History

Thesis In An Essay


And that need, real orimaginary, has a way of increasing in frequency as a result, thepatient takes far thesis in an essay more neurosine than the physician would think ofpermitting if the matter had not passed entirely beyond his control not only has the patient acquired a dangerous habit ofself-prescribing, but he takes especial delight in recommending hisfavorite remedy to friends whose symptoms, real and imaginary, seem toresemble his own this offers him an opportunity to prescribe with anair of authority it was prescribed for him by dr blank, and it gaverelief, ergo it may be depended on to give relief to others!. thus isthe basis laid for its general use by the laity, when this process ismultiplied sufficiently the statement is susceptible of easy proofby any one who cares to investigate the matter for himself there isprobably no physician worthy of the name who will attempt to denythat the promiscuous use of hypnotics and narcotics is dangerous, andcertainly no careful physician will deliberately place a narcotic inthe hands of patients to be used freely and without control since we have selected neurosine at random, so far as this writingiculardiscussion is concerned, it is worth while to inquire into itscomposition, the claims that have been made for it and the evidence, ifany exists, for or against its therapeutic value even the most activeof hypnotics are worse than useless if they are inferior to otherreadily available hypnotics, or if they have undesired side-actionsthat outweigh any advantages that they might otherwise have the council on pharmacy and chemistry investigated the literaturerelating to neurosine and published its report in the journal, jan 9, 1915, p 165 according to this report the manufacturers of neurosineclaimed that each fluidounce contained. Bromid of potassium, c p 40 grains bromid of sodium, c p 40 grains bromid of ammonium, c p 40 grains bromid of zinc 1 grain extract lupulin 32 grains cascara sagrada, fl ex 40 minims extract henbane 0 075 grain extract belladonna 0 075 grain extract cannabis indica 0 60 grain oil bitter almonds 0 60 grain aromatic elixirthis chemical blunderbuss was recommended for use in insomnia, hysteria, neurasthenia, migraine, neuralgia, delirium tremens, epilepsyand thesis other conditions also it was called an ideal calmative forchildren suffering from chorea, the exploiters claiming that “allauthorities recommend the bromids, hyoscyamus and cannabis indica inthis disease ” oliver t osborne, professor of therapeutics in yalemedical school, does not mention one of these three drugs in hisdiscussion of the medicinal treatment of chorea, in the handbook oftherapy, though he quotes several authorities in this article indeed, he does not mention one of the ten drugs included in the above formulaof neurosine in connection with the treatment of this disease it is acurious fact that osborne gives the greatest prominence to the use ofthat drug which is claimed to be wanting in the formula of neurosine, namely, hydrated chloral perhaps you may have seen temporary relief follow the administrationof neurosine in chorea, and may argue that theorizing is of littlevalue in the face of personal experience we shall not deny that essaymay have had that experience, for osborne calls attention to the factthat the success of any medicinal treatment must be judged in thelight of the fact that chorea is self-limited, and the intensity ofthe symptoms will abate in from two to four weeks in view of this, wewould hardly dispute the claim that one may administer narcotics, suchas those contained in neurosine, and the symptoms of chorea may abatein spite of such mistreatment in all the years that neurosine has beenexploited to physicians with such remarkable claims, we have never seena report of a careful clinical study in which the product has been usedunder the conditions which scientific investigation demands would youprescribe any nonproprietary preparations which had never been studiedclinically, if a horse-shoer or grocer boy told you it would cureepilepsy or malaria?. According to an editorial note appended to the report of the councilon neurosine, the dios chemical company consisted at that time 1915of j h chambers, his wife and two sons it appeared that chambersnever claimed to have any special knowledge of chemistry, pharmacy ormedicine, yet we find that he arrogated to himself or to his employeesthe right to offer therapeutic advice to the medical profession, andeven to direct them as to how they should prescribe a given mixture we essaytimes fail to see the forest because of the trees it may helpus to obtain a better perspective, in a problem that concerns usintimately, by resorting to a hypothetic case, if a close analogy ismaintained in order that we may see ourselves as others see us insuch a situation, let us consider the following imaginary case. Youbecome involved in a lawsuit in which an effort is made to deprive youof your property and your liberty you seek what you had reason tobelieve was competent legal advice.

