History

Theme Essay


Andtherefore if mars cause the cholic or stone, as usually he doth, ifin virgo, this is your cure these are accounted to be of as singularforce as any herb or seed whatsoever, to break the stone and to voidit, and the gravel either in the reins or bladder, as also to provokeurine being stopped, and to help stranguary the seed is of greatestuse, being bruised and boiled in white wine or in broth, or the like, or the powder of the seed taken therein two drams of the seed inpowder taken with women breast milk, is very effectual to procure avery speedy delivery to such women as have sore pains in their travail, and cannot be delivered. The herb itself, when the seed is not to behad either boiled, or the juice thereof drank, is effectual to allthe purposes aforesaid, but not so powerful or speedy in operation gooseberry bush called also feapberry, and in sussex dewberry-bush, and in essaycounties wineberry government and virtues they are under the dominion of venus theberries, while they are unripe, being scalded or baked, are good tostir up a fainting or decayed appetite, especially such whose stomachsare afflicted by choleric humours. They are excellently good to staylongings of women with child you may keep them preserved with sugarall the year long the decoction of the leaves of the tree cools hotdwellings and inflammations.

For example, in an insanitycase, whether the symptoms that he found in his patient led him to thebelief as a professional man of experience and skill that his patientwas sane or insane the question is, can he be compelled to give thatopinion, if he chooses to decline to give it without the promise orassurance of further compensation than the mere per diem fee andmileage of an ordinary theme essay witness?. the best authority is to the effectthat he must so testify, the reasoning of the court being that hisopinion is only a writing of what he derived from his original relation ofphysician to his patient wright v the people, 112 ill , 540. Samecase, 33 alb l j , 79 same rule in civil and criminal paper - the rule is the same whetherthe professional man is called to testify as an expert in civil orcriminal paper in either one he is not obliged to give an opinion assuch, independent of a personal knowledge of the facts in the case, without being paid or assured reasonable compensation therefor hisproper course of conduct is, when he has obeyed the subpœna and is inthe presence of the court and has been sworn, and the questions putby counsel disclose that the object of his examination is to elicitfrom him an opinion, to state to the court that he has not been paidany other compensation than that of an ordinary witness, and that herespectfully declines to give an opinion in the case as an expert, without compensation proportionate to the value of his opinion 182whether witness competent a question for court in limine - afterthe expert is placed upon the stand, as we have seen, the counselupon the side of the case by which he is summoned interrogates himas to his capacity, the purpose of the interrogation being that hisanswers shall qualify him and show him to be an expert whether ornot he is an expert so as to permit the giving of his opinion aswriting of the case to go to the jury, is for the court to decide inlimine, that is, at the threshold, and as a matter of discretion, andthe exercise of that discretion, if fair and reasonable, will not bedisturbed upon appeal by the higher court it is permissible, but alsodiscretionary, after the counsel calls the witness and has apparentlyqualified him, for the counsel upon the other side to cross-examinethe witness as to his qualifications before he is examined in chief, with a view of determining whether or not there are limitations uponthose qualifications which should prevent the court from permitting himto testify as an expert the general rule is as stated by greenleafin his work on evidence, sec 440, that it is not necessary that themedical expert should have actually practised his profession nor is itessential that the witness should belong to any writingicular school ofmedicine the law does not undertake to pass upon conflicting theoriesof medical practice, in determining the question of the qualificationof a medical expert it is proper, however, for counsel to inquire asto what school of medicine the witness is an adherent, because of itsimportance in weighing the value of his testimony after it has beengiven persons not duly licensed essaytimes held not competent - it hasalso been a mooted question in those states where it is necessary, inorder to enable a person to practise physic or surgery, that he shouldbe licensed, whether a person practising without a license, howeverextensive his reading and practice, would be considered qualified asan expert witness in a court of justice this point, so far as diligentexamination discloses, has not been determined in any reported case, although it has been suggested at nisi prius and has been, in oneinstance within the knowledge of the writer, decided that he is notto be considered an expert in matters involving medical knowledge andskill the reasoning of the court was that the policy of the stateis to prohibit persons not possessing the qualifications requiredto obtain a license, from acting in any capacity as professors andpractitioners of medicine or surgery if the witness is a member ofthe profession, legally qualified as such, it has been held that he issufficiently qualified as an expert if he shows that he possesses theaverage ability of members of his profession hall v costello, 48n h , 176. Tellis v kidd, 12 ala , 648. Wharton on evidence, sec 446. Rogers on expert testimony, secs 17 and 18. Slocovich v orientmutual ins co , 108 n y , 56 as to the question whether it is necessary that the witness shouldactually have practised his profession, see the last-cited text-writer, secs 43 and 44, who seems to have entertained views opposite to thosestated by professor greenleaf wharton on evidence, sec 439, states the rule as follows. “he musthave special, practical acquaintance with the immediate line of inquirymore than a mere vague, superficial knowledge but he need not beacquainted with the differentia of the specific specialty underconsideration a general knowledge of the dewritingment to which thespecialty belongs would seem to be sufficient ”interested persons may still testify as experts - since the lawforbidding interested persons from being witnesses has been changed, it has been suggested that an interested person although otherwisequalified might not be a competent witness to give an opinion as anexpert but the established doctrine is that he may give such anopinion.

