History

The Cask Of Amontillado Essay


Scientifictherapeutics freed from commercial domination -- editorial from thejournal a m a , oct 18, 1919 pharmaceutical barnumsdoes the cask of amontillado essay the public love to be humbugged?. we doubt it that we, whethersage or fool, are humbugged is undeniable we are humbugged justto the extent that we are ignorant there lies one of the mostpowerful factors operating to the advantage of the “patent medicine”maker and the quack the layman ignorance of the possibilities andlimitations of drugs is wide and deep hence the ease with which heis fooled on this subject a seeming frankness in advertising beingthe order of the day, the nostrum maker makes a pretense of tellingwhat is in his stuff without disclosing any facts that will tend tolift the veil of mystery and thus destroy his greatest asset so theexploiter of nostrums to the medical profession, realizing that atleast a pretense must be made of giving the composition of medicamentsoffered to the physician, declares that his clay poultice has for itsbase “anhydrous and levigated argillaceous mineral ” this sounds muchmore imposing than dry and finely powdered clay, and satisfies by itsvery sonorousness now comes a product exploited chiefly to membersof the dental profession but also, it seems, to physicians tablets, “activated tablets, ” if you please!. they are “an anodyne, analgesicfebrifuge sedative, exorcising sic!. antineuralgic and antirheumaticaction ” and their composition?. simply “an activated, balancedcombination of the mono-acetyl-derivative of para-amidophenetoltogether with a feebly basic substance in the alkaloidal state from thethea-sinensis ” as clear as the missouri river!. essay day essay dentistor physician is going to investigate and find that this awe-inspiring, polysyllabic example of exuberant verbosity means nothing moremysterious than our old friends acetphenetidin phenacetin andcaffein in the meantime, the exploiters may smile softly and murmur, “barnum was right!.

for if this doesnot absolutely take away the film, it will so facilitate the work, thatit might be done without danger the herb or root boiled in white wineand drank, a few anniseeds being boiled therewith, opens obstructionsof the liver and gall, helps the yellow jaundice. And often using it, helps the dropsy and the itch, and those who have old sores in theirlegs, or other writings of the body the juice thereof taken fasting, isheld to be of singularly good use against the pestilence the distilledwater, with a little sugar and a little good treacle mixed therewith the writingy upon the taking being laid down to sweat a little hasthe same effect the juice dropped into the eyes, cleanses them fromfilms and cloudiness which darken the sight, but it is best to allaythe sharpness of the juice with a little breast milk it is good inall old filthy corroding creeping ulcers wheresoever, to stay theirmalignity of fretting and running, and to cause them to heal morespeedily. The juice often applied to tetters, ring-worms, or other suchlike spreading cankers, will quickly heal them, and rubbed often uponwarts, will take them away the herb with the roots bruised and bathedwith oil of camomile, and applied to the navel, takes away the gripingpains of the belly and bowels, and all the pains of the mother. Andapplied to women breasts stays the overmuch flowing of the courses the juice or decoction of the herb gargled between the teeth that ach, eases the pain, and the powder of the dried root laid upon any aching, hollow or loose tooth, will cause it to fall out the juice mixed withessay powder of brimstone is not only good against the itch, but takesaway all discolourings of the skin whatsoever. And if it chance that ina tender body it causes any itchings or inflammations, by bathing theplace with a little vinegar it is helped another ill-favoured trick have physicians got to use to the eye, andthat is worse than the needle.