Thus, the position and the course thesis in an essay and thephases of the moon, the relations of sun and moon to the twelve signsof the zodiac, and the planets would be noted it was necessary toobserve whether the moon was in opposition, quadrature, or conjunctionto the planets while she stood in the sign of this or that figure ofthe zodiac from these observations clear conclusions were first drawnregarding the general condition, the character, the duration, and theprognosis of the affection these conclusions, however, were by nomeans satisfactory as yet an attempt was therefore made to obtain amuch more detailed insight into the causes, complications, and therapyof the case in question by means of astrology, and such information wasabundantly provided in the medicina astrologica in the first place, the fact that sun, moon, planets, and the signsof the zodiac shared the rule over the various organs of the body, and furnished positive intimations regarding the cause of the diseasein question, made it unnecessary for the physician to trouble himselfat all with an examination of the patient in order to ascertain causeand localization of the affection one glance at the conjunctions ofthe stars was sufficient to show which organ of the patient happenedto be endangered by the celestial constellation if an individualcomplained, for instance, of disturbed digestion, and if the heavenlybody that presided over the liver presented any remarkable phenomena, naturally only the liver was responsible for the case in question, and the diagnosis was made complications were to be expected if thestars which controlled the circulation of blood and mucus showedunfavorable signs it was even possible for the physician well versedin astrology to determine in advance the period of time at which theoccurrence of such humoral complications might be expected, as he hadlearned that the various hours of the day and of the night were toexert a powerful influence upon the juices of the body for instance, almanzor explains that the first three hours of day and of night arein closest relation to the blood, whereas the second quarters of dayand of night hold sway over the yellow, the third over the black bile, and the last quarters, finally, over the mucus however, notonly were the various hours of great importance to the course of thedisease, but certain days of the disease so-called critical days wereof still greater significance it is true, the doctrine of thesecritical days was by no means the property of medicina astrologica, but the corpus hippocraticum already contained a book περὶχρίησὶμων but the followers of hippocrates had developed thistheory only from humoro-pathological premises, and galen, in his workχρήἱσιμαι ἡμέραι, had only included astrology in order to explainand to prove the entire doctrine of crises compare also sudhoff hecalculated in accordance with moon weeks and months, and in such amanner that a week counted six days and seventeen and one-half hours, and the month of the moon only twenty-six days and twenty-two hours the seventh, fourteenth, twentieth, and twenty-seventh days were tobe considered critical days of the first order “contemplate, ” saysgalen, “the critical days in the course of the moon in the angles ofa geometrical figure of sixteen sides. If you find these angles in afavorable constellation, the patient will fare well. Badly, however, if evil signs prevail ” but not only were certain hours and certaindays of the week said to exert an important astrological influence uponthe human body, such an influence was ascribed also to certain years such years were called “anni scansiles” that is, “climacteric ” theexpression “anni climacterici” was also used, but this designationhas nothing in common with the modern conception of the climacteric it was believed that the condition of the body underwent a thoroughrevolution during these climacteric years, and that a new stage, as itwere, of organic life was reached heinrich von rantzau, the astronomicaristocrat and statesman, accordingly defines the climacteric yearsas “anni, in quibus ad sequentis temporis constitutionem sese vertatætas et inflectat ” therefore, such years should in themselves harbordangers for corporeal existence, and offer no favorable prospect forthe course of diseases two kinds of such climacteric years were distinguished one kind wasbrought about by multiplication with the figure 7, and they werecalled anni hebdomatici, or climacterici stricte