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“composition -- sal hepatica contains all of the tonic, alterative and laxative salts of the celebrated ‘bitter waters’ of europe, especially those of bohemia, as determined by actual chemical analysis of these waters, and fortified by the addition of lithium and sodium phosphates ”255255 essay of the sal hepatica advertising has claimed that it “is asaline combination with the addition of sodium phosphate and lithiacitrate!. ”sal hepatica no longer “contains all the tonic, alterative and laxativesalts , ” etc , for the label on a package recently purchased reads. “sal hepatica is an effervescent saline combination possessing medicinal properties similar to the natural ‘bitter waters’ of europe, and fortified by the addition of sodium phosphate ”in 1909, the druggists circular published an analysis of sal hepaticawhich showed that the preparation contained only 0 04 per cent oflithium phosphate by referring to the two quotations just givenit will be noticed that today the manufacturers make no claim thattheir preparation is fortified with any salt of lithium a circularaccompanying recent trade packages states.

for instance, how long after a meal term paper writing help did he die?. This is hard to answer with precision, as digestion varies with theindividual, and digestion begun during life may go on to a certainextent after death we may be able to say if digestion has justcommenced, is well advanced, or has terminated what was eaten at thelast meal may be learned by the naked eye, the microscope, the color ofstomach contents and their odor the state of the bladder and rectum isessaytimes called in question all the above facts have less bearing onthe case than those in relation to the former question the cause of death from wounds the cause of death should be certain and definite in reality, there isonly one real cause, though one or thesis circumstances may be accessorycauses in most paper of death from the class of wounds which we havebeen considering, there is no difficulty in determining the cause ofdeath so as to be able to state it definitely but if the deceased hadrecovered from the first effects of the wound and then died, or ifdeath seems as much due to disease as to injury, then the real causeof death may be obscure if the medical witness is in doubt as to whichof two causes was the primary cause of death the doubt should be statedat once, as it may weaken the testimony if brought out later wounds may be directly or indirectly fatal they are directly fatal ifthe victim dies at once or very soon after the wound, with no othercause internally in his body or externally from his environment woundsare indirectly or secondarily fatal if the injured person dies from awound disease or complication, the direct consequence of the wound, or from a surgical operation necessary in the treatment of the case wounds may also be necessarily fatal either directly or secondarily, or not necessarily fatal in the latter case death may be due asmuch, if not more, to other causes than the wound, and essaytimes notat all to the wound itself thus death may be due to natural causes, latent disease, an unhealthy state of the body, imprudence or neglectof treatment, or improper treatment, etc these various degrees ofresponsibility of a wound as the cause of death we will now considermore at length i was the wound the cause of death directly?. If so, it must have caused death in one of the following ways:1 hemorrhage - this may act by producing syncope but the amount ofthe hemorrhage may not be sufficient for this result, and still causedeath by disturbing the function of the organ into which it is effused, as in the brain or in the pleural or pericardial cavities the bloodhere acts mechanically blood in the trachea may also kill mechanicallyby causing asphyxia the amount of hemorrhage required to produce syncope varies under avariety of circumstances less is required in the very young, the aged, and the diseased, also less in women than in men young infants maydie from hemorrhage from very slight wounds, even from the applicationof a leech or the lancing of the gums a sudden loss of blood is muchmore serious than an equal amount lost slowly this is the reason thatthe wound of an artery is more serious and more rapidly fatal thana similar loss of blood from other sources it is hard to specifythe absolute quantity which must be lost in order to cause death bysyncope the total blood in the body is about one-thirteenth of theweight of the body, making the total amount of blood weigh about twelvepounds of this, about one-fourth is in the heart, lungs, and largeblood-vessels according to watson, the loss of an amount varying fromfive to eight pounds is enough to be fatal to an adult but less isenough to prove fatal in thesis paper, as the rapidity of the loss ofblood and the age, sex, and bodily condition of the wounded personaffect the amount necessary though death from a small artery isslower than that from a large one, yet it may occur in time, as shownin the instance quoted by taylor, 626 where a man bled to death inthirty-eight hours from the wound of an intercostal artery thus, too, a wound of the branches of the external carotid artery is often enoughto cause death, and a wound in a vascular writing may cause death fromhemorrhage, though no vessel of any size be divided internal hemorrhage may be fatal from mechanical interference with thefunction of an organ, as well as from syncope thus we may have deathfrom syncope due to hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity or, aftercontusions, into the intercellular spaces and the cavity due to theblow, into which several pounds of blood may be extravasated internalhemorrhage is most fatal when due to the rupture of a viscus such asthe heart, lungs, liver, kidney taylor627 cites a case of a manrun over and brought to guy hospital in november, 1864 he had painin the back, but there were no symptoms or marks of severe injury heleft the hospital and walked home, where he was found dead in bed a fewhours later his abdomen contained a large amount of blood from therupture of a kidney after severe flagellation blood may be effused inlarge quantity beneath the skin and between the muscles, which is justas fatal as if it had flowed externally from a wound in fact, if theinjuries are numerous the loss of much less blood is enough to provefatal, the element of shock here assisting that of hemorrhage how are we to ascertain whether a person has died from hemorrhage?.