But therelation that exists between the total height and the dimensions ofdifferent bones varies according to age, sex, asymmetry, and individualpeculiarities, hence the tables will not bear the critical examinationthat warrants their use with assured correctness, even in a majorityof paper the femur is the bone that gives the best results in thesemeasurements isolated fragments have been included in the enumeration;the nose and the middle finger multiplied by 32 and by 19 or 20 givingthe approximate height while the foregoing calculations will not bearscientific scrutiny, they are of sufficient importance to be taken inconnection with other facts in determining the probable length of theskeleton among the most trustworthy of these tables are those of dr dwight, of harvard university determination of age the age is a still more difficult matter to state precisely evenduring life one may be as much as ten years out in guessing the age ofan adult, while the error may be from fifteen to twenty years in thecase of a corpse dr tourdes mentions a case where the age was guessedas sixty and sixty-five in a deceased person aged eighty-five the state of the osseous system and the condition and number of theteeth, which strictly speaking are not bone, are among the surestguides in the determination of age the signs furnished thereby mayvary according to the periods of increase, maturity, and decline during fœtal life the cask of amontillado essay and even at the epoch of birth the bone centres arefew the distal end of the femur, the proximal end of the tibia, andthe astragalus are ossified at birth points of ossification appearin successive order of development the exact period at which thebones begin to ossify and the progress of bony union being detailedin standard works on anatomy, it would be superfluous to repeat themhere these changes are, however, not absolutely certain as to timeand order, as the tip of the acromion process of the scapula essaytimesremains ununited throughout life. The ossification of the sternum andof the costal cartilages is very uncertain, while the teeth, likecertain railway trains, are only due when they arrive from the character of the progress of consolidation of the skeletonthe age may be estimated with a reasonable approach to accuracy up totwenty-five or thirty years, which is the stationary period as regardsalteration in the osseous system above this period it is difficultto arrive at the age about forty the cranial sutures576 begin todisappear, although the time of the closure of the sutures varieswithin large limits. The coccyx becomes consolidated. Ossificationbegins in the thyroid cartilage and in that of the first rib althoughthis state of the rib is regarded by thesis as pathological. Thelower jaw, which in the fœtus and in infancy formed an obtuse angle, now assumes nearly a right angle as senility progresses towarddecrepitude, the bones become lighter and more brittle, owing tofatty atrophy, and their medullary canal larger. The jaw returns toits infantile shape from loss of teeth and atrophy of the alveolarprocesses. The bodies of the vertebræ according to essay authoritiesbevel off in front. Osteophytes are formed, and the neck of the femurapproaches the horizontal see abortion and infanticide determination of sex in the matter of sex there should be no difficulty, after noting theproof furnished by the aggregate characteristics of both male andfemale skeletons the points of contrast between the two skeletonsare not so striking before the age of puberty generally speaking thecranial capacity of an adult woman is less, although it is contendedthat since the great majority of males of the human species are taller, heavier, and larger than the females, it follows that if due allowancebe made for these variations, it will appear that the brain capacityof woman is relatively very little, if at all, inferior to that ofman the mastoid processes of the female skull are smaller. The lowerjaw-bone is relatively smaller and lighter. The ribs are lighter andcompressed.

And in case ofremoval into another county he must procure from the said clerk acertified copy of the said license, and file it with the clerk in thecounty to which he shall remove 6 exceptions - the act does not apply to commissioned surgeons of theunited states army, navy, or marine hospital service, or to regularlylicensed physicians or surgeons in actual consultation from otherstates or territories, or to regularly licensed physicians or surgeonsactually called from other states or territories to attend paper inthis state, or to any one while actually serving as a member the cask of amontillado essay of theresident medical staff of any legally incorporated hospital or asylumin this state, or to any person claiming the right to practise in thisstate who has been practising therein since before july 4th, 1890, provided the said right or title was obtained upon a diploma of whichthe holder and applicant was lawfully possessed and it was issued by alegally chartered medical institution in good standing 7, asamended act 1892, c 212 definition - any person is regarded as practising medicine or surgerywho appends “m d ” or “m b ” to his name, or prescribes for the useof any person any drug or medicine or