History

The Essay


Otherwise it does not “set” well illustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of thecarton in which “ambrine” is now sold the results of these tests are given in the accompanying table it canbe seen that nearly all the paraffins examined have properties whichwould make them useful, the notable exceptions being nos 8, 15 and16 the more satisfactory products would be those having a meltingpoint about 47 c , ductility of 30 or below, and plasticity of 28 orbelow the paraffin described in the u s pharmacopeia is not sosatisfactory, the required melting point being between 50 and 57 c the use of paraffin bandages has been suggested by fisher182 andsollmann 183 in such paper, it may very likely be that a paraffin ofhigher melting point would be more satisfactory, owing to its greaterresistance and tougher fiber 182 fisher, h e. Nonadhering surgical gauze, the journal a m a , march 25, 1916, p 939 183 sollmann, torald. Paraffin-covered bandages, the journala m a , april 21, 1917, p 1178 summary1 “ambrine” is essentially paraffin in which a small amount of fattyand asphalt-like body is incorporated. Like most secret mixtures, itscomposition varies 2 a simple formula for a paraffin film, similar in chemicalcomposition but superior in physical properties to “ambrine, ” is thatdescribed as formula 21 the superiority is due to using a grade ofparaffin that is better adapted to the purpose the cost of materialsis about 10 cents a pound 3 the properties of the paraffin used for a surgical dressing areimportant a number of different grades have been examined, in order todetermine the ones that appear most promising paraffins nos 3, 4, 10, 11 and 25 are the best in the table, and surpass “ambrine” itself 4 it is exceedingly probable that further experience will show thatfor most purposes simple paraffin will serve just as well as themixtures-- if, indeed, not better addenda reprinted from the annual report of the chemical laboratory of theamerican medical association, vol 10 1917, p 32since the foregoing was published, two other products-- “cerelene” and“stanolind surgical wax”-- were submitted to the council on pharmacy andchemistry for investigation as to their acceptability for inclusion innew and nonofficial remedies in this connection the laboratory wasrequested to examine them “cerelene” is manufactured by the holliday laboratories, pittsburgh according to the manufacturers, “cerelene” is a compound composed of84 per cent paraffin, 15 per cent myricyl palmitate and 1 per cent elemi gum as ordinarily marketed, “cerelene” contains the followingmaterials.

In a very the essay few below the larynx. The last position is dueto the protection of the neck by a handkerchief or beard, or wherethere is essay anatomical or pathological peculiarity which prevents theligature from going higher hofmann837 had seen two paper of tumor of neck. One in a woman, where the cord was below the larynx.

For what is the essay thinbeing by such medicines taken away, nothing but what is perfectly hardremains. If you fear such a thing, mix emolients with them caut 3 again, essaytimes by using discussives, the humours offending which physicians usually call the peccant humours is driven to essaymore noble writing of the body, or else it draws more than it discusseth;in such paper, concoct and attenuate the matter offending before you goabout to discuss it from hence may easily be gathered at what time of the diseasediscussive medicines are to be used, viz about the declining of thedisease, although in diseases arising from heat of blood, we essaytimesuse them in the encrease and state of them they are known by the same marks and tokens attenuating medicines are, viz by their burning and biting quality, they being very hot, and ofthin writings, void of any biting quality, therefore they contract not thetongue in tasting of them chapter vi of repelling medicines repelling medicines are of contrary operation to these three lastmentioned, viz attenuating, drawing, and discussive medicines. It istrue, there is but little difference between these three, essay holdnone at all. And if you will be so nice, you may oppose them thus andso medicines making thick, correspond to attenuating medicines, or suchas make thin, repelling medicines are opposed to such as draw, and suchas retain the humours and make them tough, are opposite to such asdiscuss, essay hold this niceness needless 2 the sentence of authors about repulsive medicines is various for seeing an influxion may be caused thesis ways, a repulsive hath gotas thesis definitions for such things as cool, bind, stop, and make thick, stay influxions, and therefore repulsives are by authors opposed, not only toattractives, but also to attenuating, and discussing medicines but properly such things