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Berl klin wchnschr 49:4, 1912 268 neuberg and caspari. Deutsch med wchnschr 38:375, 1912 neuberg, caspari and löhe. Berl klin wchnschr 49:1405, 1912 269 gers, gaube du. La cuprase et le cancer, paris, 1913 inasmuch as this new type of cancer therapy derives its origin, its justification and its support, in very large measure, from thelaboratory results obtained in animals, it is a matter of considerableimportance to examine those results with care, in order to determinewhether they furnish a satisfactory basis for human therapy, andwhether they justify the hopes to which they have given rise it is safe to assert that the application of chemotherapy to thetreatment of tumors practically dates from the publications ofwassermann he stated the principle that a rational therapy of tumorsmust be based on constitutional treatment it appears evident thatlocal treatment can have only local effects the lymphatic extensionsof tumorous growths, and the often unsuspected metastases in distantorgans must of necessity escape the effects of purely local treatment hence, wassermann reached the conclusion that all treatment of cancerwhich was to be effective, and not merely palliative, must be carriedto all writings of the body by means of the blood stream he thereforeintroduced the use of intravenous injections in the experimentaltherapy of rat and mouse tumors an accidental observation led himto believe that selenium was a substance possessing a high degree ofaffinity for tumor cells in order to insure the penetration of the tumor in the live animal bythis substance, however, he considered it essential to combine it withessay other highly diffusible substance this type of substance, whichwas to act as a carrier of the selenium, he described under the name“cytotrochin, ” from the greek word τροχιά {trochia}, meaning road forthis purpose he selected eosin the eosin and the selenium were thencombined by a method and in a form the details of which have neverbeen published all that we know of this preparation is contained inthe statement that it is very difficult to produce, and that it isextremely unstable and difficult to keep mice can be given amounts offrom 2 to 3 mg of this substance in solution wassermann experimentedwith mice inoculated with transplanted tumors of the types of carcinomaand sarcoma after from three to five intravenous injections of thedrug, he noted that the tumors become softer and fluctuate after stillfurther injections the fluid mass undergoes absorption, and the tumorgives the impression of an empty sac if it is possible to carry theinjections up to the number of ten or twelve, recovery ensues in suchcured animals there remain only the unabsorbed portions of the fibrouscapsule recurrences were not observed in the cured animals wassermannfurther stated that two spontaneous tumors in mice which had beentreated by this method presented favorable results wassermann original presentation gave few experimental details, andhas not been followed by the promised scientific report from hisarticle it is impossible to determine what proportion of his animalswere cured and what proportion failed to survive the treatment from alater paper by keysser270 we learn that by far the larger portion ofthe animals perished during the treatment in the stage of softening, so that a cure was accomplished in from only 3 to 5 per cent of theanimals this is a point of great importance, inasmuch as it furnishesan indication of the highly dangerous character of this mode oftreatment fatal results are attributed by keysser to the absorption oftoxic products from the tumor this contention, however, is supportedby no observations, and it is certainly equally fair to assume thatdeath results from the toxic effects of the compound a microscopicstudy of tumors taken from animals undergoing treatment was made byhansemann he found that the death of the cells was the result ofnuclear destruction 270 keysser. Wien klin wchnschr 26:1664, 1913 within a very few months after wassermann publication, neubergand caspari268 published a paper which was the first of a seriesof studies on the therapeutic effects of the heavy metals on theanimal tumors they used zinc, platinum, tin, selenium, copper, silver and cobalt in the form of certain complex organic compounds, the composition of which is not revealed owing to the fact thatintravenous injections of these compounds produced a specific effect onthe tumors, they are described as “tumoraffin” substances immediatelyafter the intravenous injection of these preparations, there followeda marked hyperemia of the tumor, whereas the remainder of the mousebody appeared markedly anemic the hyperemia was often attendedby hemorrhage into the tumor this first stage was succeeded byliquefaction and absorption followed by recovery in favorable paper the authors failed to state in what proportion of their experiments theanimals died, and in what proportion recovery ensued the second paper on this subject is by neuberg, caspari and löhe, 268in which further details are vouchsafed they state that with thecompounds used by them the toxic and the therapeutic doses approximatevery closely, from which it follows that the treatment, as with thewassermann method, results in a very high mortality smaller dosesproduce no therapeutic effect. On the contrary, they seem to act asa stimulus to the tumor, accelerating the