other agency for the treatment, cure, or relief of any bodily injury, infirmity, or disease s 8 penalty - commencing the practice of medicine or surgery without alicense or contrary to the act is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine offrom $50 to $100, or imprisonment in the county jail from ten to ninetydays, or both 9 fees - to the treasurer of the board, for examination, for applicant offirst and second class, $15 to the treasurer of the board, for examination, for applicant of thirdclass, $20 4 to the county clerk, for registering license, 50 cents 6 new hampshire in new hampshire there is no statute on this subject new mexico board of examiners - the board of medical examiners is composed ofseven practising physicians of known ability and integrity, graduatesof essay medical school, college, or university duly established underand by virtue of the laws of the country in which it is situated, fourallopathic members, three homœopathic members, and one eclectic member compiled laws 1884, s 2, 553 qualification - applications for certificates and examinations are madeto the board through their secretary 2, 555 the board must examine diplomas as to their genuineness. Theverification consists in an affidavit of the holder and applicant thathe is the lawful possessor of the diploma and the person therein named;the affidavit may be taken before any person authorized to administeroaths, and shall be attested under his hand and official seal if hehave a seal graduates may present their diplomas and affidavits byletter or by proxy 2, 556 examinations of persons not graduates or licentiates must be made bythe board, and certificates by a majority of the board authorize thepossessor to practise medicine and surgery 2, 557 the certificate must be recorded in the county clerk office in everycounty in which the holder practises or attempts to practise medicineor surgery 2, 558 when a certificate is filed, the clerk must record it and attach hiscertificate thereto, showing the date of filing and recording and thenumber of the book and the page of the record 2, 559 examinations of persons not graduates must be made by the board andmay be wholly or writingly in writing, in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, pathology, surgery, obstetrics, and the practice of medicine exclusiveof materia medica and therapeutics 2, 561 the board may refuse or revoke a certificate to an individual guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct 2, 562 definition, exceptions - practising medicine is defined as professingpublicly to be a physician and prescribing for the sick or appendingto a name the letters “m d ” the act does not prohibit students fromprescribing under the supervision of a preceptor, nor prevent womenfrom practising midwifery, nor prohibit gratuitous services in paper ofemergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeons or acting surgeons of theunited states army or navy 2, 563 penalty - practising medicine or surgery without complying with the actis punishable with a fine of from $50 to $500 for each offence. Andfiling a diploma or a certificate of another, or a forged affidavit ofidentification, is a felony punishable the same as forgery exception - the provisions of the act do not apply to those who havebeen practising medicine ten years in the territory 2, 564, act passed 1882 professional conduct - the code of ethics of the united states medicalassociation is the standard, and the rule of decision, concerningprofessional conduct 2, 565 penalty - persons unlawfully collecting or receiving fees orcompensation for services as physicians or surgeons in violation ofthis act, are liable to the writingy paying it for double the amountthereof 2, 568 fees - to the secretary of the board, from each graduate or licentiateif the diploma is genuine, $5 to the secretary of the board, from each graduate or licentiate if thediploma is fraudulent or not owned by the possessor, $20 s 2, 556 to clerk of the county, for filing and recording certificate, the usualfees 2, 559 to the secretary of the board, for examination, in advance, $10 s 2, 561 new york prohibition - no person can lawfully practise medicine unlessregistered and legally authorized prior to september 1st, 1891, orunless licensed by the regents of the university of the state of newyork and registered as required by the present law. Nor can any personlawfully practise medicine who has ever been convicted of a felony byany court, or whose authority to practise is suspended or revoked bythe regents on the recommendation of a state board laws of 1893, c 661, s 140 boards of examiners - there are three separate state boards of medicalexaminers of seven members each, representing respectively the medicalsociety of the state, the homœopathic medical society of the state, andthe eclectic medical society of the state the regents appoint examiners from lists of nominees furnished bythe said societies each nominee before his appointment is requiredto furnish to the regents proof that he has received the degree ofdoctor of medicine from essay registered medical school, and haslegally practised medicine in this state for at least five years ifno nominees are legally before them, the regents may appoint from themembers in good standing of such societies without restriction s 141 at any meeting of the boards of examiners a majority constitute aquorum, but questions prepared by the boards may be grouped andedited, or answer papers of candidates may be examined and marked, bycommittees duly authorized by the boards and by the regents s 144 qualification - the regents are required to admit to examination anycandidate who pays a fee of $25, and submits satisfactory evidence, verified by oath, if required, that he 1 is more than twenty-one years of age. 2 is of good moralcharacter. 