are called repulsives, which do not only stayinfluxions, for so do such medicines which stop and make thick butsuch as drive the humours flowing to, or inherit in the place, to essayother place the truth is, binding is inherent to repulsives, so is not coldness normaking thick. Yet such as are binding, cold and thin in operation, aremost effectual your taste will find repulsives to be, tart, or sharp, or austere, witha certain binding which contracts the tongue use 1 their use is manifold, as in hot tumours, head-aches, or thelike use 2 by these in fevers are the vapours driven from the head, vinegar of roses is notable time of giving they are most commodious in the beginning andencrease of a disease, for then influxions most prevail but seeing that in the cure of tumours there are two scopes, 1 thatthat which flows to it may be repelled 2 that that which is alreadyin it may be discussed. Repulsives are most commodiously used in thebeginning, discussives in the latter end in the middle you may mix them, with this proviso, that repulsivesexceed in the beginning, discussives in the latter end caution 1 if the matter offending be of a venomous quality, eitherabstain from repulsives altogether, or use purging first, lest thematter fly to the bowels and prove dangerous, especially if the bowelsbe weak 2 also forbear repulsives, if the pain be great 3 lastly, have a care lest by repulsives you contract the pores somuch, that the matter cannot be removed by discussives chapter vii of cleansing medicines cleansing medicines can neither be defined by heat, nor coldness, because essay of both sorts cleanse a cleansing medicine, then, is of a terrene quality, which takes awaythe filth with it, and carries it out definition here, to avoid confusion, a difference must be madebetween washing and cleansing a thing which washeth, carries away by fluxion, as a man washeth thedirt off from a thing a cleansing medicine by a certain roughness or nitrous quality, carriesaway the compacted filth with it this also is the difference between cleansing and discussing medicines, the one makes thick humours thin, and so scatters them, but a cleansingmedicine takes the most tenacious humour along with it, without anyalteration besides, of cleansing medicines, essay are of a gentler nature, essay aremore vehement these are not known one and the same way. For essay are sweet, essaysalt, and essay bitter the use of cleansing is external, as the use of purges are internal they are used to cleanse the sanies and other filth of ulcers, yea, andto consume and eat away the flesh itself, as burnt alum, precipitate, &c when these must be used, not only the effects of the ulcers, but alsothe temperature of the body will tell you for if you see either a disease of fulness, which our physicians callplethora or corrupted humours which they call cacochyma youmust empty the body of these, viz fulness by bleeding, and corrupthumours, or evil state of the body, by purging before you use cleansingmedicines to the ulcer, else your cure will never proceed prosperously chapter viii of emplasters by emplasters, here, i do mean things glutinative, and they are quitecontrary to things cleansing they are of a far more glutinous and tenacious substance they differ from things stopping because they do not stop the pores somuch, as stick to them like birdlime they have a certain glutinous heat, tempered both with coldness andmoisture from these plasters take their names their taste is either none at all, or not discernable whether hot orcold, but fat, insipid, or without taste, or sweet, and viscous infeeling their use is to stop flowing of blood, and other fluxes, to causesuppuration, to continue the heat, that so tumours may be ripened also they are mixed with other medicines, that they may the better bebrought into the form of an emplaster, and may stick the better to themembers chapter ix of suppuring medicines these have a great affinity with emolients, like to them intemperature, only emolients are essaywhat hotter yet is there a difference as apparent as the sun when he is upon themeridian, and the use is manifest for, emolients are to make hard things soft, but what suppures, rather makesa generation than an alteration of the humour natural heat is the efficient cause of suppuration, neither can it bedone by any external means therefore such things are said to suppure, which by a gentle heatcherish the inbred heat of man this is done by such medicines which are not only temperate in heat, but also by a gentle viscosity, fill up or stop the pores, that so theheat of the writing affected be not scattered for although such things as bind hinder the dissipation of the spirits, and internal heat, yet they retain not the moisture as suppuringmedicines properly and especially do the heat then