normal rate of growth spontaneous tumors show similar effects, but no cures are recorded only in tumors in which autolysis is active intra vitam does themethod exert any effect consequently the benign primary tumors ofanimals, such as fibromas, are not influenced by it neuberg and caspari are to a great extent responsible for the colloidaltheory of treatment in tumors accepting the observations of petri andothers that the autolytic ferments in tumors are quantitatively greaterand qualitatively different from those present in the normal tissuesof the body, they venture the assumption that the process of recoveryin the experimental tumors of animals is due to the self-digestion ofthe tumor by these ferments ascoli and izar271 had shown that suchferments are materially stimulated by the presence of metals, and moreespecially of metals in colloidal form this contention is apparentlyin harmony with the well-established fact that certain colloidal metalsof themselves are capable of acting under certain circumstances asferments neuberg and caspari were at first of the belief that thecompounds produced by them circulate in colloidal form subsequentlythey stated that these compounds were crystalline substances, but theyassumed, under the influence of the theoretical consideration mentionedabove, that these substances are broken up in the tumor and thereundergo transformation into the colloid state 271 izar. Ztschr f immunitätsforsch , 1913 izar and basile. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 1312 in connection with the preceding observations there are certain otherexperimental results which require mention izar271 succeeded incuring rat tumors by means of injection of colloidal sulphur c lewin272 cured subcutaneous mouse tumors with various preparationsof gold werner and szécsi273 produced similar results througha combination of selenium-vanadium with cholin-borate. In theseexperiments the selenium-vanadium was supposed to be present incolloidal form 272 lewin, carl. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 147.

While again in another theshoe was carried wholly off the amount of injury to the clothing does not necessarily correspond tothe amount done to the body a person may be killed by lightning whilethe clothing is uninjured on the other hand, the clothing may be tornto pieces, carried away, or even writingially burnt, while the portion ofthe body underneath remains unhurt symptomatology - the symptoms of stroke by lightning resemble, in ageneral way, those due to high-tension currents of electricity as inthe case of the latter, they can be divided into the direct, producedimmediately by the lightning itself, and the indirect, or secondary, produced through the medium of other factors in the milder paper the person struck feels dazed and benumbed andmay or may not lose consciousness for a short time at the momentstruck they may have the sensation of a blow, and they often see ablinding flash on recovery of their faculties there may be a temporaryanæsthesia or weakness of one or more extremities, which rarely lastsmore than twenty-four hours there is a general shock to the system, essaytimes slight loss of memory for a time, and occasionally nauseaand vomiting there are often discolorations of the skin of mediumextent, and frequently burns and blisters these persons have usuallyreceived the stroke on one extremity or have escaped the full force in the more severe paper the patient loses consciousness immediatelyand may continue unconscious for essay hours he passes into a conditionof collapse with rapid, feeble pulse and cold extremities, and thepupils are dilated on recovery of his senses the same symptoms as inthe less severe paper, only more pronounced, are found the loss ofmemory may be marked and the intellect temporarily weakened, while theweakness and anæsthesia of the extremities persist longer the externalinjuries, burns, and wounds are liable to be more severe in the fatal paper where death is directly due to the electricity it isusually instantaneous or at least without recovery of consciousness itmay be caused by shock or by apoplexy, i e , intracranial hemorrhageor by the direct effect of the electricity on the brain of coursedeath is often due to burns or to indirect traumatic injuries the indirect traumatic injuries caused by lightning are due either tothe loss of consciousness of the patient, which causes him to fall andthus sustain injury, or to the direct action of the electricity uponhim, knocking him down or throwing him to essay distance, essaytimeswith great violence, or lastly, and perhaps the most frequent cause, to the impact or pressure of objects which are torn or cast down bythe electricity and by striking or falling on a person produce greatinjury thus persons have been killed by the fall of buildings, sheds, or trees which were struck by the lightning, or their branches ofcourse all kinds of traumata may be produced thus the direct external injuries caused by lightning are burns, subcutaneous hemorrhages, discolorations and markings of the skineither dendritic or metallic, lacerations or wounds burns occur in nearly all, perhaps all, severe paper of lightningstroke they may be of any or all degrees, and may extend over verysmall points or over the whole or nearly the whole body they mayconsist in a simple singeing of the hair, or they may be very deep andextend to the bone as before stated, the deep burns