thepatient death, there will be found coagulated blood upon the bonesand in the fissures if the patient has survived for essay time, therewill be marks of inflammation and, perhaps, pus in contact with theskull, but if a fracture has been made in making the examination, which essaytimes happens in even very careful dissectors’ hands, theblood in the fracture will not be coagulated, nor will there be anyeffusions around the portions in beck medical journal, vol xxii , p 28, mr alcock essay time since stated in a public lecture inlondon that he had known a fracture of the base of the skull producedby the awkward and violent tearing of the upper portion by the saw inpenetrating enough to divide the bones, and this to be mistaken by theinexperienced operator for fracture of the skull producing death beinga medico-legal case, it might have led to melancholy consequences hadnot the error been detected by an observer ” that an extensive andoften complicated fracture by contre coup can occur as the result ofgunshot injuries of the skull is a fact well known to all surgeons ofexperience and laid down in all text-books and illustrated in all largemuseums in view of these well-known facts, it would always be well to insistin paper of this kind that the saw alone should be used and not thehammer nor the chisel when a cranial bone is fractured blood ispoured out from the ruptured vessels, as is always the case with anybone its amount varies indefinitely with the number and size of theruptured vessels, the activity of circulation, the length of time aperson lives, etc the blood may collect in circumscribed masses orbecome infiltrated in the surrounding tissues, although usually bothphenomena are observed the extent to which infiltration takes placedepends upon the quantity of blood and the nature of the surroundingtissues in loose tissues like those about the orbit infiltration ismuch more rapid and extensive examination of the weapon - french medical jurists have tried toindicate how we may determine the time elapsed between the death of aperson and the discharge of a weapon found near the body, but exactstatements in this matter are utterly out of the question certainfacts bearing on the subject are these. When recently discharged therewill be found adhering to the barrel of the piece and consisting of thefouling of which sportsmen complain, a quantity of potassium sulfidmixed with charcoal this is shown by its forming a strong alkalinesolution with water, evolving an odor of hydrogen sulfid, and a darkprecipitate with a solution of acetate of lead depending upon thedegree of exposure to air and moisture, after essay hours or days thissulfid becomes converted into potassium sulfate, which forms a neutralsolution with water and gives a white precipitate with acetate of lead;but if a considerable time has elapsed since the discharge of the pieceoxid of iron iron rust with traces of sulfate may be found ann d’hygiene, 1834, p 458. 1837, p 197. 1842, p 368 was the weapon fired from a distance or near by?.

Deutsch med wchnschr 32:587, 1906 illustration. How the exploiters of formamint capitalize the medicalprofession miniature reproductions of typical formamint advertisementsappearing in the newspapers rosenberg20 corroborates this statement he also found that agarplates of bacillus prodigiosus were killed by formamint solutionsin about four hours he fails, however, to give the strength of hisformamint solutions 20 rosenberg. Therap d gegen 7:55, 1905 wingrave21 suggests the use of formamint for infants!. he recommendsthat a tablet be crushed and wrapped in “butter cloth ” the ends of thecloth are to be tied with thread, the formamint is to be moistened, andthe packet is to be held in the mouth of the baby several times eachday 21 wingrave. Lancet, london 2:1067, 1906 young22 published the results of essay experiments by himself anddelépine on the human throat they dissolved a tablet in the mouth andmade swab cultures with the following results. Immediately after taking the tablet 0 colonies 10 minutes after taking the tablet 35 colonies 30 minutes after taking the tablet 150 colonies22 young. Lancet, london 1:975, 1908 they found no staphylococci at any time other results of swabbingvarious writings of the throat before and after the use of formamint, reported by these investigators, show enormous reductions in the count, claimed to be due to the action of formamint the count was made onagar at 37 c , but they fail to state the time elapsing between takingthe formamint and making the swab young also reports favorableclinical results in paper of scarlet fever, diphtheria, sore throat, and the like it must be noted, however, that they state that the mouthand fauces must first be thoroughly cleansed by swabbing and douchingbefore formamint is used the “chemical compound” claimthe claims made in the advertising literature of formamint are veryextravagant thesis are highly improbable these statements will bediscussed later the statement is made that formamint is a new chemical compound. “formamint is pentamethanallactose, 5 choh c₁₂h₂₂o₁₁ it is an original combination of formaldehyde with lactose, a definite chemical compound the formaldehyde molecule is locked up in it until solution in the saliva takes place, when the formaldehyde is liberated in its nascent state and is therefore active without being irritant ”furthermore the makers contend that this new chemical compound isentirely harmless for example, daus, 5 in an article on “thedisinfectant action of formic aldehyde on mucous membranes, ” declares. “no indication of irritant or other injurious action made its appearance even after large doses the urine remained free from albumin and sugar ”such statements as these are found in the advertising literature. “formamint tablets are absolutely harmless and innocuous, even to little children ” “when dissolved in the saliva, formamint tablets liberate slowly nascent formaldehyde in a most active yet non-irritant form ”they maintain that formamint is not only absolutely harmless, butactually beneficial to the tissues it may be used “to tone up andstrengthen the tissues, prevent hoarseness, and allay irritation insingers, public speakers, ” etc the claims urged as to its germicidal power are indeed glittering this“new chemical compound” is claimed to liberate formaldehyd in essay newand peculiar condition which, while it has a soothing and tonic effecton the cells of the human tissues, can at the same time quickly killany form of bacterial life “dissolving readily, it releases its germicidal, antiseptic qualities, which impregnate the saliva and are carried naturally and easily around the mouth and in the deepest crevices of the throat-- destroying the germs where they are causing the mischief formamint prevents and destroys infectious germ life in a soothing grateful way ” “in the saliva it frees a germicide, fatal to germs but harmless to the most delicate membranes and flowing into every tiny corner of the gums, tonsils and throat, into places where no gargle ever reaches, it most effectively disinfects the throat ”the claims as to the preventive and curative effects of the preparationcover a large portion of the category of human ailments and distresses the following quotations indicate essay of its supposed properties.

