History

The Fountainhead Essay Contest


If in winter-time youfind any of your roots, herbs or flowers begin to be moist, as thesistimes you shall for the fountainhead essay contest it is your best way to look to them once a monthdry them by a very gentle fire. Or, if you can with convenience keepthem near the fire, you may save yourself the labour 7 it is in vain to dry roots that may commonly be had, as parsley, fennel, plantain, &c but gather them only for present need chapter vof barks 1 barks, which physicians use in medicine, are of these sorts. Offruits, of roots, of boughs 2 the barks of fruits are to be taken when the fruit is full ripe, as oranges, lemons, &c but because i have nothing to do with exoticshere, i pass them without any more words 3 the barks of trees are best gathered in the spring, if of oaks, orsuch great trees. Because then they come easier off, and so you may drythem if you please. But indeed the best way is to gather all barks onlyfor present use 4 as for the barks of roots, ’tis thus to be gotten take the roots ofsuch herbs as have a pith in them, as parsley, fennel, &c slit them inthe middle, and when you have taken out the pith which you may easilydo that which remains is called tho’ improperly the bark, and indeedis only to be used chapter vi of juices 1 juices are to be pressed out of herbs when they are young andtender, out of essay stalks and tender tops of herbs and plants, andalso out of essay flowers 2 having gathered the herb, would you preserve the juice of it, whenit is very dry for otherwise the juice will not be worth a buttonbruise it very well in a stone mortar with a wooden pestle, then havingput it into a canvas bag, the herb i mean, not the mortar, for thatwill give but little juice, press it hard in a press, then take thejuice and clarify it 3 the manner of clarifying it is this. Put it into a pipkin orskillet, or essay such thing, and set it over the fire. And when thescum arises, take it off. Let it stand over the fire till no more scumarise. When you have your juice clarified, cast away the scum as athing of no use 4 when you have thus clarified it, you have two ways to preserve itall the year 1 when it is cold, put it into a glass, and put so much oil on it aswill cover it to the thickness of two fingers.

Or, stated otherwise, it is the juice of these drugs, dialyzed and physiologically standardized ” “each fluid the fountainhead essay contest dram represents digitalysatum 7 gtts , and 2 gtts each of the dialysates of betula, herniaria, juniper and scilla ”the composition of hydropsin must be considered essentially secretsince the amounts of the several constituent drugs in a given amountof “dialysate” are not disclosed the active principle of juniper is avolatile oil which is practically insoluble in water. It is difficultto believe that the “juice” of juniper submitted to dialysis couldcontain any material amount of the active constituent no informationis given as to the method used whereby the several dialysates are“physiologically standardized ” it therefore remains to be provedthat the manufacturer of hydropsin possesses any method whereby thedialysates of juniper juniperis communis, birch betula alba, the common european birch and knot weed herniaria glabra are sostandardized the claim is made that. “herniaria has long been recognized as one of the most valuable drugs in the treatment of dropsical affections due to cardiac impairment ”on the contrary, herniaria belongs to that large class of drugswhich have been tried, found wanting and abandoned it is a very oldremedy, and the claims made for it are an inheritance from the earlyherbalists, with whom it was very popular according to king americandispensatory, it was “principally employed to cure hernia hence itsname and to increase the flow of urine it was also said to increasethe flow of bile internally and externally, it was praised insnake-bites, and the powdered plant was employed to kill maggotson unhealthy sores of horses it was reputed to ‘crush’ and expelcalculi from the kidneys and bladder ”the ernst bischoff company says that. “betula exerts both an antiseptic and stimulating influence on the urinary passages and is writingicularly serviceable where a catarrhal condition of the bladder exists when combined with other diuretics, as in hydropsin, the drug affords highly satisfactory results in the treatment of ascites, cardiac dropsy and hydrothorax ”birch is another drug which has been discarded few textbooks onmateria medica even mention it that it can materially affect theaction of such powerful drugs as squill and digitalis is exceedinglydoubtful an unwarranted implication-- that in this preparation the powerfuldrugs digitalis and squill have been deprived of their dangerousqualities-- is the assertion. “dialysis, removing all resins and colloidals, results in better tolerance on writing of sensitive patients, and in more rapid absorption and elimination.

