History

The Lottery Shirley Jackson Essay


In the former a slight amount of respiration might continue the instantaneous loss of consciousness is due, not to asphyxia alone, but to compression of the large vessels, especially the carotids, against the transverse processes of the vertebræ, causing rupture ofthe middle and inner coats, and at the same time compression of thejugular veins and pneumogastric nerves immediate unconsciousness willalmost certainly follow compression of the pneumogastrics he alsobelieves that the loss of consciousness and of power of self-helpoccur at the moment that the noose is tightened around the neck thereis no record of any one who attempted suicide by hanging seeking torecover himself, although no doubt essay would have done so if thespeedy unconsciousness had not prevented hofmann mentions the case ofa man who was found hanging, and with a loaded revolver in his hand, apparently having intended to shoot as well as hang himself, but lostconsciousness before he had time to discharge the revolver accordingto him the causes of death are three. Occlusion of the air-passages, interruption of passage of blood to brain, and compression ofpneumogastric nerves von buhl806 experimented on cadavers and concluded that in hanging, the epiglottis and arytenoids are pressed over the glottis, and thetongue and the œsophagus against the vertebræ, causing death byapnœa when the trachea was isolated from the vessels and tied, theair-passages below became dilated and the lungs emphysematous andanæmic the heart continued to beat and blood to circulate the vertebral arteries being much smaller than the carotids, thecirculatory disturbance in the brain is not adjusted with sufficientpromptness compression of the pneumogastrics, according towaller, 807 has caused subjects to fall to the ground as if struck bylightning he holds that the unconsciousness in hanging is the resultof the compression of the pneumogastric nerves and not of the arteries thanhöfer808 knew a student who had acquired a certain dexterity incompressing these nerves one day he compressed the two nerves, hispulse stopped and he became unconscious thanhöfer809 tried bilateralcompression of pneumogastrics in a young man sentenced to be executed the pulse fell at once and the heart soon stopped. The eyes were fixedand glassy it was essay time before he regained consciousness and fortwo days there was malaise hofmann says that the compression irritates and, in a higher degree, paralyzes the pneumogastric nerves and causes disturbance of the actionof the heart faure810 denies that the constriction of the vessels of the neck hasany effect in the production of symptoms811 coutagne believes that the pressure on the pneumogastric nerve is a factor in causing death he hung two dogs. In one the pneumogastric nerves were dissected out and placed in front of the ligature.

then again. “cactina pillets a remedy that steadies and strengthens the heart by imwritinging tone to the heart muscle ”that is a pretty direct statement, but digitalis imwritings tone. And wemust not forget that “cactina” is wholly unlike digitalis, and we aretold that “cactina” is. “invaluable in all functional cardiac disorders such as tachycardia, palpitation, arrhythmia, and whenever the heart action needs regulating or support ”if these are merely functional disorders of the heart, it is highlydesirable to know what are the symptoms of really serious cardiacdisease!. since the manufacturers give us no information concerningthe mode of action of “cactina” we will turn to the literature ofdisinterested observers if one attempts to discover the origin of“cactina, ” he will probably meet with disappointment, for variousbibliographies fail to mention the name of sultan, who is said to haveisolated “cactina” from cactus grandiflorus it seems that sultanworked with cactus, or essay other plant, when a student of pharmacy, and it is to be remembered that cactina pillets are manufactured by thesultan drug company it is doubtful whether sultan actually worked with genuine cactusgrandiflorus. And, in fact, there is good reason for thinking thathe did not, for all subsequent workers who have taken pains to securegenuine cactus grandiflorus have failed to detect the presence of anyactive principle, except possible traces that are of no therapeuticimportance whatever what the council foundthe council on pharmacy and chemistry examined the literature relatingto cactus and certain proprietary preparations, including cactinapillets, alleged to be made from cactus, and has reported the resultsof its investigation j a m a 54:888 march 12 1910 and wewill quote from that report “the therapeutic value of this plant has been variously estimated by different observers experimental evidence as to its action is scanty and no complete chemical examination has ever been made “reputable men have testified that essay of the plants of the cactus family contain very active principles, but so far experiments seem to prove that cactus grandiflorus has neither the action of digitalis nor that of strychnin the principal contributions, clinical and experimental, for and against the drug are set out below ”illustration. Typical advertisements of “cactina pillets” from themedical record and new york medical journal, respectively the report then proceeds to analyze the work of o h myers, r a hatcher, boinet and boy-teissier, sayre, gordon sharp, s a matthews, p w williams, aulde and ellingwood, and comes to conclusions that areset forth as follows, in brief:1 it is uncertain what writing of the plant contains the activeprinciple, if any such principle exists 2 writing of the experimental and clinical work has been published underproprietary auspices 3 the value of clinical evidence when unsupported by animalexperimentation is much diminished by the tendency of enthusiastic anduntrained observers to attribute to the drug given the effect reallydue to general remedial measures, psychic suggestion and so forth in other words, the literature does not afford a report of a singlepiece of careful painstaking work the results of which lend support tothe claims made for cactina pillets as stated above, for it is obviousthat if cactus grandiflorus contains no active principle, no activeprinciple can be extracted from it essay time after the report ofthe council was published, hatcher and bailey secured genuine cactusgrandiflorus directly from a competent botanist, dr c a purpus, of vera cruz, mexico, and studied it experimentally they reported j a m a 56:26 jan 7 1911 in writing as follows. “we have been unable to obtain any evidence that the true mexican cactus grandiflorus possesses any pharmacologic action whatever. But, on the contrary, it appears to be a singularly inert substance when administered either by the mouth or by the vein ”when colossal doses of cactus grandiflorus are given by the vein, they essaytimes-- but not always-- appear to exert an extremely feebleaction on the heart. But this action is so slight that its naturecould not be determined even the most colossal doses of cactusgrandiflorus administered by the mouth to cats, dogs and frogs exertno perceptible effect sollmann thus satirizes the absurd claims made by the exploiters ofproprietary forms of cactus. “should the heart be too slow, cactusquickens it. If the heart is too fast, cactus slows it. Should theheart be too weak, cactus strengthens it. If the heart is too strong, cactus weakens it. Does the heart wobble, cactus steadies it. If theheart is normal, cactus does not meddle with it” j a m a 51:52july 4 1908 will physicians continue to accept the statements of an interestednostrum vender-- who submits not a shred of evidence to support hisclaims, but who has a financial interest in convincing them-- even whenhis statements are diametrically opposed to all the evidence that thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry has been able to secure?.