of suppuring medicines is like the internal heat of ourbodies as things then very hot, are ingrateful either by biting, as pepper, or bitterness. In suppuring medicines, no biting, no binding, nonitrous quality is perceived by the taste, i shall give you bettersatisfaction both in this and others, by and by for reason will tell a man, that such things hinder rather than helpthe work of nature in maturation yet it follows not from hence, that all suppuring medicines aregrateful to the taste, for thesis things grateful to the taste provokesvomiting, therefore why may not the contrary be?. The most frequent use of suppuration is, to ripen phlegmonæ, ageneral term physicians give to all swellings proceeding of blood, because nature is very apt to help such cures, and physic is an art tohelp, not to hinder nature the time of use is usually in the height of the disease, when the fluxis stayed, as also to ripen matter that it may be the easier purgedaway chapter x of medicines provoking urine the causes by which urine is suppressed are thesis 1 by too much drying, or sweating, it may be consumed 2 by heat or inflammation of the reins, or passages whereby it passesfrom the reins, it may be stopped by compression urine is the thinnest writing of blood, separated from the thickest writingin the reins if then the blood be more thick and viscous than ordinary, it cannoteasily be separated without cutting and cleansing medicines this is for certain, that blood can neither be separated nordistributed without heat yet amongst diureticks are essay cold things, as the four greater coldseeds, winter-cherries, and the like although this seem a wonder, yet it may be, and doth stand with truth for cool diureticks, though they further not the separation of theblood one jot, yet they cleanse and purge the passages of the urine diureticks then are of two sorts:1 such as conduce to the separation of the blood 2 such as open the urinal passages the former are biting and are known by their taste very hot andcutting, whence they penetrate to the reins, and cut the gross humoursthere bitter things, although they be very hot, and cut gross humours, yetare they of a more dry and terrene substance than is convenient toprovoke urine hence then we may safely gather, that bitter things are not so moistnor penetrating, as such as bite like pepper chapter xi of medicines breeding flesh there are thesis things diligently to be observed in the cures of woundsand ulcers, which incur and hinder that the cure cannot be speedilydone, nor the separated writings reduced to their natural state viz fluxes of blood, inflammation, hardness, pain, and other thingsbesides our present scope our present scope is, to shew how the cavity of ulcers may be filledwith flesh such medicines are called sarcoticks this, though it be the work of nature, yet it is helped forward withmedicines, that the blood may be prepared, that it may the easier beturned into flesh these are not medicines which breed good blood, nor which correct theintemperature of the place afflicted, but which defend the blood andthe ulcer itself from corruption in breeding flesh for nature in breeding flesh produceth two sorts of excrements, viz scrosus humours, and purulent dross those medicines then which cleanse and consume, these by drying aresaid to breed flesh, because by their helps nature performs that office also take notice that these medicines are not so drying that theyshould consume the blood also as well as the sanies, nor so cleansingthat they should consume the flesh with the dross let them not then exceed the first degree unless the ulcer be verymoist their difference are various, according to the writing wounded, whichought to be restored with the same flesh the softer then, and tenderer the place is, the gentler let themedicines be chapter xii of glutinative medicines that is the true cure of an ulcer which joins the mouth of it together that is a glutinative medicine, which couples together by drying andbinding, the sides of an ulcer before brought together these require a greater drying faculty than the former, not only toconsume what flows out, but what remains liquid in the flesh, forliquid flesh is more subject to flow abroad than stick to together the time of using them, any body may know without teaching, viz whenthe ulcer is cleansed and filled with flesh, and such symptoms ashinder are taken away for thesis times ulcers must be kept open that the sanies, or fords thatlie in them may be purged out, whereas of themselves they would healbefore only beware, lest by too much binding you cause pain in tender writings chapter xiii of medicines resisting poison such medicines are called alexiteria, and alexipharmaca, whichresist poison essay of these resist poison by astral influence, and essay physicians