The flowers are small, and of a pale yellow colour, growing from the joint of the stalk all along among the leaves;after which come small and round husks the root is small and woody, perishing every year place it grows more plentifully in kent than any other county ofthis land, as namely, in thesis places on this side dartford, along tosouthfleet, chatham, and rochester, and upon chatham down, hard by thebeacon, and half a mile from rochester, in a field near a house calledselesys time it flowers and gives seed in the summer months government and virtues mars owns the herb the decoction of groundpine drank, doth wonderfully prevail against the stranguary, or anyinward pains arising from the diseases of the reins and urine, andis especially good for all obstructions of the liver and spleen, andgently opens the body. For which purpose they were wont in formertimes to make pills with the powder thereof, and the pulp of figs it marvellously helps all the diseases of the mother, inwardly oroutwardly applied, procuring women courses, and expelling the deadchild and after-birth. Yea, it is so powerful upon those femininewritings, that it is utterly forbidden for women with child, for it willcause abortion or delivery before the time the decoction of the herbin wine taken inwardly, or applied outwardly, or both, for essay timetogether, is also effectual in all pains and diseases of the joints, as gouts, cramps, palsies, sciatica, and aches. For which purpose thepills made with powder of ground pine, and of hermodactyls with veniceturpentine are very effectual the pills also, continued for essaytime, are special good for those that have the dropsy, jaundice, andfor griping pains of the joints, belly, or inward writings it helps alsoall diseases of the brain, proceeding of cold and phlegmatic humoursand distillations, as also for the falling sickness it is a specialremedy for the poison of the aconites, and other poisonous herbs, asalso against the stinging of any venomous creature it is a good remedyfor a cold cough, especially in the beginning for all the purposesaforesaid, the herb being tunned up in new drink and drank, is almostas effectual, but far more acceptable to weak and dainty stomachs thedistilled water of the herb hath the same effects, but more weakly theconserve of the flowers doth the like, which matthiolus much commendsagainst the palsy the green herb, or the decoction thereof, beingapplied, dissolves the hardness of women breasts, and all other hardswellings in any other writing of the body the green herb also applied, or the juice thereof with essay honey, not only cleanses putrid, stinking, foul, and malignant ulcers and sores of all sorts, but healsand solders up the lips of green wounds in any writing also let pregnantwomen forbear, for it works violently upon the feminine writing plantain this grows usually in meadows and fields, and by path sides, and is sowell known, that it needs no description time it is in its beauty about june, and the seed ripens shortlyafter government and virtues it is true, misaldus and others, yea, almostall astrology-physicians, hold this to be an herb of mars, becauseit cures the diseases of the head and privities, which are under thehouses of mars, aries, and scorpio. The truth is, it is under thecommand of venus, and cures the head by antipathy to mars, and theprivities by sympathy to venus. Neither is there hardly a martialdisease but it cures the juice of plantain clarified and drank for divers days together, either of itself, or in other drink, prevails wonderfully againstall torments or excoriations in the intestines or bowels, helps thedistillations of rheum from the head, and stays all manner of fluxes, even women courses, when they flow too abundantly it is good to stayspitting of blood and other bleedings at the mouth, or the making offoul and bloody water, by reason of any ulcer in the reins or bladder, and also stays the too free bleeding of wounds it is held an especialremedy for those that are troubled with the phthisic, or consumptionof the lungs, or ulcers of the lungs, or coughs that come of heat the decoction or powder of the roots or seeds, is much more bindingfor all the purposes aforesaid than the leaves dioscorides saith, that three roots boiled in wine and taken, helps the tertain agues, and for the quartan agues, but letting the number pass as fabulousi conceive the decoction of divers roots may be effectual the herb but especially the seed is held to be profitable against the dropsy, the falling-sickness, the yellow jaundice, and stoppings of the liverand reins the roots of plantain, and pellitory of spain, beaten intopowder, and put into the hollow teeth, takes away the pains of them the clarified juice, or distilled water, dropped into the eyes, coolsthe inflammations in them, and takes away the pin and web. And droppedinto the ears, eases the pains in them, and heals and removes the heat the same also with the juice of houseleek is profitable against allinflammations and breakings out of the skin, and against burnings andscaldings by fire and water the juice or decoction made either ofitself, or other things of the like nature, is of much use and goodeffect for old and hollow ulcers that are hard to be cured, and forcankers and sores in the mouth or privy writings of man or woman. Andhelps also the pains of the piles in the fundament the juice mixedwith oil of roses, and the temples and forehead anointed therewith, eases the pains of the head proceeding from heat, and helps lunatic andfrantic persons very much. As also the biting of serpents, or a maddog the same also is profitably applied to all hot gouts in the feetor hands, especially in the beginning it is also good to be appliedwhere any bone is out of joint, to hinder inflammations, swellings, andpains that presently rise thereupon the powder of the dried leavestaken in drink, kills worms of the belly.