sic dicta accordingly, these were the years 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 these nine years formed the climactericus parvus, whereas the years77, 84, 91, 98, 105, 112, 119, 126 were called the climactericusmagnus a multiplication which extended further, to 171, reachedthe climactericus maximus the other kind of climacteric years wasobtained by multiplication with 9, and such years were called annienneatici, or decretorii these were the years 9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90, 99, 108, etc however, these climacteric years did not all present the same dangers, but the peril inherent in them varied considerably it was determinedby the multiplicator, and here especially the 3 and the 7 played avery fatal rôle the 21st year of life 3 × 7, and the 27th 3 × 9, were one grade higher in the scale of dangers than those obtained byother multiplicators still more dangerous were those years arrived atby ascending in spaces of three hebdomads. Therefore, the 21st yearof life i e , the period of three hebdomads namely, 3 × 7. The 42dyear, as a period of 2 × 3 hebdomads i e , 2 × 21. The 63d year oflife, as a period of 3 hebdomads i e , 3 × 21. 84 to 4 × 21. 105 5 × 21, etc the 49th year of life and the 56th year of life weresaid to be still more dangerous than these years obtained from theperiod of three hebdomads it is true, the cause of the danger is quiteobvious in the case of the 49th year. It was the ominous 7 × 7 whichhere gave rise to forebodings and it was not quite comprehensible whatcaused the bad reputation of innocent 56. Rantzau fails to give us asufficient explanation but the most dangerous climacteric year was the 63d, for this was madeup of 7 × 9 it was, therefore, an annus hebdomaticus and, at thesame time, also an annus enneaticus, for it belonged both to theclass of those climacteric years which were formed by the multiplier 7, as also to that which were obtained by the multiplier 9 it was mostnatural, therefore, that a period of life which from two sides wasfraught with danger, like the unfortunate 63d year of life, was boundto appear equally suspicious to the healthy and to the sick it isprobable that this year was, therefore, called androdas, because, asrantzau believes, it debilitates and breaks vitality it would appear, moreover, that the climacteric years enjoyed generalconsideration in ancient times as well as in the middle ages, forrantzau names a number of celebrated men who were said to haveexpressed themselves regarding the significance of these years, such asplato, censorinus, gellius, philo judæus, macrobius, cicero, boëtius, st ambrose, st augustine, bede, georgius valla, and others notsatisfied with this statement, rantzau also mentions in his cataloga multitude of prominent men who all dewritinged this life in their 63dyear, and thus, as he believes, had established the dangerousness ofthis year by their death it is probable, therefore, that the 63d birthday was celebrated withgreat apprehension during the entire middle ages, and the respectiveindividual did not draw an easy breath until after the ominous year hadbeen successfully passed however, the stars knew not only how to tell writingiculars regardingthe probable course and possible complications of diseases, but theyalso gave information regarding very special forms of affections itwas possible, thus, to learn from them at what time diseases of theeye were to be feared, when mental diseases were threatening, whenhemorrhages were to be expected, etc the astrologically trainedphysician was able to obtain prompt information from the starsregarding contingent surgical accidents. For there existed variousconjunctions of the celestial bodies, according to ptolemy, whichsurely pointed to wounds, fractures of bones, burns, concussions, andother lesions in fact, it was possible to see in advance, from thecelestial phenomena, what limbs would be exposed to forcible injury;thus, certain conjunctions of the planets were said to prognosticatewith certainty wounds of the head. Others, of the face. Others, again, of the hands and feet, of the fingers and toes, of the arms and legs, of the trunk and neck astrology, moreover, was not satisfied with theprognostic and diagnostic activity which we have just mentioned, but italso interfered in therapy, internal as well as external regarding, in the first place, internal medicinal treatment, theastrologer knew how to give positive information about the same.