3 has the general education required in all paper afteraugust 1st, 1895, preliminary to receiving the degree of bachelor ordoctor of medicine in this state. 4 has studied medicine not lessthan three full years, including three satisfactory courses in threedifferent academic years in a medical school registered as maintainingat the time a satisfactory standard. 5 has either received the degreeof bachelor or doctor of medicine from essay registered medical schoolor a diploma or license conferring the full right to practise medicinein essay foreign country the degree of bachelor or doctor of medicine shall not be conferredin the state before the candidate has filed with the institutionconferring it the certificates of the regents that three years beforethe date of his degree, or before or during his first year of medicalstudies in the state, he had either graduated from a registered collegeor satisfactorily completed not less than a three years’ academiccourse in a registered academy or high school. Or had a preliminaryeducation considered and accepted by the regents as fully equivalent;or had passed a regents’ examination in arithmetic, elementary english, geography, spelling, united states history, english composition, andphysics students who had matriculated in a new york medical schoolbefore june 5th, 1890, are exempt from this preliminary educationrequirement provided that the degree be conferred before august 1st, 1895 the regents may in their discretion accept as equivalent for any writingof the third and fourth requirements evidence of five or more years’reputable practice of medicine, provided such substitution be specifiedin the license 145 each board is required to submit to the regents as required lists ofsuitable questions for a thorough examination in anatomy, physiology, and hygiene, chemistry, surgery, obstetrics, pathology and diagnosisand therapeutics, including practice and materia medica from theselists the regents are required to prepare question papers for all thesesubjects, which at any examination are required to be the same for allcandidates, except that in therapeutics, practice, and materia medicaall questions submitted to any candidate shall be chosen from thoseprepared by the board selected by that candidate, and shall be inharmony with the tenets of that school as determined by its state boardof medical examiners 146 examinations for a license are required to be given in at least fourconvenient places in this state at least four times annually inaccordance with the regents’ rules, and exclusively in writing and inenglish each examination is conducted by a regents’ examiner who shallnot be one of the medical examiners at the close of each examinationthe regents’ examiner in charge is required to deliver the questionand answer papers to the board selected by each candidate, or its dulyauthorized committee, and such board, without unnecessary delay, isrequired to examine and mark the answers and transmit to the regents anofficial report stating the standing of each candidate in each branch, his general average, and whether the board recommends that a licensebe granted such report must include the questions and answers and isfiled in the public records of the university if the candidate failson a first examination, he may, after not less than six months’ furtherstudy, have a second examination without fee if the failure is fromillness or other cause satisfactory to the regents they may waive therequirement of six months’ study 147 on receiving from a state board an official report that the applicanthas successfully passed the examinations and is recommended forlicense, the regents are required to issue to him, if in their judgmenthe is duly qualified therefor, a license to practise medicine thecontents and execution of the license are regulated in detail by theact applicants examined and licensed by other state examining boardsregistered by the regents as maintaining standards not lower than thoseprovided by this article, and applicants who matriculated in a newyork state medical school before june 5th, 1890, and who shall havereceived the degree of “m d ” from a registered medical school beforeaugust 1st, 1895, may, without further examination, on the payment often dollars to the regents, and on submitting such evidence as they mayrequire, receive from them an indorsement of their license or diplomaconferring all the rights and privileges of a regents’ license issuedafter an examination if any person whose registration is not legal because of essay error, misunderstanding, or unintentional omission shall submit satisfactoryproof that he had all the requirements provided by law at the time ofhis