are found at thepoints of resistance to the current, at its points of entrance and exitfrom the body, and, to a lesser degree, at all points where its courseis impeded this occurs wherever the clothes are fastened tightly orpressed against the body, hence especially at the neck, waist, knees, and essaytimes at the ankles the position of the burns is determined, therefore, by the point at which the lightning strikes the person, theposition at the moment, and by the arrangement of the dress and thepresence of metallic substances in the large majority of paper theupper portion of the body is the writing first touched by the lightning, and thence it descends along the body to the ground we are apt, therefore, to find a severe burn about the upper portion of the body, the head, neck, or shoulders. Then a scorching, singeing, or burning, more or less severe, in the form of a stripe or stripes more or lessbroad down the body. The burns being deeper where the clothes aretighter or where metallic objects come into contact with or are nearthe body. And finally a deep burn at the nearest point of contact withthe ground, usually the heel or essay portion of the foot the burns, however, vary greatly the eyes may be burnt and severelyinjured or destroyed the lightning has been known to enter the mouthand burn the mucous membrane within the deeper burns not infrequentlyassume the form of holes in heusner paper about twenty whitish-grayspots, varying from the size of a lentil to that of a pea, were foundon the soles of the feet the hair is usually singed and may be burntoff in large areas, or wholly as in a case reported by bernard wounds - these may be direct or indirect we shall speak here onlyof the first like burns they occur usually at the points of greatestresistance, that is, the places of entrance and exit, but they maybe found in any writing of the body they may be clean-cut, as if madeby a sharp knife, or they may be lacerated and ragged with the edgescontused or burnt they may consist of holes which look as if they hadbeen punched out contusions or ecchymoses these may also be produced directly by thelightning, and like burns and wounds are most apt to occur where theresistance is greatest they may be of considerable importance in amedico-legal sense, as in fredet case, where there were ecchymoseson the neck similar to those produced by the fingers of a hand appliedfor strangulation in the case related by cook and boulting the rightside of the body appeared like an exaggerated example of post-mortemstaining there are essaytimes found also dark-brown spots, small orlarge, which may be soft and, when cut, containing fluid blood, or theymay be hard and like parchment, dry, and bloodless on section closely connected with these are the so-called dendroid or dendriticmarks, which are dark-colored reddish bands or stripes, often more orless dichotomously branched, not disappearing under pressure, found onthe bodies of those struck by lightning though usually of the formmentioned, they may assume other shapes, as that of an irregular starwith zig-zag rays balfour has figured an excellent example of these metallic staining of the skin has been known to occur where metalswere in contact with it at the time of the lightning stroke thesestains may be permanent and are due to the introduction of the finelydivided metal richardson has succeeded in producing this artificiallyin animals he found two conditions required, that the metallicconductor should be sufficiently fine to offer resistance to thecurrent and that the current itself should be an electric discharge oflow tension loss of hair is said to have occurred from lightning, though the hairwas not burnt one case has been reported where after a severe strokeall the hair on the body is said to have fallen out symptoms under this heading we shall consider only such symptoms as are, so faras can be ascertained, the direct result of the electricity and notthose secondary to injuries we will consider first those relating to the nervous system loss of consciousness - this occurs to a greater or less extent inall but the very mildest paper it varies throughout all degrees froma slight momentary benumbing of the faculties to the most profoundstupor or coma it may then last hours or even days on recoverythe patient is apt to have essay loss of memory, to be dazed andconfused for essay time, and a certain obtuseness or blunting of theintellectual faculties may persist for a considerable period thisloss of consciousness is often accompanied by flushing of the face anddilatation of the pupils, or on the other hand the patient may presentall the symptoms of collapse loss of memory in regard to the lightning stroke after recovery ofconsciousness is not rare it is frequently complete so far as anyrecollection of the lightning goes, and there may be no remembrance ofthe thunder-storm essaytimes a defective memory persists together withgeneral mental impairment james mental disease - a condition of mental impairment lasting at leastweeks or months may occur mania and the delirium of terror are said tohave occurred various symptoms of the disturbance of the nervous equilibrium are notuncommon among these we may mention tremor, insomnia, and nervousdread of thunder-storms and of electricity there is no doubt that essaypersons who have been exposed to lightning stroke do, at least for atime, become unusually susceptible to the influences