A thousand to one, but it is under mercury the four administering virtues are, attractive, digestive, retentive, and expulsive the attractive virtue is hot and dry, hot by quality, active, orprincipal, and that appears because the fountain of all heat isattractive, viz the sun dry by a quality passive, or an effect ofits heat. Its office is to remain in the body, and call for what naturewants it is under the influence of the sun, say authors, and not undermars, because he is of a corrupting nature, yet if we cast animwritingial eye upon experience, we shall find, that martial men callfor meat none of the least, and for drink the most of all other men, although thesis times they corrupt the body by it, and therefore i seeno reason why mars being of the same quality with the sun, shouldnot have a share in the dominion it is in vain to object, that theinfluence of mars is evil, and therefore he should have no dominionover this virtue. For then, 1 by the same rule, he should have no dominion at all in the body ofman 2 all the virtues in man are naturally evil, and corrupted by adamfall this attractive virtue ought to be fortified when the moon is infiery signs, viz aries and sagitary, but not in leo, for thesign is so violent, that no physic ought to be given when the moon isthere. and why not leo, seeing that is the most attractive sign ofall. And that the reason such as have it ascending in their genesis, are such greedy eaters if you cannot stay till the moon be in oneof them, let one of them ascend when you administer the medicine the digestive virtue is hot and moist, and is the principal of themall, the other like handmaids attend it the attractive virtue draws that which it should digest, and servescontinually to feed and supply it the retentive virtue, retains the substance with it, till it beperfectly digested the expulsive virtue casteth out, expels what is superfluous bydigestion it is under the influence of jupiter, and fortified by hisherbs and plants, &c in fortifying it, let your moon be in gemini, aquary, or the first half of libra, or if matters be come to thatextremity, that you cannot stay till that time, let one of them ascend, but both of them together would do better, always provided that themoon be not in the ascendent i cannot believe the moon afflictsthe ascendent so much as they talk of, if she be well dignified, and ina sign she delights in the retentive virtue is in quality cold and dry. Cold, because thenature of cold is to compress, witness the ice. Dry, because the natureof dryness, is to keep and hold what is compressed it is under theinfluence of saturn, and that is the reason why usually saturnine menare so covetous and tenacious in fortifying of it, make use of theherbs and plants, &c of saturn, and let the moon be in taurusor virgo, capricorn is not so good, say authors, i can give noreason for that neither. Let not saturn nor his ill aspect molestthe ascendent the expulsive faculty is cold and moist. Cold because that compassesthe superfluities. Moist, because that makes the body slippery andfit for ejection, and disposes it to it it is under the dominion ofluna, with whom you may join venus, because she is of the samenature also in whatsoever is before written, of the nature of the planets, take notice, that fixed stars of the same nature, work the same effect in fortifying this, which ought to be done in all purgations, letthe moon be in cancer, scorpio, or pisces, or let one of thesesigns ascend although i did what i could throughout the whole book to expressmyself in such a language as might be understood by all, and thereforeavoided terms of art as much as might be, yet, 1 essay words ofnecessity fall in which need explanation 2 it would be very tediousat the end of every receipt to repeat over and over again, the way ofadministration of the receipt, or ordering your bodies after it, or toinstruct you in the mixture of medicines, and indeed would do nothingelse but stuff the book full of tautology to answer to both these is my task at this time to the first. The words which need explaining, such as are obvious tomy eye, are these that follow 1 to distil in balneo mariæ, is the usual way of distillingin water it is no more than to place your glass body which holds thematter to be distilled in a convenient vessel of water, when the wateris cold for fear of breaking put a wisp of straw, or the like underit, to keep it from the bottom, then make the water boil, that so thespirit may be distilled forth. Take not the glass out till the water becold again, for fear of breaking. It is impossible for a man to learnhow to do it, unless he saw it done 2 manica hippocrates, hippocrates sleeve, is a piece of woolencloth, new and white, sewed together in form of a sugar-loaf its useis, to strain any syrup or decoction through, by pouring it into it, and suffering it to run through without pressing or crushing it 3 calcination, is a burning of a thing in a crucible or other suchconvenient vessel that will endure the fire a crucible is such a thingas goldsmiths melt silver in, and founders metals. You may place it inthe midst of the fire, with coals above, below, and on every side of it 4 filtrition, is straining of a liquid body through a brown paper:make up the paper in form of a funnel, the which having placed in afunnel, and the funnel and the paper in it in an empty glass, pour inthe liquor you would filter, and let it run through at its leisure 5 coagulation, is curdling or hardening.