though but few can give a reason for it these they have sorted into three ranks:1 such as strengthen nature, that so it may tame the poison the easier 2 such as oppose the poison by a contrary quality 3 such as violently thrust it out of doors such as strengthen nature against poison, either do it to the bodyuniversally, or else strengthen essay writingicular writing thereof for thesis times one writingicular writing of the body is most afflicted bythe poison, suppose the stomach, liver, brain, or any other writing. Suchas cherish and strengthen those writings, being weakened, may be said toresist poison such as strengthen the spirits, strengthen all the body essaytimes poisons kill by their quality, and then are they to becorrected by their contraries they which kill by cooling are to be remedied by heating, and thecontrary. They which kill by corroding, are to be cured by lenitives, such as temper their acrimony those which kill by induration, or coagulation, require cuttingmedicines also because all poisons are in motion, neither stay they in one tillthey have seized and oppressed the fountain of life, therefore theyhave invented another faculty to stay their motion, viz terrene andemplastic for they judge, if the poison light upon these medicines, they embracethem round with a viscous quality also they say the ways and passages are stopped by such means, tohinder their proceeding. Take terra lemnia for one truly if these reasons be good, which i leave to future time todetermine, it may be done for little cost essay are of opinion that the safest way is to expel the poison out ofthe body, so soon as may be, and that is done by vomit, or purge, orsweat you need not question the time, but do it as soon as may be. For thereis no parlying with poison let vomiting be the first, purging the next, and sweating the last this is general but, if thou dost but observe the nature and motion of the venom, that willbe thy best instructor in the stomach it requires vomiting, in the blood and spirits, sweating, if the body be plethoric, bleeding, if full of evil humours, purging lastly, the cure being ended, strengthen the writings afflicted the project gutenberg ebook of medical jurisprudence, forensic medicineand toxicology - vol 1 of 4, by rudolph august witthaus and tracy chatfield beckerthis ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the united states and mostother writings of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictionswhatsoever you may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms ofthe project gutenberg license included with this ebook or online atgutenberg org if you are not located in the united states, you'll haveto check the laws of the country where you are located before using this ebook title. Medical jurisprudence, forensic medicine and toxicology - vol 1 of 4author.

The rootis white, hard and woody, and divers fibres annexed thereunto, whichperishes not, but abides with leaves thereon all the winter, shootingout fresh every spring place it grows in most fields and meadows, and about their bordersand hedges, and in thesis waste grounds also every where time it usually flowers in june and july, and the seed the essay is ripeshortly after government and virtues saturn challenges the herb for his own thisknapweed helps to stay fluxes, both of blood at the mouth or nose, or other outward writings, and those veins that are inwardly broken, orinward wounds, as also the fluxes of the belly. It stays distillationof thin and sharp humours from the head upon the stomach and lungs. Itis good for those that are bruised by any fall, blows or otherwise, and is profitable for those that are bursten, and have ruptures, bydrinking the decoction of the herb and roots in wine, and applyingthe same outwardly to the place it is singularly good in all runningsores, cancerous and fistulous, drying up of the moisture, and healingthem up so gently, without sharpness. It doth the like to running soresor scabs of the head or other writings it is of special use for thesoreness of the throat, swelling of the uvula and jaws, and excellentlygood to stay bleeding, and heal up all green wounds knotgrass it is generally known so well that it needs no description place it grows in every county of this land by the highway sides, and by foot-paths in fields. As also by the sides of old walls time it springs up late in the spring, and abides until the winter, when all the branches perish government and virtues saturn seems to me to own the herb, and yetessay hold the sun. Out of doubt ’tis saturn the juice of the commonkind of knotgrass is most effectual to stay bleeding of the mouth, being drank in steeled or red wine. And the bleeding at the nose, tobe applied to the forehead or temples, or to be squirted up into thenostrils it