“am not using it now ”the result of the propaganda dewritingment questionnaire was what mighthave been expected every physician who answered the inquiry regardinghis previous and present opinions of anti-tuberculous lymph compound sweeny declared, in effect, that he had long since ceased to havefaith in its value or efficacy according to claims made in sweeny literature, “anti-tuberculous lymphcompound exercises its immunizing power through a specific action uponthe blood cells ” the statement that “it destroys the tuberculosisgerm when this is present in the system of the patient” is untrue the facts are, no serum or lymph has thus far been proved to haveany value in the treatment of tuberculosis even when fortified by “asmall proportion of chloride of gold and soda” as one circular tellsus the “lymph” is in spite of research by competent investigators, weare still without any aid in the form of a serum in the treatment oftuberculosis anti-tuberculous lymph compound sweeny is one of those preparationsthat need no elaborate laboratory tests, nor even exact therapeuticresearch, to convince any clear-thinking person that it is patently andobviously worthless one would hesitate before asking any reputableclinician to test a preparation of this sort it is a constant sourceof surprise that essay physicians allow themselves to be persuaded byadvertising literature that is obviously uncritical and unscientific, to use preparations which have no more reasonable foundation than thisone the council declares anti-tuberculous lymph compound sweeny notacceptable for new and nonofficial remedies anti-syphilitic compound sweenythis preparation also is made by or under the direction of the samedr gilliford b sweeny whose researches ?. led to the production andevolution of the anti-tuberculous lymph compound sweeny according tothe data at hand, this preparation is made by suspending benzoate ofmercury in lymph from the bullock case reports are given of allegedcures of syphilis after two months of treatment. Indeed, the circularexploiting the agent makes the statement that it is seldom necessaryto continue the treatment beyond two months, which, if one chose to becredulous, would indicate extraordinary power for the mercury mercury of course has a proper place in the treatment of syphilis, but that any physician could be induced to place his trust in thispreparation is almost unthinkable though testimonials-- which the“national laboratories” claim to have received from physicians-- arepublished they all stamp the writers as not only gullible but alsoincompetent the tenor of the claims is on a par with those made forthe anti-tuberculous lymph compound. They do not justify the timerequired for detailed consideration the council declares anti-syphilitic lymph compound sweeny notacceptable for n n r -- from the journal a m a , april 3, 1920 syrup leptinol formerly syrup balsamea report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following reporton “syrup leptinol” formerly “syrup balsamea” the product isinadmissible to “new and nonofficial remedies, ” first, because themanufacturers fail to give the profession information regarding eitherthe amount of the potent ingredient or the method of determiningits identity and uniformity. Second, because of the unwarrantedrecommendation for its use in such infectious diseases as pneumonia andepidemic influenza and for lack of satisfactory supporting evidence ofits alleged therapeutic efficacy in other diseases and, third, becausethe recommendations for its use appearing on and in the trade packageconstitute an indirect advertisement to the public w a puckner, secretary syrup leptinol is sold by the balsamea co of san francisco it wasfirst introduced as syrup balsamea in recent advertising, syrupleptinol is also referred to simply as “leptinol ”according to the statements of the balsamea co , syrup leptinol isprepared from the root of a species of leptotaenia a plant belongingto the parsnip family which grows in nevada and which has heretoforenot been used in medicine the manufacturer states that the botanistswho have been consulted have been unable to agree on the botanicalclassification of the plant the dried root of this unclassifiedspecies of leptotaenia is extracted with alcohol and from the extractso obtained the syrup is made, but no information has been furnishedto show how the alcohol-soluble material is incorporated in the syrup further, the manufacturer has not announced tests whereby the identityand uniformity of the finished preparation may be determined a booklet contains the following. “the species of leptotaenia from which leptinol is produced was first used in medicine by dr e t krebs, who, after thorough laboratory investigation and clinical application over a period of several months, which resulted in the perfecting of leptinol, prescribed the preparation for influenza during the epidemic of that disease in 1918 with remarkably good results since