Pain reflex present vi 27 19-- fairly active. Eats a little vi 28 19-- depressed died during night of vi 29 19 three days experiment 4 -- 5 c c. Injected vi 24 19. Quiet.

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Then add the rozin and wax. Lastly, itbeing removed from the fire, add the turpentine, œsypus and birdlime, make of them a plaister by melting them according to art culpeper it dissolves hardness and inflammations diachylon magnum cum gummi college take of bdellium, sagapenum, amoniacum, of each two ounces, dissolved in wine, and added to the mass of diachylon magnum. Firstboil the gums being dissolved, to the thickness of honey culpeper this is the best to dissolve hard swellings of all thethree diachylon compositum, sive emplaistrum e mussilaginibus or, a plaister of mussilages college take of mussilages of the middle bark of elm, marsh-mallowroots, linseed, and fenugreek seed, of each four ounces and an half, oil of chamomel, lilies, and dill, of each an ounce and an half, ammoniacum, galbanum, sagapen, opopanax, of each half an ounce, new waxtwenty ounces, turpentine two ounces, saffron two drams, dissolve thegums in wine, and make it into a plaister according to art culpeper it ripens swellings, and breaks them, and cleanses themwhen they are broken it is of a most excellent ripening nature emplaistrum diaphœnicon hot college take of yellow wax two ounces, per-rozin, pitch, of eachfour ounces, oil of roses and nard, of each one ounce, melt themtogether, and add pulp of dates made in wine four ounces, flesh ofquinces boiled in red wine an ounce, then the powders following. Takeof bread twice baked, steeped in wine and dried, two ounces, mastich anounce, frankincense wormwood, red roses, spikenard, of each two dramsand an half, wood of aloes, mace, myrrh, washed aloes, acacia, trochesof gallia moschata, and earth of lemnos, calamus aromaticus, of eachone dram, labdanum three ounces, mix them and make them into a plaisteraccording to art culpeper it strengthens the stomach and liver exceedingly, helpsfluxes, apply it to the places grieved diaphœnicon cold college take of wax four ounces, ship pitch five ounces, labdanumthree ounces and an half, turpentine an ounce and an half, oil of rosesone ounce, melt these, and add pulp of dates almost ripe, boiled inaustere wine four ounces, flesh of quinces in like manner boiled, breadtwice baked often steeped in red wine and dried, of each an ounce, styrax calamitis, acacia, unripe grapes, balaustines, yellow sanders, troches of terra lemnia, myrrh, wood of aloes, of each half an ounce, mastich, red roses, of each an ounce and an half, austere wine asmuch as is sufficient to dissolve the juices, make it into a plaisteraccording to art culpeper it strengthens the belly and liver, helps concoction inthose writings, and distribution of humours, stays vomiting and fluxes emplastrum divinum or, a divine plaster college take of loadstone four ounces, ammoniacum three ounces andthree drams, bdellium two ounces, galbanum, myrrh, of each ten drams, olibanum nine drams, opopanax, mastich, long birthwort, verdigris, of each an ounce, litharge, common oil, of each a pound and an half, new wax eight ounces. Let the litharge in fine powder be boiled withthe oil to a thickness, then add the wax, which being melted, take itfrom the fire, add the gums dissolved in wine and vinegar, strain it, then add the myrrh, mastich, frankincense, birthwort, and loadstone inpowder, last of all the verdigris in powder, and make it into a plasteraccording to art culpeper it is of a cleansing nature, exceeding good againstmalignant ulcers, it consumes corruption, engenders new flesh, andbrings them to a scar emplastrum epispasticum college take of mustard seed, euphorbium, long pepper, of each onedram and an half, stavesacre, pellitory of spain of each two drams, ammoniacum, galbanum, phellium, sagapen, of each three drams, wholecantharides five drams, ship pitch, rozin, yellow wax, of each sixdrams, turpentine as much as is sufficient to make it into a plaster culpeper thesis people use to draw blisters in their necks for thetooth ache, or for