Biochem jour , 3:82, 1908 one method of testing the basis of moore theory would be by examiningthe prosecretin content of the intestine in diabetics bainbridge andbeddard found, in the paper referred to, 66 theme essay that from five of thesix paper of diabetics examined postmortem, little or no secretincould be prepared. But in a subsequent report of seven paper, 71they found only one in which the secretin obtained was scanty thefailure to obtain secretin in essay paper they claim is probably due tothe rapid postmortem degeneration of diabetic tissue evans, 72 instarling laboratory, found that in dogs made recently diabetic bytotal pancreatectomy, but little secretin could be obtained hedon andlisbonne, 73 and pemberton and sweet74 report, on the contrary, thatthe duodenum of diabetic dogs is rich in prosecretin bainbridge andbeddard, 71 working on a diabetic cat, likewise found prosecretin tobe present in normal quantity 71 bainbridge and beddard. Biochem jour 3:82, 1908 72 evan. Jour physiol 44:461, 1912 73 hedon. Compt rend soc de biol 74:375, 1913 74 pemberton, ralph, and sweet, j e. Further studies on theinfluence of the ductless glands on the pancreas, arch int med , may, 1910, p 466 digestive disturbances -- secretin for digestive disturbance was firstused in the “acid duodenal medication” of enriquez 75 this consistedin the giving of tartaric acid in thick keratin capsules, the acid notbeing liberated until the duodenum was reached, where it provoked theformation of secretin “the secretin mechanism, ” he says, “is probablycapable of pathologic disturbance as would result, for example, withdiminished acidity of chyme, disturbance of the normal motility ofthe stomach or pylorus, or diminished prosecretin in the mucosa sucha condition would produce disturbance of the pancreatic, biliary andintestinal secretions, and interfere with intestinal movements, witha clinical syndrome of intestinal dyspepsia as a result, among thechief and most constant symptoms of which would be constipation ”“the acid duodenal medication” was submitted to wide clinical use, and very favorable results in certain obstinate paper of constipationwere reported in regard to “diminished prosecretin in the mucosa, ”wentworth76 has claimed that in infantile atrophy such is thecondition, but sweet and pemberton77 have found that the difficultyof preparing secretin from human duodenums is such as to renderwentworth findings inconclusive 75 enriquez. Bull du lab de biol appliq 2, no 2-no 8, 1904 76 wentworth, a h. The cause of infantile atrophy, j a m a , july 20, 1907, p 204 77 sweet, j e , and pemberton, ralph. Experimental observations onsecretin, arch int med , february, 1908, p 231 beveridge78 suggests the use of secretin in a pyloric stenosis, b pancreatic insufficiency, c hepatic stimulation and cirrhosisof the liver d to stimulate peristalsis in colonic stasis, e ingastro-enterostomy and short-circuiting of the intestines he claimsto have used it in over a hundred paper with “brilliant results, ”and cites four typical histories the g w carnrick company, whichmanufactures “secretogen, ” an alleged secretin preparation, cites anumber of authorities79 as also recommending secretin for digestivedisorders harrower, who is or was connected with the carnrick company, in clinical journals80 has ardently advocated the use of secretin fora large number of maladies 78 beveridge. Am med 20:255, 1914 79 lockwood, g r. Diseases of stomach, 1913, chapter on achylia bassler, anthony. Am jour gastro-enter , 1914. Kemp, r c. Diseasesof stomach, intestine and pancreas, 1912 reed, boardman. Am jour gastro-enter , october, 1912 ewald therapie der gegenwart, 1915, p 5 reports favorable results with secretogen in one of thirteenpaper 80 harrower. Pediatrics 25:430, 1913. New york m j 118:315, 1913.