Make itinto a plaister according to art culpeper it is an excellent plaister to ease any pains coming ofcold or wind, in any writing of the body, whether stomach, liver, belly, reins, or bladder it is an excellent remedy for the cholic and wind inthe bowels emplastrum barbarum magnum college take of dry pitch eight pounds, yellow wax six pounds andeight ounces, per-rozin five pounds and four ounces, bitumen, judaicum, or mummy, four pounds, oil one pound and an half, verdigris, litharge, ceruss, of each three ounces, frankincense half a pound, roach alumnot burnt, an ounce and an half, burnt, four ounces, opopanax, scalesof brass, galbanum, of each twelve drams, aloes, opium, myrrh, of eachhalf an ounce, turpentine two pounds, juice of mandrakes, or else driedbark of the root, six drams, vinegar five pounds. Let the litharge, ceruss, and oil, boil to the thickness of honey, then incorporate withthem the pitch, being melted with bitumen in powder. Then add the rest, and boil them according to art, till the vinegar be consumed, and itstick not to your hands culpeper it helps the bitings of men and beasts, easesinflammations of wounds, and helps infirmities of the joints, and goutsin the beginning emplastrum de betonica or, a plaister of betony college take of betony, burnet, agrimony, sage, pennyroyal, yarrow, comfrey the greater, clary, of each six ounces, frankincense, mastich, of each three drams, orris, round birthwort, of each six drams, whitewax, turpentine, of each eight ounces, per-rozin six ounces, gum elemi, oil of fir, of each two ounces, white wine three pounds. Bruise theherbs, boil them in the wine, then strain them, and add the rest, andmake them into a plaister according to art culpeper it is a good plaister to unite the skull when it iscracked, to draw out pieces of broken bones, and cover the bones withflesh. It draws filth from the bottom of deep ulcers, restores fleshlost, cleanses, digests, and drys emplastrum cæsarus college take of red roses one ounce and an half, bistort roots, cypress nuts, all the sanders, mints, coriander seeds, of each threedrams, mastich half an ounce, hypocistis, acacia, dragon blood, earthof lemnos, bole-ammoniac, red coral, of each two drams, turpentinewashed in plantain water four ounces, oil of roses three ounces, whitewax twelve ounces, per-rozin ten ounces, pitch six ounces, the juiceof plantain, houseleek, and orpine, of each an ounce, the wax, rozin, and pitch being melted together, add the turpentine and oil, then thehypocistis and acacia dissolved in the juices, at last the powders, andmake it into a plaister according to art culpeper it is of a fine, cool, binding, strengthening nature, excellently good to repel hot rheums or vapours that ascend up to thehead, the hair being shaved off, and it applied to the crown emplastrum catagmaticum the first college take of juice of marsh-mallow roots six ounces, bark ofashtree roots, and their leaves, the roots of comfrey the greater andsmaller with their leaves, of each two ounces, myrtle berries an ounceand an half, the leaves of willow, the tops of st john wort, of eachan handful and an half, having bruised them, boil them together in redwine, and smith water, of each two pound, till half be consumed, strain it, and add oil of myrtles, and roses omphacine, of each onepound and an half, goat suet eight ounces, boil it again to theconsumption of the decoction, strain it again, and add litharge ofgold and silver, red lead, of each four ounces, yellow wax one pound, colophonia half a pound, boil it to the consistance of a plaister, thenadd turpentine two ounces, myrrh, frankincense, mastich, of each halfan ounce, bole-ammoniac, earth of lemnos, of each one ounce, stir themabout well till they be boiled, and made into an emplaister accordingto art catagmaticum the second college take of the roots of comfrey the greater, marsh-mallows, misselto of the oak, of each two ounces, plantain, chamepitys, st john wort, of each a handful, boil them in equal writings of blackwine, and smith water till half be consumed, strain it, and addmussilage of quince seeds made in tripe water, oil of mastich androses, of each four ounces, boil it to the consumption of the humidity, and having strained it, add litharge