is no less effectual to cool and temper the heat of theblood and stomach, and to stay any flux of the blood and humours, aslasks, bloody-flux, women courses, and running of the reins it issingularly good to provoke urine, help the stranguary, and allays theheat that comes thereby. And is powerful by urine to expel the gravelor stone in the kidneys and bladder, a dram of the powder of the herbbeing taken in wine for thesis days together being boiled in wine anddrank, it is profitable to those that are stung or bitten by venemouscreatures, and very effectual to stay all defluxions of rheumatichumours upon the stomach, and kills worms in the belly or stomach, quiets inward pains that arise from the heat, sharpness and corruptionof blood and choler the distilled water hereof taken by itself or withthe powder of the herb or seed, is very effectual to all the purposesaforesaid, and is accounted one of the most sovereign remedies to coolall manner of inflammations, breaking out through heat, hot swellingsand imposthumes, gangrene and fistulous cankers, or foul filthy ulcers, being applied or put into them. But especially for all sorts of ulcersand sores happening in the privy writings of men and women it helps allfresh and green wounds, and speedily heals them the juice dropped intothe ears, cleanses them being foul, and having running matter in them it is very prevalent for the premises. As also for broken joints andruptures ladies’ mantle descript it has thesis leaves rising from the root standing uponlong hairy foot-stalks, being almost round, and a little cut on theedges, into eight or ten writings, making it seem like a star, with sothesis corners and points, and dented round about, of a light greencolour, essaywhat hard in handling, and as it were folded or plaited atfirst, and then crumpled in divers places, and a little hairy, as thestalk is also, which rises up among them to the height of two or threefeet. And being weak, is not able to stand upright, but bended to theground, divided at the top into two or three small branches, with smallyellowish green heads, and flowers of a whitish colour breaking out ofthem. Which being past, there comes a small yellowish seed like a poppyseed. The root is essaywhat long and black, with thesis strings and fibresthereat place it grows naturally in thesis pastures and wood sides inhertfordshire, wiltshire, and kent, and other places of this land time it flowers in may and june, abides after seedtime green allthe winter government and virtues venus claims the herb as her own ladies’mantle is very proper for those wounds that have inflammations, andis very effectual to stay bleeding, vomitings, fluxes of all sorts, bruises by falls or otherwise, and helps ruptures. And such women ashave large breasts, causing them to grow less and hard, being bothdrank and outwardly applied. The distilled water drank for 20 daystogether helps conception, and to retain the birth. If the women doessaytimes also sit in a bath made of the decoction of the herb it isone of the most singular wound herbs that is, and therefore highlyprized and praised by the germans, who use it in all wounds inward andoutward, to drink a decoction thereof, and wash the wounds therewith, or dip tents therein, and put them into the wounds, which wonderfullydries up all humidity of the sores, and abates inflammations therein it quickly heals all green wounds, not suffering any corruption toremain behind, and cures all old sores, though fistulous and hollow lavender being an inhabitant almost in every garden, it is so well known, thatit needs no description time it flowers about the end of june, and beginning of july government and virtues mercury owns the herb. And it carries hiseffects very potently lavender is of a special good use for all thegriefs and pains of the head and brain that proceed of a cold cause, as the apoplexy, falling-sickness, the dropsy, or sluggish malady, cramps, convulsions, palsies, and often faintings it strengthens thestomach, and frees the liver and spleen from obstructions, provokeswomen courses, and expels the dead child and after-birth theflowers of lavender steeped in wine, helps them to make water thatare stopped, or are troubled with the wind or cholic, if the placebe bathed therewith a decoction made with the flowers of lavender, hore-hound, fennel and asparagus root, and a little cinnamon, is veryprofitably used to help the falling-sickness, and the giddiness orturning of the brain. To gargle the mouth with the decoction thereof isgood against the tooth-ache two spoonfuls of the distilled water ofthe flowers taken, helps them that have lost their voice, as also thetremblings and passions of the heart, and faintings and swooning, notonly being drank, but applied to the temples, or nostrils to be smelledunto.

