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Have a special eye overthem term paper writers wanted. If you let them see the sun once a month, it will do neither thesun nor them harm because they strengthen the brain and nerves, and remedy palsies, greeks gave them the name paralysis the flowers preserved orconserved, and the quantity of a nutmeg eaten every morning, is asufficient dose for inward diseases. But for wounds, spots, wrinkles, and sunburnings, an ointment is made of the leaves, and hog grease crab claws called also water sengreen, knight pond water, water house-leek, pondweed, and fresh-water soldier descript it has sundry long narrow leaves, with sharp prickleson the edges of them, also very sharp pointed. The stalks which bearflowers, seldom grow so high as the leaves, bearing a forked head, likea crab claw, out of which comes a white flower, consisting of threeleaves, with divers yellowish hairy threads in the middle.

Being taken from the fire, let the turpentine be mixed with it. Lastly the mastich in powder, andso make of them a plaster according to art culpeper it is excellent good in wounds and green ulcers, for itkeeps back inflammations, cleanses and joins wounds, fills up ulcerswith flesh emplastrum de janua, or of betony nicholaus college take of the juice of betony, plantain, and smallage, ofeach one pound, wax, pitch, rozin, turpentine, of each half a pound, boil the wax and rozin in the juices with a gentle fire, continuallystirring them till the juice be consumed. Then add the turpentine andpitch, continually stirring it till it be brought into the consistenceof a plaster according to art emplastrum isis epigoni galen college take of yellow wax an hundred drams, turpentine two hundreddrams, scales of copper, verdigris, round birthwort, frankincense, sal-ammoniac, ammoniacum, burnt brass of each eight drams, burnt alumsix drams, aloes, myrrh, galbanum, of each an ounce and a half, oldoil one pound, sharp vinegar so much as is sufficient let the metalsbe dissolved in the sun with the vinegar, then put in those thingsthat may be melted, last of all the powders, and make them all into anemplaster culpeper galen appropriates it to the head, and ulcers there iknow no reason but why it may as well serve for other writings of the body a plaster of mastich nich alex college take of mastich, ship pitch, sagapenum, wax, of eachsix drams, ammoniacum, turpentine, colophonia, saffron, aloes, frankincense, myrrh, of each three drams, opopanax, galbanum, styrax, calamitis, alum, rondeletius appoints, and we for him bitumen, fenugreek, of each two drams, the feces of liquid styrax, bdellium, litharge, of each half a dram. Let the litharge, being beaten intopowder, be boiled in a sufficient quantity of water. Then add thepitch, which being melted, add the wax and ammoniacum, afterwards letthe sagapenum, opopanax, and galbanum be put in. Then the styrax andfeces being mixed with the turpentine, last of all the colophonia, mastich, frankincense, bdellium, alum, myrrh, and fenugreek in powder:let them be made into a plaster culpeper it strengthens the stomach, and helps digestion emplastrum nigrum august called in high dutch stichstaster college take of colophonia, rozin, ship pitch, white wax, romanvitriol, ceruss, olibanum, myrrh, of each eight ounces, oil of rosesseven ounces, oil of juniper berries three ounces, oil of eggs twoounces, oil of spick one ounce, white vitriol, red coral, mummy, ofeach two ounces, earth of lemnos, mastich, dragon blood, of each oneounce, the fat of an heron one ounce, the fat of pimullus three ounces, load stone prepared, two ounces, earthworms prepared, camphire, of eachone ounce. Make them into a plaster according to art culpeper it is very good in green wounds and shootings a key to galen method of physic the general use of physic i shall desire thee, whoever thou art, that intendest the noble thoughtoo much abused study of physic, to mind heedfully these followingrules. Which being well understood, shew thee the key of galen andhippocrates their method of physic.

1455 may 11 1912. 60. 770 march8 1913. 60. 1480 may 10 1913. 61. 1737 nov 8 1913 what is liquid petrolatum?. The use of liquid petrolatum in chronic constipation, which hasrecently become the vogue, has naturally been commercialized. As aresult, also naturally, claims of superiority of one brand over anotherhave been made essay of these claims may have been well founded. Otherscertainly are not essay have claimed superiority for those productsmade from russian oil over those made from american oils as naphthenehydrocarbons predominate in russian crude petroleums, and paraffinhydrocarbons in thesis or most american crude petroleums, it was assumedthat the petrolatums derived from these sources differed from oneanother in like manner both the naphthenes and the paraffins arechemically inert.