of gold four ounces, boil it tothe consistence of an emplaister, then add yellow wax four ounces, turpentine three ounces, colophonia six drams, ship pitch ten ounces, powders of balaustines, roses, myrtles, acacia, of each half an ounce, mummy, androsamum, mastich, amber, of each six drams, bole-ammoniacfine flowers, frankincense, of each twelve drams, dragon blood twoounces. Make it into a plaister according to art culpeper both this and the former are binding and drying, theformer rules will instruct you in the use emplastrum cephalicum or, a cephalic plaister college take of rozin two ounces, black pitch one ounce, labdanum, turpentine, flower of beans, and orobus, dove dung, of each half anounce, myrrh, mastich, of each one dram and an half, gum of juniper, nutmegs, of each two drams, dissolve the myrrh and labdanum in a hotmortar, and adding the rest, make it into a plaister according to art if you will have it stronger, add the powders, euphorbium, pellitory ofspain, and black pepper, of each two scruples culpeper it is proper to strengthen the brain, and repel suchvapours as annoy it, and those powders being added, it dries up thesuperfluous moisture thereof, and eases the eyes of hot scaldingvapours that annoy them emplastrum de cerussa or, a plaister of ceruss college take of ceruss in fine powder, white wax, sallad oil, ofeach three ounces, add the oil by degrees to the ceruss, and boil it bycontinual stirring over a gentle fire, till it begin to swell, then addthe wax cut small by degrees, and boil it to its just consistence culpeper it helps burns, dry scabs, and hot ulcers, and in generalwhatever sores abound with moisture emplastrum ex cicuta cum ammoniaco or, a plaister of hemlock with ammoniacum college take of the juice of hemlock four ounces, vinegar, ofsquills, and ammoniacum, of each eight ounces, dissolve the gum in thejuice and vinegar, after a due infusion, then strain it into its justconsistence according to art culpeper i suppose it was invented to mitigate the extreme pains, and allay the inflammations of wounds, for which it is very good. Letit not be applied to any principal writing emplastrum e crusta panis or, a plaister of a crust of bread college take of mastich, mints, spodium, red coral, all thesanders, of each one dram, oil of mastich and quinces, of each onedrain and an half, a crust of bread toasted, and three times steepedin red rose vinegar, and as often dried, labdanum, of each two ounces, rozin four ounces, styrax calamitis half an ounce, barley meal fivedrams. Make them into a plaister according to art culpeper i shall commend this for a good plaister to strengthenthe brain as any is in the dispensatory, the hair being shaved off, and it applied to the crown. Also being applied to the stomach, itstrengthens it, helps digestion, stays vomiting and putrefaction ofthe meat there emplastrum e cymino or, a plaister of cummin college take of cummin-seed, bayberries, yellow wax, of each onepound, per-rozin two pounds, common rozin three pounds, oil of dillhalf a pound. Mix them, and make them into a plaister culpeper it assuages swellings, takes away old aches coming ofbruises, and applied to the belly, is an excellent remedy for the windcholic this i have often proved, and always with good success emplastrum diacalciteos college take of hog grease fresh and purged from the skins twopounds, oil of olives omphacine, litharge of gold beaten and sifted, of each three pounds, white vitriol burnt and purged four ounces. Letthe litharge, grease, and oil boil together with a gentle fire, witha little plantain water, always stirring it, to the consistence of aplaister, into which being removed from the fire put in the vitrioland make it into a plaister according to art culpeper it is a very drying, binding plaister, profitable in greenwounds to hinder putrefaction, as also in pestilential sores after theyare broken, and ruptures, and also in burnings and scaldings diachylon simple college take of mussilage of linseed, fenugreek seed, marsh-mallowroots, of each one pound, old oil three pounds. Boil it to theconsumption of the mussilage, strain it, and add litharge of gold infine powder, one pound and an half. Boil them with a little water overa gentle fire always