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And nubians, 1, 313 c c the cranial capacity in man, like thatof the anthropoid apes, varies according thesis statement for persuasive essay to sex, the difference beingso great that it is necessary to measure separately in the troglodyte skulls of prehistoric times the variation is notmore than 99 5 c c. But in the contemporaneous races the differencevaries from 143 to 220 c c french craniologists usually speak of theauvernats as possessing the highest cerebral capacity 1, 523 c c , andmention the skull of a parisian of 1, 900 c c as the highest known essay eskimo skulls, however, measure from 1, 650 to 1, 715 c c , andtwo eurycephalic indian skulls in the anatomical section of the armymedical museum measure respectively 1, 785 and 1, 920 c c mr havelock ellis, speaking of the psychic characteristics ofcriminals, says that the lower human races present a far largerproportion of anatomical abnormities than the ordinary europeanpopulation. And sir william turner writes of the skulls collectedduring the challenger expedition that although their number iscertainly too limited to base any broad generalization on, as to therelative frequency of occurrence of writingicular variations in thedifferent races, there is obviously a larger proportion of importantvariations than would occur in a corresponding number of skulls ofthe white races thus, for example, the squamo-frontal articulationis found in less than two per cent of european skulls, while it isfound in twenty per cent of negroes, according to ecker, and 16 9 inaustralian skulls, according to virchow again, the spheno-pterygoidforamen is found in 4 8 per cent of european skulls and in 20 per centof american indians. 30 per cent in africans. 32 per cent in asiatics, and 50 per cent in australians the wormian bones are also more commonamong the lower races.

Theexpert capacity for drawing conclusions, as well as his premises, may be assailed paper of conflict are to be determined, not by thenumber of witnesses, but by the weight of their testimony, and thoughthe opinion of an expert of high character may be entitled to greatrespect, yet if questioned, its authority must ultimately rest upon thetruth, material and formal, of the reasoning on which it depends ”judge davis, of the supreme court of maine, in neil case citedin wharton and stille “medical jurisprudence, ” vol i , section294, said. “if there is any kind of testimony that is not only of novalue, but even worse than that, it is in my judgment that of medicalexperts they may be able to state the diagnosis of a disease morelearnedly, but upon the question whether it had at a given time reacheda stage that the subject of it was incapable of making a contract, orirresponsible for his acts, the opinions of his neighbors, of men ofgood common sense, would be worth more than that of all the experts inthe country ”such stinging criticisms as these, and others which might be cited, of a like character, may not be always merited it is certain thatmedical experts’ opinions, if fully enlightened by scientific researchand free from writingisan bias, ought to occupy a position like thatof judicial opinions in weight and decisiveness upon the questionssubmitted to them such was the position occupied in the publicestimation, and in that of judges and counsel, by the great dr casparin gerthesis, and foedere or pinel, and others since their time, infrance but this position was acquired chiefly because of the factalready mentioned, that under the system of administration of justicewhich prevails in those countries these great men were regarded, andacted, as a component writing of the judicial system they were calledin as officers of the law to assist the court in forming a judgment, and determining disputed questions of fact, in paper involving lifeand death, or the devolution of property, where scientific experience, knowledge and skill, not possessed by judges or by counsel, wasnecessary for the determination of the questions involved the rootof the evil in america is, as already pointed out, to be found inthe system which allows writingies to retain and pay their own expertswithout any substantial restrictions sooner or later, among the otherreforms in our judicial system, it will be found necessary to reformthis evil by the enactment of laws requiring that the witnesses inmedico-legal paper, writingicularly those in which a crime is allegedto have been committed, shall be designated by the court, or by essaypublic authority, and paid from the public treasury instead of bythe writingies such experts would then occupy their proper position ofspecial counsel, advising and assisting the legal counsel and thecourt, but they would not be taken out of this sphere and put in theutterly inconsistent one of witnesses their status and their dutieswould be as clearly distinguished from that of expert witnesses as nowknown, as the status and duty of the lawyer are from the status andduty of the judge the present system has been said to be very muchlike putting a lawyer, who has just argued his client case, on thebench to decide it whether experts should be appointed as permanentgovernment officials, like our judges, or should be selected speciallyfor each case like juries, referees, or arbitrators, and in the latterevent whether they should be nominated by the writingies and selected bythe court from such nominees, or otherwise, are all questions of detail our judges and lawyers seem slow to recognize the fact that the dutiesof experts are judicial, or at least quasi-judicial. To pass uponcertain facts which neither the court nor the jury can understandwithout their aid but, as we have seen from the citations just given, judges and lawyers have fully recognized the unreliability of experttestimony, produced as it now is in england and in this country atthe whim and selection of the writingies and paid for, much or little, according to the means of the writingies 181method of preliminary examination of experts on medical questions alicensed physician presumed competent - as the system exists here, theonly power that the court has over the selection of an expert, is todetermine, in advance of his testimony and of the elucidation of hisopinions, whether or not he is competent as an expert but this poweraffords little or no check or restriction, because in the effort to getall the light that is possible upon the questions under consideration, and to avoid unduly interfering with counsel in the conduct of thecase at bar, the practice has become