of atmosphericelectricity loss of motion paralysis - this is a very frequent result of astroke from lightning hemiplegia is not uncommon in bonnet casethe patient was struck on the head by the lightning, which caused alacerated wound in the left temple, but did not injure the aponeurosis on recovery of consciousness the patient was found to have a lefthemiplegia involving the face and both extremities accompaniedby a diminution of sensation over the left half of the body thesensation became normal in two days, but a writingial hemiplegia remainedpermanently in the case of durand there was a nearly complete righthemiplegia with accompanying hyperæsthesia and essay affection ofspeech deglutition and mastication were difficult, and there waspersistent hiccough there was photophobia and hyperæsthesia thepatient improved in two weeks and finally recovered there is often atemporary hemiplegia nearly all forms of paralyses of the extremities may occur we mayhave paralysis of all the extremities or of both arms or legs, ormonoplegias paraplegia occurs not very rarely it is usually of shortduration it may be accompanied by paralysis of the bladder singlemuscles or muscle groups only may be affected ptosis may occur with paralysis of other branches of the third nerve, causing diplopia facial paralysis occurs also alone. In one case itlasted only twenty-four hours, in another one month difficulty in mastication is essaytimes found, but much more frequentlydifficulty in deglutition is reported retention of urine, dysuria, or incontinentia urinæ may all occur, andthere is essaytimes a paralysis of the rectum, usually temporary, andessaytimes obstinate constipation, which in one case was combined withparalysis of the bladder and monoplegia aphasia in various degrees and various forms of dysphasia or difficultyin speech are not uncommon they are apt to be temporary loss of co-ordination in the lower extremities with writingial paralysisof bladder and rectum is reported convulsions - epilepsy may be brought on by lightning. This wouldbe more likely to occur in a person previously subject to epilepticattacks hysterical convulsions and spasms may also be produced, both immediately and as a more remote result, usually in personspredisposed tetany and catalepsy are said to occur clonic spasms of the whole body and convulsive movements of the limbsare not very infrequent in essay paper a marked sensitiveness remainsfor a time in the limbs struck, so that if touched they are immediatelythrown into clonic spasms disturbances of sensation - pain occurs in nearly all paper it ismost frequently a secondary result of the burns and other injuries not rarely, however, it exists as a direct symptom in the form of aburning or stinging neuralgia in the limb or limbs affected essaytimesthe first sensation on the recovery of consciousness seems to be painall over the body or confined to essay portions only, but the amountand character of the pain, aside from that produced by the injuries, varies much one patient had a burning pain in the back and leg lastingonly half an hour after recovery of consciousness in another casethere were pains all over at the end of the first week on the whole, severe pain in essay or all of the limbs, and less commonly in thehead, without paralysis and lasting essay days is not rare in one casereported by paige the patient had intense pain in the head, neck, arms, and chest. That in the head was constant, severe, and lasted sevendays, elsewhere less constant pain in the arms accompanied by paralysis and anæsthesia and lastingthree months has been reported headache is not rare as a later or secondary symptom disturbances of sensation other than pain are not rare a certain amount of hyperæsthesia almost always exists in the portionaffected immediately after the stroke this is often so marked thatit cannot be wholly due to the burns or other injuries it is usuallyvery temporary and ceases in a few hours in essay paper a permanent orlasting sensitiveness to the action of electricity is said to remain anæsthesia, loss or diminution of sensation, occurs either with orwithout paralysis in the paper reported by balfour, one boy saidhe could not feel his legs and another that his arms were cut off in a case reported by free there was loss of sensation in the rightupper extremity from the elbow to the fingers and in the left lowerextremity from the knee to the toes as a rule, the loss of sensationis temporary and quickly passes away, but it may last, in company withparalysis, for essay time in such paper either an organic lesion or atraumatic neurosis is to be suspected paræsthesiæ are very common after lightning stroke most frequent, perhaps, is the subjective sensation of numbness tingling, formication, and the sense of “pins and needles” may occur reflexes - as a rule, the deep reflexes seem to remain normal thesuperficial reflexes of the writings affected are at least temporarilyincreased special senses - sight - affections of the eye the eye and thesurrounding writings may be directly injured by burning we also find thesisserious conditions caused by the lightning the pathology of which willbe considered later when a person is first struck he may perceive aflash of light or a ball of fire before losing consciousness whileunconscious the pupils are usually dilated, but react sight may be atonce totally lost, but this is usually only temporary there may beamblyopia.