rheums in their eyes. If they please to lay aplaster of this there, it will do it emplastrum a nostratibus, flos unguentorum dictum or, flower of ointments college take of rozin, per rozin, yellow wax, sheep suet, of eachhalf a pound, olibanum four ounces, turpentine two ounces and an half, myrrh, mastich, of each an ounce, camphire two drams, white wine half apound, boil them into a plaster culpeper i found this receipt in an old manuscript written in theyear 1513, the quantity of the ingredients very little altered a plaster of gum elemi college take of gum elemi three ounces, per rozin, wax, ammoniacum, of each two ounces, turpentine three ounces and an half, mallaga wineso much as is sufficient. Boil it to the consumption of the wine, thenadd the ammoniacum dissolved in vinegar culpeper the operation is the same with arceus liniment a plaister of lapis calaminaris college take of lapis calaminaris prepared an ounce, litharge twoounces, ceruss half an ounce, tutty a dram, turpentine six drams, whitewax an ounce and an half, stag suet two ounces, frankincense fivedrams, mastich three drams, myrrh two drams, camphire a dram and anhalf, make it up according to art emplastrum ad herniam college take of galls, cypress nuts, pomegranate pills, balaustines, acacia, the seeds of plantain, fleawort, water-cresses, acorn cups, beans torrified, birth-wort long and round, myrtles of eachhalf an ounce let these be powdered, and steeped in rose vinegar fourdays, then torrified and dried, then take of comfrey the greater andlesser, horsetail, woad, cetrach, the roots of osmond royal, fearn, ofeach an ounce, frankincense, myrrh, aloes, mastich, mummy, of each twoounces, bole-ammoniac washed in vinegar, lap, calaminaris prepared, litharge of gold, dragon blood, of each three ounces, ship pitch twopounds, turpentine six ounces, or as much as is sufficient to make itinto a plaster according to art culpeper the plaster is very binding and knitting, appropriated toruptures or burstens, as the title of it specifies, it strengthens thereins and womb, stays abortion, it consolidates wounds, and helps alldiseases coming of cold and moisture emplastrum hystericum college take of bistort roots one pound, wood of aloes, yellowsanders, nutmegs, barberry kernels, rose seeds, of each one ounce, cinnamon, cloves, squinanth, chamomel flowers, of each half an ounce, frankincense, mastich, alipta moschata, gallia moschata, styraxcalamitis, of each one dram, mosch half a dram, yellow wax one poundand an half, turpentine half a pound, moschæleum four ounces, labdanumfour pounds, ship pitch three pounds. Let the labdanum and turpentinebe added to the pitch and wax, being melted, then the styrax, lastlythe rest in powder, and sifted, that they may be made into a plasteraccording to art culpeper the plaster being applied to the navel, is a means towithstand the fits of the mother in such women as are subject to them, by retaining the womb in its place emplastrum de mastich or, a plaster of mastich college take of mastich three ounces, bole-ammoniac washed in blackwine, an ounce and an half, red roses six drams, ivory, myrtle berries, red coral, of each half an ounce, turpentine, colophonia, tachamahacca, labdanum, of each two ounces, yellow wax half a pound, oil of myrtlesfour ounces. Make it into a plaster according to art culpeper it is a binding plaster, strengthens the stomach beingapplied to it, and helps such as loath their victuals, or cannot digestit, or retain it till it be digested emplastrum de meliloto simplex or, a plaster of melilot simple college take of rozin eight pounds, yellow wax four pounds, sheepsuet two pounds. These being melted, add green melilot cut small, fivepounds. Make it into a plaster according to art emplastrum de meliloto compositum or, a plaster of melilot compound college take of melilot flowers six drams, chamomel flowers, theseeds of fenugreek, bay berries husked, marsh-mallow roots, the topsof wormwood and marjoram, of each three drams, the seeds of smallage, ammi, cardamoms, the roots of orris, cypress, spikenard, cassia lignea, of each one dram and an half, bdellium five drams.