stirring them to a just thickness culpeper it is an exceeding good remedy for all swellings withoutpain, it softens hardness of the liver and spleen, it is very gentle diachylon ireatum college add one ounce of orris in powder to every pound ofdiachylon simple diachylon magnum college take of mussilage of raisins, fat figs, mastich, mallow-roots, linseeds, and fenugreek-seeds, bird-lime, the juice oforris and squills, of each twelve drams and an half, œsypus or oilof sheep feet an ounce and an half, oil of orris, chamomel, dill, of each eight ounces, litharge of gold in fine powder one pound, turpentine three ounces, per-rozin, yellow wax, of each two ounces, boil the oil with the mussilages and juices to the consumption of thehumidity, strain the oil from the faces, and by adding the lithargeboil it to its consistence. Then add the rozin and wax. Lastly, itbeing removed from the fire, add the turpentine, œsypus and birdlime, make of them a plaister by melting them according to art culpeper it dissolves hardness and inflammations diachylon magnum cum gummi college take of bdellium, sagapenum, amoniacum, of each two ounces, dissolved in wine, and added to the mass of diachylon magnum.

And because itessaywhat hurts the stomach, is not to be taken without honey andspikenard the same being drank, doth ease the pains and torments ofthe belly and sides, the shaking of agues, the diseases of the liverand spleen, the worms of the belly, the stone in the reins, convulsionsand cramps that come of old humours. It also helps those whose seedpasses from them unawares. It is a remedy against the bitings andstingings of venomous creatures, being boiled in water and vinegar anddrank boiled in water and drank, it provokes urine, helps the cholic, brings down women courses. And made up into a pessary with honey, andput up into the body, draws forth the dead child it is much commendedagainst the cough, to expectorate rough phlegm it much eases pains inthe head, and procures sleep. Being put into the nostrils it procuressneezing, and thereby purges the head of phlegm the juice of the rootapplied to the piles or hæmorrhoids, gives much ease the decoction ofthe roots gargled in the mouth, eases the tooth-ache, and helps thestinking breath oil called oleum irinum, if it be rightly made ofthe great broad flag flower-de-luce and not of the great bulbous blueflower-de-luce, as is used by essay apothecaries and roots of thesame, of the flaggy kinds, is very effectual to warm and comfort allcold joints and sinews, as also the gout and sciatica, and mollifies, dissolves and consumes tumours and swellings in any writing of the body, as also of the matrix. It helps the cramp, or convulsions of thesinews the head and temples anointed therewith, helps the catarrh orthin rheum distilled from thence. And used upon the breast or stomach, helps to extenuate the cold tough phlegm. It helps also the pains andnoise in the ears, and the stench of the nostrils the root itself, either green or in powder, helps to cleanse, heal, and incarnatewounds, and to cover the naked bones with flesh again, that ulcers havemade bare. And is also very good to cleanse and heal up fistulas andcankers that are hard to be cured fluellin, or lluellin descript it shoots forth thesis long branches writingly lying upon theground, and writingly standing upright, set with almost red leaves, yeta little pointed, and essaytimes more long than round, without orderthereon, essaywhat hairy, and of an evil greenish white colour. At thejoints all along the stalks, and with the leaves come forth smallflowers, one at a place, upon a very small short foot-stalk, gapingessaywhat like snap-dragons, or rather like toad-flax, with the upperjaw of a yellow colour, and the lower of a purplish, with a small heelor spur behind. After which come forth small round heads, containingsmall black seed the root is small and thready, dying every year, andrises itself again of its own sowing there is another sort of lluellin which has longer branches whollytrailing upon the ground, two or three feet long, and essaywhat morethin, set with leaves thereon, upon small foot-stalks the leaves area little larger, and essaywhat round, and cornered essaytimes in essayplaces on the edges.