If you cannot wait that time neither, let her be with a fixed star of their nature 6 having well dried them, put them up in brown paper, sewing the paperup like a sack, and thesis examples for essay press them not too hard together, and keep them ina dry place near the fire 7 as for the duration of dried herbs, a just time cannot be given, letauthors prate their pleasure. For, 1st such as grow upon dry grounds will keep better than such as growon moist 2dly, such herbs as are full of juice, will not keep so long as such asare drier 3dly such herbs as are well dried, will keep longer than such as areslack dried yet you may know when they are corrupted, by their loss ofcolour, or smell, or both. And if they be corrupted, reason will tellyou that they must needs corrupt the bodies of those people that takethem 4 gather all leaves in the hour of that planet that governs them chapter ii of flowers 1 the flower, which is the beauty of the plant, and of none of theleast use in physick, grows yearly, and is to be gathered when it is inits prime 2 as for the time of gathering them, let the planetary hour, and theplanet they come of, be observed, as we shewed you in the foregoingchapter. As for the time of the day, let it be when the sun shine uponthem, that so they may be dry.

Steep them twenty four hours in six gallons of smallwine, then draw out the spirit, and sweeten it with sugar culpeper it comforts the heart, cherishes the vital spirits, resists the pestilence, and all corrupt airs, which indeed thesis examples for essay are thenatural causes of epidemical diseases, the sick may take a spoonfulof it in any convenient cordial, and such as are in health, and havebodies either cold by nature, or cooled by age, may take as much eitherin the morning fasting, or a little before meat spiritus lavendula compositus matthiæ or compound spirit of lavender matthias the college take of lavender flowers one gallon, to which pourthree gallons of the best spirits of wine, let them stand togetherin the sun six days, then distil them with an alembick with thisrefrigeratory take of the flowers of sage, rosemary, and bettony, of each onehandful. The flowers of borrage, bugloss, lilies of the valley, cowslips, of each two handfuls. Let the flowers be newly and seasonablygathered, being infused in one gallon of the best spirits of wine, and mingled with the foregoing spirit of lavender flowers, addingthe leaves of bawm, feather-few, and orange tree fresh gathered. Theflowers of stœchas and orange tree, bay berries, of each one ounce after convenient digestion distil it again, after which add citronpills the outward bark, peony seed husked, of each six drams, cinnamon, mace, nutmegs, cardamoms, cubebs, yellow sanders, of each half anounce, wood of aloes one dram, the best jujubes, the stones being takenout, half a pound, digest them six weeks, then strain it and filter it, and add to it prepared pearls two drams, emeralds prepared a scruple, ambergrease, musk, saffron, of each half a scruple, red roses dryed, red sanders, of each half an ounce, yellow sanders, citron pills, dryed, of each one dram let the species being tyed up in a rag, behung into the aforementioned spirit culpeper i could wish the apothecaries would desire to be certifiedby the college 1 whether the gallon of lavender flowers must be filled by heap, or by strike 2 next, whether the flowers must be pressed downin the measure or not 3 how much must be drawn off in the firstdistillation 4 where they should get orange leaves and flowers freshgathered 5 what they mean by convenient digestion 6 where youshall find borrage, bugloss, and cowslips, flowering together, thatso you may have them all fresh according to their prescript, the oneflowering in the latter end of april, and beginning of may, the otherin the end of june, and beginning of july 7 if they can make a shiftto make it, how, or which way the virtues of it will countervail theone half of the charge and cost, to leave the pains and trouble out spiritus castorii or spirit of castoreum the college take of fresh castoreum four ounces, lavender floweran ounce, the tops of sage and rosemary, of each half an ounce, cinnamon six drams, mace, cloves, of each two drachms, spirits of winerectified, six pounds, digest them in a phial filled only to the thirdwriting, close stopped with cork and bladder in warm ashes for two days, then distilled in balneo mariæ, and the distilled water kept closestopped culpeper by reason of its heat it is no ways fit to be taken alone, but mixed with other convenient medicines appropriated to the diseasesyou would give it for, it resists poison, and helps such as are bittenby venomous beasts.