universal, and is recognized inthe decisions and text writers, of permitting any medical man who hasa license to practise his profession, to testify as an expert, and togive his opinion as such on any question cognate to his profession this is so without regard to the amount of study and experience hemay have had in the writingicular matter under consideration the nakedfact that he is licensed to practise is enough he then that is, after testifying that he is a practising physician is clothed withthe garment of authority the only way in which his knowledge can betested is by cross-examination as to his experience and skill, andpossibly by contrasting him as he appears upon the witness-stand andhis history as he gives it, with other and more or less experienced andskilful men who follow him the rule is, that when a witness is produced to give an opinion on amedical question, he is interrogated by the counsel who produces himas to his qualifications at this point, before he is allowed to givehis opinion, it is proper and customary that the counsel upon the otherside of the case should be allowed an opportunity to cross-examineas to his competency, and then the court determines whether or nothe is a competent witness if the court pronounces him competent, ahypothetical question is put to him stating the facts of the case, asthe counsel interrogating him claims them to be established by theevidence, and the expert is then asked to give his opinion on thequestion at issue, based upon an assumption that the facts stated aretruly stated then the opposing counsel has the right to cross-examine, and to ask his views and opinions upon the same question at issue, butassuming as true other and different facts or premises, as he claimsthem to be established by the evidence this often involves a test ofwit and intelligence, and of forensic acumen, between the counsel andthe witness, which serves very little useful purpose, except perhaps toelucidate more strongly than has been here stated the defects of thesystem which now obtains it is also not unusual, and in fact is theresult of the workings of human nature, that under the manipulations ofcounsel skilled in cross-examination, skilled in methods of indirectionin stating facts, and armed with the powerful weapon of the rulewhich permits them to insist upon a categorical yes-or-no answer to aquestion, the jury and the court become confused, the witness loseshis temper, or becomes affected more strongly than ever before by biasagainst his persecutors, as he feels them to be, and the examinationends in a farce this is not always the case, and the illustrationgiven is an extreme one like the citations from judicial criticism ofexpert testimony which have been given, these matters are only advertedto here as danger signals, a warning to both professions, and with anearnest suggestion of the necessity of reform experts, how summoned into court they must obey the summons and appear and be sworn in general theyneed not give their opinions unless duly compensated - an expertwitness is brought into court like an ordinary witness by the usualprocess of the court this process is, under the american system, anordinary subpœna, and, being process of the court, whether or not hehas been paid or promised compensation for giving his opinion he mustobey the process to the extent at least of appearing in court whencalled, to be sworn interesting questions have been raised as to hisobedience to the subpœna to the extent of testifying when he has notbeen compensated it has been argued, and the argument is sustainedby the decisions of courts of high authority in essay states, thathis knowledge and skill, acquired by study and by experience, is hisproperty, of which he cannot be deprived without just compensation, under his constitutional rights guaranteed to him by the organic lawof this country on the other hand, in essay other states it has beenheld that he is so far a necessary writing of the judicial system that hemay be called upon to give the results of his experience, knowledge, and skill forming his opinion, without payment other than the ordinarycompensation to witnesses it is believed, however, that the betteropinion is the former. That he does not stand on the same footing asan ordinary witness, whose province it is to testify solely to mattersof observation of fact, but that he stands in the position of one whohas essaything to give.

If this tumor fluctuates or ishard, but in either case is elastic. If on incision the skin and thetissue spaces are infiltrated with blood which is coagulated, or ifthere is a cavity filled with clotted blood, the coagulum being firmand the entire amount of blood coagulated then the wound was inflictedduring life if, however, the surface shows a bluish or violet color, little or no swelling of the skin, which is of natural thickness, andthe ecchymosed area is not tense and elastic to the touch. If furtherthe blood is found on incision to be fluid or if coagulated only writinglyso, and the blood is not infiltrated into the tissue spaces, but merelyimbibed by the tissues then the blow was inflicted after death, andprobably more than two or three hours after in contusions especially we may have difficulty, as the sign offluidity of the blood may fail and putrefaction may modify theconditions of the wound unless writings deep beneath the surface beexamined we see, then, that in essay paper it is very easy to say that a woundwas inflicted post mortem if a wound was not inflicted until ten ortwelve hours after death or even sooner, we cannot easily mistake it but in thesis paper it may be hard or impossible to say whether a woundwas inflicted during life or within an hour or two after death herewe must be cautious in expressing an opinion which should be guarded but we should remember that it is important to be able to state that awound was inflicted before or immediately after death, as no one but amurderer would think of inflicting a fatal injury on a body immediatelyafter death in such paper a well-guarded medical opinion may oftenmeet all the requirements of the case granted that a given wound was produced before death there are, then, one or two questions which may arise, and which depend for theiranswer on the length of time the wounded person could have lived andthe physiological or muscular acts which he could have performed afterreceiving the injury and before death the first of these questions maybe expressed as follows:could the victim have performed certain acts after having received hisfatal injury?.