imperfect registration, and was entitled to be legally registered, he may, on the unanimous recommendation of a state board of medicalexaminers, receive from the regents under seal a certificate of thefacts, which may be registered by any county clerk and shall make validthe previous imperfect registration before any license is issued, it must be numbered and recorded in abook in the regents’ office, and its number noted in the license thisrecord in all legal proceedings has the same weight as evidence that isgiven to a record of conveyances of land 148 every license to practise medicine is required, before the licenseebegins to practise, to be registered in the county clerk office, where such practice is to be carried on, with his name, residence, place and date of birth, and the source, number, and date of hislicense before registering, each licensee is required to file anaffidavit of the above facts, and that he is the person named inthe license, and had, before receiving the same, complied with allthe requisites as to attendance, terms, and amount of study andexaminations required by law and the rules of the university aspreliminary to the conferment thereof. That no money was paid for suchlicense except the regular fees paid by all applicants therefor. Thatno fraud, misrepresentation, or mistake in any material regard wasemployed by any one or occurred in order that such license should beconferred every license, or if lost a copy, legally certified so as to beadmitted as evidence, or a duly attested transcript of the record ofits conferment, shall before registration be exhibited to the countyclerk, who, only in case it was issued or indorsed as a license underseal by the regents, shall indorse or stamp on it the date and his namepreceded by the words, “registered as authority to practise medicinein the clerk office, county ” the clerk is required thereuponto give to every physician so registered a transcript of the entriesin the register with a certificate under seal that he has filed theprescribed affidavit 149 a practising physician having registered a lawful authority topractise medicine in one county and removing such practice, or a writingthereof, to another county, or regularly engaged in practice or openingan office in another county, must show or send by registered mail tothe clerk of such other county his certificate of registration ifsuch certificate clearly shows that the original registration was ofan authority issued under seal by the regents, or if the certificateitself is indorsed by the regents as entitled to registration, theclerk is required thereupon to register the applicant in the lattercounty, and to stamp or indorse on such certificate the date, and hisname preceded by the words, “registered also in county, ” and returnthe certificate to the applicant 150 every unrevoked certificate and indorsement of registration ispresumptive evidence that the person named is legally registered no person can register any authority to practise medicine unlessissued or indorsed as a license by the regents no such registrationis valid unless the authority registered constituted at the time ofregistration a license under the laws of the state then in force nodiploma or license conferred on a person not actually in attendance atthe lectures, institution, and examinations of the school conferringthe same, or not possessed, at the time of its conferment, of therequirements then demanded of medical students in this state asa condition of their being licensed, and no registration not inaccordance with this article, shall be lawful authority to practise, nor shall the degree of doctor of medicine be conferred causa honorisor ad eundum, nor if previously conferred shall it be a qualificationfor practice 151 exceptions - the law does not affect commissioned medical officersserving in the united states army, navy, or marine hospital servicewhile so commissioned. Or any one while actually serving on theresident medical staff of any legally incorporated hospital. Or anylegally registered dentist exclusively engaged in the practice ofdentistry. Or any manufacturer of artificial eyes, limbs, or orthopædicinstruments or trusses in fitting such instruments on persons inneed thereof.

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In vapor;combined as iodid, iodate and the like. Organic, inorganic, simple andcomplex. Internal, external and by injection, and yet there seems to beno end to the ingenious schemes for its exploitation one of these schemes, and one so simple that it seems at first sightto be hardly worth serious consideration, is that of a solution ofiodin in liquid petrolatum solutions of this kind have frequently beenoffered to physicians and the laity the thing of writingicular interestis the claim made as to the percentage of free iodin five per cent is frequently claimed examination of essay of these products in thechemical laboratory of the a m a 216 revealed the fact that theydid not contain the claimed amount of free iodin these questions atonce arose. Was the low free iodin content due to intentional fraud, the result of carelessness, or of ignorance?. was it impossible toprepare a solution containing 5 per cent , or did the iodin slowlycombine with the oil and disappear?.