Skin abraded over larynx. Conjunctiva insensible. Pupils dilated and fixed. Fingers clinched. Limbs flaccid.

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Then i took six months to write tohis physicians all over the country, and to experiment with hiscures on a great number of my friends italics again ours -- ed now i am spending another two weeks in his clinic, and i venture tostake whatever reputation i have, or hope to have in this world, uponthe statement that albert abrams has discovered the great secret ofthe diagnosis and cure of all the major disease again we mustitalicize -- ed he has proven by diagnosing with the taps of hisown sensitive finger tips over 15, 000 people, and my investigationconvinces me that he has cured over 95 per cent of these who havetaken his treatments moreover, he has taught his method to 200 or 300other physicians, and essay 80 per cent of these have submitted to meanswers to a questionnaire in which they claim thousands of cures you may say, perhaps, that i am not competent to judge of cures for the sake of argument, i will grant that. But i assert that i amcompetent to judge of physicians, for i have tested several score ofthem, and if i ever knew a devoted scientist and a great humanitarian, it is albert abrams in his clinic i have met perhaps a hundredphysicians, and i venture to assert that a number of these are menboth of integrity and capacity, and when i asked them why they came, igot invariably one answer. “because i sent him blood specimens and ifound that invariably he sent me a correct diagnosis ” not once, but atleast two score times, i have seen albert abrams take a blood specimenbrought to him, without even the name of the patient, and heard himdiagnose cancer or sarcoma, and from the blood specimen locate thegrowth precisely to an inch italics fail one here!. -- ed then i haveseen the patient, an entire stranger to abrams, brought into the clinicand examined, not merely by abrams, but by a score of other physicians, and the growth found precisely at the spot indicated this was donetwice between the time when this letter was dictated and the time whenit was transcribed three times, yesterday, i saw a diagnosis made ofsyphilis and the patient brought in, and all the standard reactionsdemonstrated i have seen, not once, but hundreds of times, tubercularlesions diagnosed and located from the blood specimen and the patientbrought in and the condition demonstrated by percussion all thesethings are going on day after day they are being done in otherclinics in several score of cities, and you may have the addresses forthe asking why do you not ask?. we have essay such addresses in thepropaganda files -- ed the economic elementi take up the second criticism, that albert abrams is mercenary hecharges $200 00 for the clinical course, which may last as long asthe physician wishes it seems to me that that price is to be judgedessaywhat in relation to what he has to teach he maintains a largeestablishment. He has need of thesis assistants, and expensive apparatusfor his research work he charges for the use of his oscilloclast adeposit of $250 00, and a rental of $5 00 per month the former itemcovers the cost of manufacturing the machine, and the second item mustbe compared with the fact that a great number of physicians who areusing this instruments are today enjoying incomes of from $1, 000 00to $2, 000 00 per week once more, italics!. -- ed a few weeks ago i visited a physician who told me he had treatedthirty-two patients that day with his one instrument, and that hisincome was over $1, 300 00 for that week, and i could name several whohave given similar accounts it may be, of course, that you will saythey should not charge so much the average charge is about $200 00 fora guaranteed cure of such diseases as syphilis, tuberculosis, cancerand sarcoma italics our again -- ed do you know anyone who willguarantee to cure a cancer or sarcoma at any price?. no!.