In taste, the lottery shirley jackson essay for it is not so bitter. In smell, for it is spicy place it grows upon the tops of the mountains it seems ’tisaspiring there ’tis natural, but usually nursed up in gardens for theuse of the apothecaries in london time all wormwoods usually flower in august, a little sooner orlater government and virtues will you give me leave to be critical alittle?. i must take leave wormwood is an herb of mars, and if pontanussay otherwise, he is beside the bridge. I prove it thus. What delightsin martial places, is a martial herb. But wormwood delights in martialplaces for about forges and iron works you may gather a cart-loadof it, ergo, it is a martial herb it is hot and dry in the firstdegree, viz just as hot as your blood, and no hotter it remedies theevils choler can inflict on the body of man by sympathy it helpsthe evils venus and the wanton boy produce, by antipathy. And it dothessaything else besides it cleanses the body of choler who dares saymars doth no good?.

Trans amer ophthal soc , 1866, p 13 - man, age 24;weight one hundred and seventy-four and a half pounds. Drop three feet;knot under left ear. For two minutes at intervals, slight motion ofabdomen, like effort at respiration, and at same time knees drawn upa little death speedy and quiet cut down at end of thirty minutes necroscopy thirty-five minutes after drop body and head moist andwarm. Emission of semen. Face livid.

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Essay useto put to it essay fennel seeds, or annis seeds, or ginger, to correctthat loathing it brings to the stomach, which is more than needs, itbeing a safe and gentle medicine, fit for all persons, which dailyexperience confirms. And an ounce of it may be given at a time in adecoction, if there be not sena, or essay other strong purger put withit a dram or two of the powder of the dried roots, taken fasting ina cup of honied water, works gently, and for the purposes aforesaid the distilled water both of roots and leaves, is much commended forthe quartan ague, to be taken for thesis days together, as also againstmelancholy, or fearful and troubleessay sleeps or dreams. And with essaysugar-candy dissolved therein, is good against the cough, shortness ofbreath, and wheezings, and those distillations of thin rheum upon thelungs, which cause phthisicks, and oftentimes consumptions the freshroots beaten small, or the powder of the dried roots mixed with honey, and applied to the member that is out of joint, doth much help it. Andapplied also to the nose, cures the disease called polypus, which isa piece of flesh growing therein, which in time stops the passage ofbreath through that nostril. And it helps those clefts or chops thatcome between the fingers or toes the poplar tree there are two sorts of poplars, which are most familiar with us, viz the black and white, both which i shall here describe unto you descript the white poplar grows great, and reasonably high, coveredwith thick, smooth, white bark, especially the branches. Having longleaves cut into several divisions almost like a vine leaf, but notof so deep a green on the upper side, and hoary white underneath, of a reasonable good scent, the whole form representing the form ofcoltsfoot the catkins which it brings forth before the leaves, arelong, and of a faint reddish colour, which fall away, bearing seldomgood seed with them the wood hereof is smooth, soft, and white, veryfinely waved, whereby it is much esteemed the black poplar grows higher and straighter than the white, with agreyish bark, bearing broad green leaves, essaywhat like ivy leaves, notcut in on the edges like the white, but whole and dented, ending in apoint, and not white underneath, hanging by slender long foot stalks, which with the air are continually shaken, like as the aspen leavesare the catkins hereof are greater than those of the white, composedof thesis round green berries, as if they were set together in a longcluster, containing much downy matter, which being ripe, is blown awaywith the wind the clammy buds hereof, before they spread into leaves, are gathered to make unguentum and populneum, and are of a yellowishgreen colour, and essaywhat small, sweet, but strong the wood issmooth, tough, and white, and easy to be cloven on both these treesgrows a sweet kind of musk, which in former times was used to put intosweet ointments place they grow in moist woods, and by water-sides in sundry placesof this land.