this first use, leptinol has been exhaustively tested by clinicians in private practice and in hospitals in the treatment of pneumonia, influenza bronchitis, etc , and has been universally endorsed ”in a circular letter it is asserted that the use of “leptinol” duringthe “influenza epidemic” of 1918-1919 “demonstrated its almost specificaction in respiratory affections”. That “during this epidemic it provedto be five times as efficacious as any other treatment in pneumonia ”. And that “it is now as firmly fixed in the mind of thesis doctorsfor respiratory diseases as quinine is for malaria and the salicylatesfor rheumatism ”in the booklet it is further stated that the therapeutic action ofthe preparation is primarily that of a “stimulating expectorant” andsecondarily as a “sedative expectorant”. That “its antiseptic actionin the respiratory tract is prompt”. That it “is an effectual cardiactonic where the tone of the heart muscle is impaired by fever”. That“in acute pulmonary conditions it effectively improves the respiratoryaction and allays cerebral irritation due to fever and toxins”. Thatit acts “as a vital stimulant and nerve sedative”. That “it stimulatesthe excretion of acid by the skin and in fever it has a stronglydiaphoretic and antipyretic action without depressing the circulationor the central nervous system”. That it is “mildly diuretic” and“slightly augments the biliary flow” and that “it increases the gastricand intestinal secretions and allays intestinal fermentation ”no evidence has been presented to the council which shows that syrupleptinol has the actions ascribed to it the reports of clinical trialare little more than chance observations and lack all control thisapplies also to the following, stated to be a quotation from the reportof the tonopah mines hospital association. “in the spring of 1919 a recurrence of the influenza epidemic of the previous winter was experienced during the first period of this second epidemic, prior to april 15th, there were treated one hundred sixteen paper of influenza, fourteen of which developed influenzal pneumonia, with six deaths the pneumonia was of the very virulent type which prevails in this high altitude after april 15th, when the clinical use of leptinol was inaugurated, three hundred and sixty-eight paper of influenza were treated and not a single case developed pneumonia twenty-two paper of influenzal pneumonia were received and treated with leptinol, with a consequent one hundred per cent recovery “in the paper where leptinol was used the treatment was the same as had been previously followed, as to diet, fresh air, etc , but the medication was confined to leptinol syrup leptinol was started immediately in one-dram doses at one-hour intervals, in paper with high temperatures, and this was continued until temperature and pulse subsided it was then used in one-dram doses at three-hour intervals as recovery progressed on admission to the hospital, calomel in 1/4 grain doses, was given at fifteen minute intervals for eight doses the last calomel was followed in six hours by 1/2 ounce magnesium sulphate in saturated solution the second day 1/10 grain of calomel was given at one-hour intervals for ten doses ”medical journals are replete with reports of remarkable resultsobtained with the most varied forms of treatment instituted at the timethat the “influenza epidemic” had been reached in these paper it ismore than probable that the lessened virulence of the causative factorof the disease, the gradually established resistance of those strickenwith it in the latter period and the improved management resultingfrom experience deserve the credit for the successful outcome of thetreatment, rather than the writingicular form of medication employed the report of the tonopah mines hospital association directlyimplies that syrup leptinol prevents the development of pneumoniain practically all paper of influenza in which it would develop andthat it entirely abolishes the mortality of that disease however, it is well known that innumerable remedies have been recommended asspecifics in the treatment of pneumonia on the basis of the treatmentof a limited number of paper which recovered, and that eventually theseasserted specifics have been discarded as of little value in thepresent instance, the recovery of twenty-two paper in succession affordprima facie evidence that those paper were not the virulent type ofpneumonia in which the death rate is very high under any methods oftreatment while no effort appears to have been made to determine thenature of the infecting organism, the records show fairly conclusivelythat they belonged to those causing the milder type of pneumonia the council finds syrup leptinol formerly syrup balsamea inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies because. 1 the information in regardto composition does not state the amount of potent ingredient, norpermit the determination of its identity and uniformity.