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Early givingripe seed, which the others seldom do time it flowers from june, essaytimes to the end of august, orlater, and the seed ripens in the mean time government and virtues it is a martial plant it is found bygood experience to be available to expectorate tough phlegm from thestomach, chest, and lungs the juice thereof made into a syrup, or thedistilled water of the herb drank with essay sugar, or without, if youwill, or the smoak taken by a pipe, as is usual, but fainting, helpsto expel worms in the stomach and belly, and to ease the pains in thehead, or megrim, and the griping pains in the bowels it is profitablefor those that are troubled with the stone in the kidneys, both toease the pains by provoking urine, and also to expel gravel and thestone engendered therein, and hath been found very effectual to expelwindiness, and other humours, which cause the strangling of the mother the seed hereof is very effectual to expel the tooth ache, and theashes of the burnt herb to cleanse the gums, and make the teeth white the herb bruised and applied to the place grieved with the kingevil, helps it in nine or ten days effectually monardus saith, it isa counter poison against the biting of any venomous creature, the herbalso being outwardly applied to the hurt place the distilled wateris often given with essay sugar before the fit of an ague, to lessenit, and take it away in three or four times using if the distilledfæces of the herb, having been bruised before the distillation, and notdistilled dry, be set in warm dung for fourteen days, and afterwardsbe hung in a bag in a wine cellar, the liquor that distills therefromis singularly good to use in cramps, aches, the gout and sciatica, and to heal itches, scabs, and running ulcers, cankers, and all foulsores whatsoever the juice is also good for all the said griefs, andlikewise to kill lice in children heads the green herb bruised andapplied to any green wounds, cures any fresh wound or cut whatsoever:and the juice put into old sores, both cleanses and heals them thereis also made hereof a singularly good salve to help imposthumes, hardtumours, and other swellings by blows and falls the tamarisk tree it is so well known in the place where it grows, that it needs nodescription time it flowers about the end of may, or june, and the seed isripe and blown away in the beginning of september government and virtues a gallant saturnine herb it is the root, leaves, young branches, or bark boiled in wine, and drank, stays thebleeding of the hæmorrhodical veins, the spitting of blood, the tooabounding of women courses, the jaundice, the cholic, and the bitingof all venomous serpents, except the asp. And outwardly applied, isvery powerful against the hardness of the spleen, and the tooth-ache, pains in the ears, red and watering eyes the decoction, with essayhoney put thereto, is good to stay gangrenes and fretting ulcers, andto wash those that are subject to nits and lice alpinus and veslingiusaffirm, that the egyptians do with good success use the wood of it tocure the french disease, as others do with lignum vitæ or guiacum. Andgive it also to those who have the leprosy, scabs, ulcers, or the like its ashes doth quickly heal blisters raised by burnings or scaldings it helps the dropsy, arising from the hardness of the spleen, andtherefore to drink out of cups made of the wood is good for spleneticpersons it is also helpful for melancholy, and the black jaundice thatarise thereof garden tansy garden tansy is so well known, that it needs no description time it flowers in june and july government and virtues dame venus was minded to pleasure women withchild by this herb, for there grows not an herb, fitter for their usethan this is. It is just as though it were cut out for the purpose this herb bruised and applied to the navel, stays miscarriages. Iknow no herb like it for that use. Boiled in ordinary beer, and thedecoction drank, doth the like. And if her womb be not as she wouldhave it, this decoction will make it so let those women that desirechildren love this herb, it is their best companion, their husbandsexcepted also it consumes the phlegmatic humours, the cold andmoist constitution of winter most usually affects the body of manwith, and that was the first reason of eating tansies in the spring the decoction of the common tansy, or the juice drank in wine, is asingular remedy for all the griefs that come by slopping of the urine, helps the stranguary and those that have weak reins and kidneys it isalso very profitable to dissolve and expel wind in the stomach, belly, or bowels, to procure women courses, and expel windiness in thematrix, if it be bruised and often smelled unto, as also applied to thelower writing of the belly it is also very profitable for such women asare given to miscarry it is used also against the stone in the reins, especially to men the herb fried with eggs as it is the custom inthe spring-time which is called a tansy, helps to digest and carrydownward those bad humours that trouble the stomach the seed is veryprofitably given to children for the worms, and the juice in drink isas effectual being boiled in oil, it is good for the sinews shrunk bycramps, or pained with colds, if thereto applied wild tansy, or silver weed this is also so well known, that it needs no description place it grows in every place time it flowers in june and july government and virtues now dame venus hath fitted women withtwo herbs of one name, the one to help conception, and the other tomaintain beauty, and what more can be expected of her?.