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Also helps the king evil, being applied to the place being spread over a piece of leather, andapplied to the navel, kills the worms in the belly, helps scabs anditch, running sores, cankers, tetters, and ringworms. And being appliedto the place, may haply cure venereal sores this i thought good tospeak of, as it may be safely used outwardly, for inwardly it cannot betaken without manifest danger the common white saxifrage descript this hath a few small reddish kernels of roots coveredwith essay skins, lying among divers small blackish fibres, whichsend forth divers round, faint or yellow green leaves, and greyishunderneath, lying above the grounds, unevenly dented about the edges, and essaywhat hairy, every one upon a little foot-stalk, from whencerises up round, brownish, hairy, green stalks, two or three feethigh, with a few such like round leaves as grow below, but smaller, and essaywhat branched at the top, whereon stand pretty large whiteflowers of five leaves a-piece, with essay yellow threads in the middle, standing in a long crested, brownish green husk after the flowers arepast, there arises essaytimes a round hard head, forked at the top, wherein is contained small black seed, but usually they fall awaywithout any seed, and it is the kernels or grains of the root which areusually called the white saxifrage-seed, and so used place it grows in thesis places of our land, as well in thelower-most, as in the upper dry corners of meadows, and grassy sandyplaces it used to grow near lamb conduit, on the backside of grayinn time it flowers in may, and then gathered, as well for that whichis called the seed, as to distil, for it quickly perishes down to theground when any hot weather comes government and virtues it is very effectual to cleanse the reinsand bladder, and to dissolve the stone engendered in them, and toexpel it and the gravel by urine. To help the stranguary. For whichpurpose the decoction of the herb or roots in white wine, is mostusual, or the powder of the small kernelly root, which is called theseed, taken in white wine, or in the same decoction made with whitewine, is most usual the distilled water of the whole herb, rootand flowers, is most familiar to be taken it provokes also womencourses, and frees and cleanses the stomach and lungs from thick andtough phlegm that trouble them there are not thesis better medicines tobreak the stone than this burnet saxifrage descript the greater sort of our english burnet saxifrage growsup with divers long stalks of winged leaves, set directly oppositeone to another on both sides, each being essaywhat broad, and a littlepointed and dented about the edges, of a sad green colour at the topof the stalks stand umbels of white flowers, after which come small andblackish seed the root is long and whitish, abiding long our lesserburnet saxifrage hath much finer leaves than the former, and verysmall, and set one against another, deeply jagged about the edges, andof the same colour as the former the umbels of the flowers are white, and the seed very small, and so is the root, being also essaywhat hotand quick in taste place these grow in moist meadows of this land, and are easy to befound being well sought for among the grass, wherein thesis times theylay hid scarcely to be discerned time they flower about july, and their seed is ripe in august government and virtues they are both of them herbs of the moon the saxifrages are hot as pepper. And tragus saith, by his experience, that they are wholeessay they have the same properties the parsleyshave, but in provoking urine, and causing the pains thereof, and ofthe wind and colic, are much more effectual, the roots or seed beingused either in powder, or in decoctions, or any other way. And likewisehelps the windy pains of the mother, and to procure their courses, andto break and void the stone in the kidneys, to digest cold, viscous, and tough phlegm in the stomach, and is an especial remedy against allkind of venom castoreum being boiled in the distilled water thereof, is singularly good to be given to those that are troubled with crampsand convulsions essay do use to make the seeds into comfits as they docarraway seeds which is effectual to all the purposes aforesaid thejuice of the herb dropped into the most grievous wounds of the head, dries up their moisture, and heals them quickly essay women use thedistilled water to take away freckles or spots in the skin or face. Andto drink the same sweetened with sugar for all the purposes aforesaid scabious, three sorts descript common field scabious grows up with thesis hairy, soft, whitish green leaves, essay whereof are very little, if at all jaggedon the edges, others very much rent and torn on the sides, and havethreads in them, which upon breaking may be plainly seen. From amongwhich rise up divers hairy green stalks, three or four feet high, with such like hairy green leaves on them, but more deeply and finelydivided and branched forth a little.