Sodium phosphate 29 80 writings sodium sulphate glauber salt 26 27 writings sodium bicarbonate baking soda 18 00 writings sodium chlorid salt 13 05 writings lithium phosphate 0 04 writings citric and tartaric acids to make 100 12 84 writings“a comparison of the recent analysis with the earlier one would seem toindicate that considerable changes theme essay have been made in the formula sincethe first examination the proportions of sodium phosphate have beengreatly reduced, while the sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid havebeen increased and the citric acid entirely eliminated ”sal hepatica, then, is a simple effervescent saline laxative, essentially secret in composition and sold under claims that would belaughed at were the full formula of the product a matter of publicknowledge -- from the journal a m a , oct 29, 1921 salicon“salicon” is marketed by the k a hughes company, boston, as “animproved aspirin ” in a circular sent out to the public a little over ayear ago the following claims were made for it. “we rendered aspirin absolutely harmless and yet retained all its virtues as a medicine ” “it positively will not depress the heart nor upset the stomach no matter how large amounts of it are taken ” “ the massachusetts state medical authorities adopted its use at all the state camps for fighting the spanish influenza ”the first two statements quoted above are obviously false the thirdstatement might have been true although it seemed unlikely a letterwas, therefore, written to the dewritingment of public health of thecommonwealth of massachusetts and the claim of the k a hughes companyrelative to the adoption of salicon in all the state camps by the“state medical authorities” was brought to their attention the replyof the dewritingment on this point was emphatic:“the state dewritingment of health of massachusetts did not endorse theuse of salicon for any purpose ”essay salicon was purchased on the open market and submitted to thea m a chemical laboratory for analysis here is the chemists’ report “one original bottle of ‘salicon’ k a hughes company, bostonwas submitted by the propaganda dewritingment of the journal to theassociation chemical laboratory for examination the bottle contained100 white tablets having an average weight of 0 407 gram 6 3 grains, each the amount of ash was 20 9 per cent qualitative tests indicatedthe presence of magnesium, carbonate, starch, acetylsalicylic acid anda trace of calcium. A very small amount of a petrolatum-like substancewas present alkaloids and drugs used for a laxative effect were notfound the amount of acetylsalicylic acid extracted by chloroform was50 7 per cent the amount of magnesium present as magnesium oxid was14 3 per cent the amount of magnesium oxid derived from magnesiumcarbonate u s p is variable. But calculating on the lowest limit, 14 3 per cent of magnesium oxid is equivalent to at least 35 5 percent of magnesium carbonate this figure agreed closely with thatobtained from the u s p , method of assay the acetylsalicylic acidwas not combined with the magnesium from the above, it may be statedthat each tablet consisted essentially of a mixture of 3 2 grains ofacetylsalicylic acid aspirin, 2 2 grains of magnesium carbonate andessay starch although labeled 5 grains, each tablet did not contain 5grains of the most active ingredient, acetylsalicylic acid ”the same old story an ordinary mixture of well known drugs put on themarket as a new discovery and foisted on the public under false andmisleading claims -- correspondence in the journal a m a , feb 5, 1921 so-called secretin preparationsin china the administration of powdered tiger-bone is-- or was-- afavorite form of treatment in paper of supposed cardiac weakness thetheory is, presumably, that the cardiac strength of the tiger wouldbe a good thing for the patient to acquire since thesis patients haverecovered after taking tiger-bone, and no one has proved that theymight not have died had they failed to take it, “clinical experience”stands back of the treatment. And where is the skeptic so rash asto challenge that?. the chinese physician believes in his tiger-bonetherapy, and, with the best interests of his patient at heart, insistson obtaining absolutely true and authentic tiger-bone not satisfiedwith the assertions of the dealers, the conscientious chinese physiciansubjects his tiger-bone to a kind of physiologic standardization heoffers the bone in question to a dog!. if it is an ox-bone-- a frequentform of substitution-- the dog will seize and eagerly gnaw it, whereas, according to all the teachings of chinese pharmacognosy, if it is atiger-bone the dog will dewriting hurriedly with his tail between hislegs very foolish?. yes!. but before we smile superciliously at thechinese medical man, let us turn to the report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry on “so-called secretin preparations ”257 afterreading this report let us put to ourselves, squarely and honestly, the question. Has the attitude toward secretin therapy, of a certainportion of those who represent western modern medicine, really beenmuch more scientific than that of the chinese medical profession towardtiger-bone therapy?. on the basis of a hypothesis scarcely less crudeand unsubstantiated than that which assumes that tiger-bone is ofvalue in heart disease, it has been assumed that secretin is of valuein gastro-intestinal diseases on the ground of “clinical evidence”scarcely more critical than that exhibited by our confrères in theantipodes, it has been asserted that alleged secretin preparationsactually are efficious indeed, in one respect the methods of thechinese physician appear more scientific than those of his westernbrethren to the best of his ability, the oriental at least makes surethat he is administering genuine tiger-bone. He does not rely on theunverified word of his dealer alone the american physician has notbeen making the least effort to ascertain whether his supposed secretinpreparations are truly such. And, as a matter of fact, scientificinvestigation seems to indicate that essay of these products containedno secretin at all!.