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It is an admirable counter-poison, special good forsuch as have the plague, or are poisoned, or bitten by venomous beasts, and expels virulent humours from such as have the venereal disease if the fountainhead essay contest you desire to know more virtues of it, see the virtues of venicetreacle the dose is from a spoonful to an ounce aqua brioniæ composita or briony water compound college take of the juice of briony roots, four pounds, the leavesof rue and mugwort, of each two pounds, dryed savin three handfuls, featherfew, nep, pennyroyal, of each two handfuls, bazil, dittany, ofcrete, of each one handful and a half, orange pills four ounces, myrrhtwo ounces, castoreum one ounce, canary wine twelve pounds, digestthem four days in a convenient vessel, then still them in balneomariæ. About the middle of the distillation strain it out, and make anhysterical extraction of the residue culpeper a spoonful of it taken, eases the fits of the mother inwomen that have them. It potently expels the afterbirth, and clears thebody of what a midwife by heedlessness or accident hath left behind. Itcleanses the womb exceedingly, and for that i fancy it much, take notabove a tasterful at a time, and then in the morning fasting, for it isof a purging quality, and let pregnant women forbear it aqua imperialis or imperial water the college take of dried citron, and orange pills, nutmegs, cloves, cinnamon, of each two ounces, the roots of cypress, orris, florentine, calamus aromaticus, of each one ounce, zedoary galanga, ginger, of each half an ounce, the tops of lavender and rosemary, ofeach two handfuls, the leaves of bay, marjoram, bawm, mints, sage, thyme, of each one handful, the flowers of white and damask rosesfresh, of each half a handful, rose-water four pounds, white wine eightpounds, let all of them be bruised and infused twenty four hours, thendistil them according to art culpeper you must distil it in a bath, and not in sand. It comfortsand strengthens the heart against faintings and swoonings, and is heldto be a preservative against consumptions and apoplexies you may takehalf a spoonful at a time aqua mirabilis college take of cloves, galanga, cubebs, mace, cardamoms, nutmegs, ginger, of each one dram, juice of celandine half a pound, spirits ofwine one pound, white wine three pounds, infuse them twenty-four hours, and draw off two pounds with an alembick culpeper the simples also of this, regard the stomach, andtherefore the water heats cold stomachs, besides authors say itpreserves from apoplexies, and restores lost speech aqua protheriacalis college take of scordium, scabius, carduus, goat rue, of each twohandfuls, citron and orange pills, of each two ounces, the seeds ofcitrons, carduus, hartwort, treacle, mustard, of each one ounce, theflowers of marigolds and rosemary, of each one handful, cut them, andbruise them grossly, then infuse them in four pounds of white wine, andtwo pounds of carduus water, in a glass, close stopped, and set it inthe sun of bath for a fortnight, often shaking it, then distil it inbalneo mariæ let the two first pounds be kept by themselves for use, and the remainder of the distillation by itself. Lastly, mix one ounceof julep of alexandria, and a spoonful of cinnamon water with eachpound culpeper aqua protheriacalis, signifies a water for treacle, sothen if you put diascoridum to it, it is a water for diascoridum. Wellthen, we will take it for a general water for all physick aqua caponis or capon water college take a capon the guts being pulled out, cut in pieces, thefat being taken away, boiled in a sufficient quantity of spring-waterin a close vessel, take of this broth three pounds borrage andviolet-water, of each a pound and a half, white wine one pound, redrose leaves two drams and an half, the flowers of borrage, violets andbugloss, of each one dram, pieces of bread, hot out of the oven, halfa pound, cinnamon bruised, half an ounce, distil it in a glass stillaccording to art culpeper the simples are most of them appropriated to the heart, and in truth the composition greatly nourishes and strengthens suchas are in consumptions, and restores lost strength, either by feversor other sickness. It is a sovereign remedy for hectic fevers, andmarasmos, which is nothing else but a consumption coming from them letsuch as are subject to these diseases, hold it for a jewel aqua limacum magistr or water of snails college take of the juice of ground ivy, colt-foot, scabious, lungwort, of each one pound and a half, the juice of purslain, plantain, ambrosia, paul bettony, of each a pound, hog blood, whitewine, of each four pounds, garden snails, two pound, dried tobaccoleaves eight, powder of liquorice two ounces, of elecampane half anounce, of orris an ounce, cotton seeds an ounce and a half, the greatercold seeds, annis seeds of each six drams, saffron one dram, theflowers of red roses, six pugils, of violets and borrage, of each fourpugils, steep them three days warm, and then distil them in a glassstill, in sand culpeper it purges the lungs of flegm and helps consumptions there if you should happen to live where no better nor readier medicine canbe gotten, you may use this aqua scordii composita or compound water of scordium college take of the juice of goat rue, sorrel, scordium, citrons, of each one pound, london treacle, half a pound, steep it three days, and distil it in sand culpeper a tasterful taken in the morning, preserves from ill airs aqua mariæ college take of sugar candy a pound, canary wine six ounces, rosewater four ounces.