Compt rend soc de biol 56:319, 1904 47 bottazzi and gabrielli. Arch internat de physiol 111:156, 1905 48 enriquez and hallion. Bull gén de thér 162:202, 1911 49 falloise. Bull de l’acad roy de belgique 5:945, 1902 50 bayliss and starling note 2 matuso note 6 arch internat dephysiol 10:335, 1911 51 dixon and hamill. Jour physiol , 1909, xxxv, 314 52 bayliss and starling.

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The patient should face west, “the blood should be taken in a subdued light and there should be nostrong red or yellow coloring material in the room ”in various places dr abrams has asseverated that “ifsplancho-diagnosis is approached with a prejudiced mind, it is betternot to attempt it, for there are ‘none so blind as those that will notsee ’”dr abrams founded and edits physico-clinical medicine it ispublished by “physico-clinical co ” at 2135 sacramento st , sanfrancisco-- the address, according to the telephone directory, of dr abrams’ residence it is a quarterly “devoted to the study of theelectronic reactions of abrams and the visceral reflexes of abrams, inthe diagnosis, treatment and pathology of disease ” single copies, onedollar. By the year, two dollars the publication is, apparently, notentered as second class matter, in fact, presumably, it could not be, as it seems obviously to be an advertising affair each issue containsmaterial dealing with “spondylotherapy, ” “splanchno-diagnosis, ”“electronic reactions” and other discoveries and theories of dr abrams in it also is published a list of “essay recent visitors atdr abrams’ laboratory, ” the names and addresses of the “lessees ofoscilloclast” about which more later, testimonials for dr abrams, etc of course, it carries advertisements of dr abrams’ “physico-clinicallaboratory” also at 2135 sacramento st and his “practical coursesin spondylotherapy and electronic diagnosis and treatment” $200 inadvance essay of the devices of dr abrams are also advertised “noapparatus sold on credit terms cash ” among these are. “dr abrams’ electrodes for electronic diagnosis $ 6 00 “biodynamometer 36 00 “dr abrams’ reflex set 36 00 “dr abrams’ electro-concusser 120 00” the oscilloclastbut what seems to be the outstanding piece of apparatus, devisedor invented by dr abrams, the pièce de resistance, as it were, ofphysicoclinical diagnosis and treatment, is the “oscilloclast ”this device is not for sale it can be had only on lease the firstpayment is $200 or $250, according to whether it is wired foralternating or direct current then there is a monthly payment of$5 dr abrams publishes a list of more than 130 men who have leasedone or more “oscilloclasts ” sir james barr name heads the list according to dr abrams, the “oscilloclast” owes its conception to thetherapeutic principles he advocates these, in writing, are. “1 physiologic phenomena are manifestations of electronic energy “2 pathologic phenomena are manifestations of perturbed electronic energy “3 the energy in health and disease has an invariable and definite rate of vibration determinable by the electronic reactions “4 specific drugs possess a like vibratory rate as the diseases for which they are effective “these like vibratory rates hemovibrations of drugs owe their efficiency to their inherent radioactivity thus, an obsolete drug like gamboge painted on the chest in incipient tuberculosis will effect a symptomatic cure within a few weeks gamboge possesses the same vibratory rate as tuberculosis our conception that drug action is dependent on direct cellular contact is thus demolished “5 all forms of energy whether derived from heat, electricity or magnetism may be made to yield different rates of vibration and these rates corresponding to the diseases are utilized for their destruction ”if one accepts one of dr abrams’ theories, the possibilities ofsuch a piece of machinery as the “oscilloclast” would seem to loomlarge, not only in therapeutics, but also in economics all one needsto do, according to dr abrams, is to ascertain “the vibration rateof a drug” and then to substitute the same vibration as produced bythe “oscilloclast ” thus, if one substitutes the “vibratory rate ofatropin” for the drug itself “the mouth dries or the subject feels asif it were puckered ” conversely, if you switch the “oscilloclast” tothe pilocarpin vibratory rate, there is a copious flow of saliva therapeutic results with oscilloclastwhat essay of the lessees of the oscilloclast are accomplishing if weare to believe the clinical reports published in physico-clinicalmedicine may be gathered from the following quotations. “woman, age 52 -- diagnosis of acquired syphilis made by one of our most eminent clinicians ?.