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Norwould any of these have any effect on “phosphaturia ”the mixture also conflicts with rule 10 the essay. For it is inadvisable toadminister the ingredients in fixed, but unknown proportions it is recommended that saloform be deemed inadmissible to n n r the council adopted the recommendation of the referee and authorizedpublication of this report -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 71 secretogen report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryabout a year ago the council declared secretogen, 103 a product theactive ingredient of which was stated to be “pancreatic secretin” andadvertised as a remedy for certain conditions of defective digestionand assimilation, to be ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies the reasons for this decision were stated at the time as follows:103 j a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518 “1 no evidence has been presented that the absence of secretin is acause of gastro-intestinal diseases it is usually present, and if notpresent, as in achylia gastrica, there is evidently essay compensatingarrangement by which the pancreas is stimulated to perform its regularfunctions “2 there is no evidence that secretin in any form is physiologicallyactive when administered by mouth ”since secretogen was not the only so-called secretin preparation onthe market, and since the use of secretin preparations was recommendedby certain writers, notwithstanding the lack of evidence of its value, the council caused an experimental investigation of the question to bemade this was carried out by prof a j carlson of the university ofchicago no secretin was found in the commercial products examined, namely, secretogen tablets, secretogen elixir and duodenin furthermore, carlson results104 confirmed the council previous conclusionas to the inertness of secretin administered by mouth the councilendorsed professor carlson findings 105104 carlson a j. Lebensohn, j e , and pearlman, s j. Hassecretin a therapeutic value?. j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 178 reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 98 105 so-called secretin preparations, j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 208. Reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 96 the g w carnrick company has replied to the publication of thisreport in the letter printed below a portion of this letter, whichconsists of a communication from an unnamed correspondent of the g w carnrick company and the company comment thereon, has been omitted the council offered to publish this if the carnrick company wouldfurnish the name of the writer this it has not done as will be seen, the company now shifts ground, abandoning entirely the claim thatsecretogen contains secretin the council has authorized publicationof the letter omitting the writing just mentioned, together with thecomment that follows w a puckner, secretary “the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medicalassociation “gentlemen:-- the opinion of the council and the contribution byprofessor carlson which appeared in the journal of the american medicalassociation for jan 15, 1916, have been read by us with interest the column of current comment dealing with ‘tiger-bone therapy andclinical experience’ has appealed to our good nature and, under thecircumstances, our sense of humor “professor carlson seems to have quite well established that theso-called secretin preparations do not contain secretin to anyappreciable extent, and that they are inert in laboratory experimentson normal animals at the same time, to do away with an apparentdiscrimination on the writing of the management of the council, it wouldhave been well if professor carlson had included the so-called secretinpreparations belonging to another well-known firm which markets such aproduct this discrimination has already been referred to by us “had professor carlson stopped at the determination of the therapeuticavailability of secretin given by mouth, his work might have beenaccepted without comment, even if we should have thought it advisableto object to the matter published by the council but the professorwent beyond his province entirely when, in commenting on the findingsobtained by using secretogen clinically, he said. ‘it is, perhaps, impertinent for laboratory men to comment on these clinical results ’it is his point was well taken and it is a profound pity thatprofessor carlson did not observe his own ruling “in the words of a correspondent of the journal of the american medicalassociation, in discussing professor carlson criticism of dr crile‘kinetic drive, ’ ‘it behooves the laboratory man to be circumspect inhis criticism of clinical theories, since going beyond the bounds ofwell-established things weakens his position, not merely with referenceto the writingicular subject under discussion, but with reference toclinical phenomena in general ’ clinical results have definitelyestablished the value of secretogen as the matter now stands thisstatement is beyond criticism “when secretogen was first introduced we assumed that it depended onsecretin for results produced in this assumption we were in goodcompany, as witnessed by the testimony of moore, edie and abram when, in the course of their investigations as to the value in diabetesof a secretin-bearing extract given by mouth, 106 they said. ‘inthe majority of these paper there has been no appreciable fallin the output of sugar in essay of these negative paper there hasbeen noted, however, improvement in the digestion and, in certainpaper, the patient weight has increased ’ they also state thatthe secretin-bearing product ‘appears to stimulate the functionalactivity of the duodenum ’106 they give a most significantreport 107 we quote from the paper as follows:106 all italics are ours g w carnrick company 107 bio-chem jour 1:28, 1906 “‘the patient had been under observation for six months beforetreatment and the sugar was not reducible by diet almost at once thedyspepsia from which he was suffering was relieved and his generalnutrition improved to such an extent that he regained over