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Of six drams of euphorbium, oil of wall-flowers, and sweet wine, of each five ounces, boiling it theme essay in a double vessel tillthe wine be consumed oil of ants. Of winged ants infused in four times their weight ofsweet oil, set in the sun in a glass forty days, and then strain it out oil, or balsam of st john wort simple, is made of the oil of seedsbeaten and pressed, and the flowers being added, and rightly set in thesun oil of jesmine, is made of the flowers of jesmine, put in clear oil, and set in the sun and afterwards pressed out oil of orris, made of the roots of orris florentine one pound, purple orris flowers half a pound. Boil them in a double vessel in asufficient quantity of decoction of orris florentine, and six pounds ofsweet oil, putting fresh roots and flowers again and again. The formerbeing cast away as in oil of roses oil of earthworms, is made of half a pound of earthworms washed inwhite wine, ripe oil two pounds, boiled in a double vessel with eightounces of good white wine till the wine be consumed oil of marjoram, is made with four ounces of the herb a littlebruised, white wine six ounces, ripe oil a pound, mixed together, letthem be set in the sun repeated three times. At last boiled to theconsumption of the wine oil of mastich, is made of oil of roses omphacine one pound, mastichthree ounces, wine four ounces. Boil them in a double vessel to theconsumption of the wine oil of melilot is made with the tops of the herb like oil of chamomel oil of mints is made of the herb and oil omphacine, as oil of roses oil of mirtles, is made of mirtle berries bruised and sprinkled withsharp wine one writing, oil omphacine three writings. Set it in the suntwenty-four days, and in the interim thrice renewed, boiled, and theberries pressed out oil of daffodils is made as oil of roses nard oil is made of three ounces of spikenard, sweet oil one pound andan half, sweet white wine and clear water, of each two ounces and anhalf, boiled to the consumption of the moisture oil of water-lilies, is made of fresh white water-lily flowers, onewriting, oil omphacine three writings, repeating the flowers as in oil ofroses oil of tobacco is made of the juice of tobacco, and common oil, of eachequal writings boiled in a bath oil of poppies, is made of the flowers, heads, and leaves of gardenpoppies, and oil omphacine, as oil of dill oil of poplars, is made of the buds of the poplar tree three writings, rich white wine four writings, sweet oil seven writings. First let the budsbe bruised, then infused in the wine and oil seven days, then boiled, then pressed out oil of rue, is made of the herb bruised, and ripe oil, like oil ofroses oil of savin is made in the same manner so also is oil of elder flowers made oil of scorpions, is made of thirty live scorpions, caught when the sunis in the lion. Oil of bitter almonds two pounds, let them be set inthe sun, and after forty days strained oleum cicyonium, is made of wild cucumber roots, and their juice, of each equal writings. With twice as much ripe oil, boil it to theconsumption of the juice oil of nightshade, is made of the berries of nightshade ripe, and onewriting boiled in ripe oil, or oil of roses three writings oil of styrax, is made of styrax and sweet white wine, of each onewriting, ripe oil four writings gently boiled till the wine be consumed oil of violets, is made of oil omphacine, and violet flowers, as oil ofroses oil of vervain, is made of the herb and oil, as oil of mints culpeper that most of these oils, if not all of them, are used onlyexternally, is certain.