eighteenpounds in weight, which he had previously lost, and this improvementwas accompanied by complete recovery of his physical and mentalenergies ’106“inasmuch as this improvement could not have been due to the containedsecretin it must have been due to essay other principle containedin the extract our experience and that of the physicians who haveused secretogen establish the fact that moore, edie and abram madeno mistake when they came to the conclusion that what they termed asecretin-bearing extract stimulates the functional activity of theduodenum and improves the digestion “when professor carlson was investigating secretogen he must haverealized that he was dealing essentially with an extract of theduodenal mucosa it is, therefore, all the more surprising, consideringhis extensive researches into the literature, that he should haveignored the testimony of essay of his own authorities, writingicularlyhallion, as to the value of extracts of the duodenal mucosa in duodenalinsufficiencies the meticulous carefulness with which this evidencewas avoided is hardly worthy of the best traditions of physiology, ascience which has truth for its first and last aim “hallion in his ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ says that the ‘aims ofduodenal opotherapy are. 1, to supply deficient duodenal juice 2, above all to stimulate and to relieve this organ-- notably to aid theproduction of secretin4-- and so profit by the stimulating actionwhich duodenal extract exercises on the duodenal mucosa which actionwe, enriquez and myself, believe and have experimentally proved, conforms to the general principles of opotherapy 3, by means of theproduction of secretin, to reinforce the biliary, pancreatic andintestinal secretions 4, to stimulate intestinal peristalsis “‘principal indications. Intestinal dyspepsias, intestinalautointoxications, certain forms of constipation and duodenalinsufficiency ’“at the international congress of medicine, madrid, 1903, hallionsaid that he felt justified in stating that duodenal opotherapycorrectly carried out must be classed under the very best methods oftreating dyspepsia 106 the results had been satisfactory and, inthesis paper, remarkable it had been nil in a few paper but it hadnever been harmful in any degree he pointed out that marfan was thefirst to employ this substance clinically marfan had had writingicularlyexcellent results in children of 15 months to 4 years suffering withmarked malnutrition, anorexia and constipation marfan prescribedthe duodenal extract given in milk 106 hallion further remarks that, as he is not a practitioner, he had had only one opportunity to testduodenal opotherapy clinically the case was that of a man of 26 yearswith obstinate intestinal dyspepsia and severe constipation which hadpersisted from childhood this patient had been treated by enemas, laxatives, diet, etc treatment with duodenal extract resulted ina complete cure 106 hallion points out that the most satisfactoryaspect of duodenal opotherapy is the permanent effect produced, 106which bears out his statement that these extracts have the power to aidin the restoration of function and structure of an organ “this has been so well established that the principle is now embodiedin a law which is frequently referred to as ‘hallion law’. ‘extractsof an organ exert on the same organ an exciting influence which lastsfor a longer or shorter time when the organ is insufficient it isconceivable that this influence augments its action and, when it isinjured, that it favors its restoration ’“in ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ hallion points out that ‘theopotherapeutic product which corresponds to the affected organrepresents in essay way the stimulating and elective food for thatorgan, and if we supply the organ with a food which is more completethan it necessarily needs, the affected organ can exercise its electiveaction and take up only those substances of which it is in need ’“hallion observations on this point are beautifully borne out bythe classic work of j w draper, as reported in the journal of theamerican medical association, sept 26, 1914 this report gives resultsin both laboratory and clinical experiments “in order to show that fed jejunal and ileac epithelium exerciseessay special detoxicating power, not yet understood but definitelyrecognizable, draper fed a control series of dogs with intestinalobstruction, experimentally produced, on emulsified cells of liver, spleen, pancreas and muscle tissue these animals lived a few hourslonger than not-fed controls, but draper says that it is evidentthat these cells had either no detoxicating action, or a very feebleone compared with intestinal epithelium he used jejunal and ileacepithelium clinically in two instances. 1st, in a female dog which hadhad ‘chronic stomach trouble’ for six months when draper saw her shehad had complete intestinal obstruction for five days, with symptoms oftachycardia, extreme nervousness and great weakness in the hind legs draper removed a pebble from her intestine but her condition was stillgrave “she was immediately put on small-intestine epithelium derived fromtwo dogs of different breed draper says that from a long experiencewith duodenally obstructed dogs, he should not have expected her torecover, but the symptoms gradually subsided and she lived the secondinstance in which he used the epithelium therapeutically was in thecase of a man who suffered from an annular cancer of the intestine withdefinite symptoms of obstruction after the operation, and realizingthat the patient was in a desperate condition, he fed him an emulsionof intestinal epithelium from a dog the pulse improved and the patientlived “essay of draper conclusions are as follows:“‘autotoxemia in intestinal obstruction undoubtedly arises from aninterference with cellular reactions of the intestinal epithelium when small-intestine epithelial cells of healthy animals are placedin the stomach106 of duodenally obstructed animals, such animals havelived nearly twice as long as not-fed controlled animals this evidenceis strongly opposed to the bacterial theory of origin of toxins ’“the point to be emphasized is this.