Or, the council might suspend judgmentand give the manufacturer an opportunity to supply the information the first method-- immediate rejection-- would obviously be felt bymanufacturers as a hardship to afford the fullest possible opportunityfor the presentation of the case, the council follows the secondmethod. That is, it suspends judgment and withholds publication ofa report until reasonable time has been afforded for furnishing therequired information, provided the manufacturer or agent appears tobe making honest and diligent efforts to supply it the collectionand compilation of such information is essaytimes a lengthy process, especially when the products are of foreign manufacture although it would be easier for the council to render an immediatedecision than to assist manufacturers to supply the data necessary forthe formation of an authoritative judgment, the council cannot yield toimportunities for hasty action it must rely on the medical professionto bear in mind that the character of a product under considerationby the council has not yet been determined the council holds that, during this stage, a product is suitable, at most, for experimentaluse -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 119 cooperation of the pharmaceutical houses report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryin reply to the suggestion made last year by president bevan that thereshould be closer cooperation between the large pharmaceutical housesand the council on pharmacy and chemistry, the council submitted to theboard of trustees of the american medical association the statementwhich appears below. “cooperation of the pharmaceutical houses. At the opening meeting of the house of delegates last year, president arthur dean bevan suggested the desirability of greater cooperation between the large pharmaceutical houses and the council on pharmacy and chemistry the need of such cooperation has been recognized by the council from the first in no one direction has the council made greater effort than in its endeavor to secure the fullest cooperation of the various pharmaceutical houses the difficulty has been, and always must be, the fundamental antagonism between objectives that are largely commercial on the one hand and purely scientific on the other nevertheless, the council has always believed-- and has acted on the belief-- that there is a possible middle ground wherein the interests of therapeutics would not be injured but would go hand in hand with a commercial development based on enlightened self-interest “the profits to be made by a pharmaceutical house from the sale of a staple drug-- a pharmacopeial, national formulary, or nonproprietary preparation-- which enters into free competition with other drugs of the same kind, are moderate. The profits to be made from the sale of a proprietary medicine on which the manufacturer holds a monopoly are usually large-- essaytimes enormous there are, broadly, two kinds of proprietary preparations advertised to physicians. One represents laborious research ending in the production of a new medicinal chemical. This product can be patented and the manufacturer can obtain a seventeen-year monopoly on its manufacture and sale the other represents no research but comprises simple mixtures-- frequently of the “shotgun” variety-- of well known pharmaceuticals, or biologic products sold under trade names as these do not represent anything new or original the manufacturer is unable to obtain a patent, but by means of the trade name he can and does obtain a perpetual monopoly this, from a business standpoint, is more valuable than the limited monopoly granted by a patent it is not surprising that proprietary remedies of the latter type flourish so long as physicians unthinkingly accept and prescribe them solely on the manufacturer valuation “the council has practically the undivided support of manufacturers of medicinal chemicals. That is, of proprietaries of the first mentioned type but pharmaceutical firms which have found it profitable to promote proprietaries of the second type-- “specialties, ” unscientific or ordinary mixtures of pharmaceuticals or biologic products sold under trade names-- have not supported the council “when the council was organized, it was hoped and believed that all the large pharmaceutical houses would find it possible and desirable, if not actually more profitable, to shape their business methods so as to make their proprietary and other articles conform to those conservative standards on which the council bases its rules, and thus render such articles acceptable for new and nonofficial remedies it soon developed, however, that the methods of the pseudochemical companies, whose sales propaganda in the interest of unscientific nostrums with its attending damage to scientific medicine had led to the establishment of the council, had found their lodgment in most of the pharmaceutical houses it was a genuine disappointment to the council to find that essay of the large and old-established firms were not only unwilling to cooperate with the council, but in thesis instances exhibited a definite antagonism to the council work “the object-- and duty-- of the officers of pharmaceutical houses is primarily to pay dividends to their stockholders through skilful advertising or the persuasiveness of “detail men, ” they are able to induce physicians to prescribe their controlled products, on which there are large profits, even though such products have not only not been accepted by the council, but in thesis instances, have been disapproved is it any wonder that concerns which put out such products are indifferent or openly antagonistic to the work of the council?. the matter is largely one of business policy when the medical profession as a unit will support the council in its work, then such firms will find it good business policy to accede to dr bevan suggestion-- but not before ”evidently the problem resolves itself into this. The council, constituted of scientific men, working without remuneration inthe interest of scientific medicine and the medical profession, expects-- and rightfully-- the cooperation and support of the members ofthat profession what is needed, therefore, is the active, sympatheticcooperation of physicians. The cooperation of pharmaceutical houseswill follow as a matter of course j a m a 74:1235 may 11920 the following is the recommendation of the reference committee towhich the report of the board of trustees was referred. “a perusalof the trustees’ report, ‘cooperation of the pharmaceutical houses’, is well worth the time of every member of the profession, and yourcommittee would emphasize the statement of the trustees. ‘thecouncil, constituted of scientific men, working without remunerationin the interest of scientific medicine and the medical professionexpects-- and rightfully-- the cooperation and support of the members ofthat profession what is needed, therefore, is the active sympatheticcooperation of physicians. The cooperation of pharmaceutical houseswill follow as a matter of course ’“your committee would go still further and move that a vote of thanksof the house be extended to those scientific men who have devoted somuch valuable time to the welfare of the association ” j a m a , 74:1322 may 8 1920. From reports of council onpharmacy and chemistry, 1920, p 56 w a puckner, secretary budwell emulsion of cod-liver oil, nos 1 and 2 report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe budwell pharmacal company, lynchburg, virginia, which markets thesepreparations, claims that “no 1” contains cod liver oil, “iodide ofarsenic, ” “iodide of calcium, ” and “iodide of manganese ” “no 2” issaid to contain in addition to the ingredients of no 1, creosotecarbonate and guaiacol it is known that arsenous iodid is decomposed by contact with water itis recognized that creosote carbonate is unstable and prone to liberatecreosote iodide of manganese not being official, the supply on themarket is not controlled in any way. Tests of purity are not prescribedby the pharmacopeia, the national formulary, new and nonofficialremedies or other books of standards therefore doubt must be expressedas to the accuracy of the formulas as given the council cannot acceptsuch statements of composition without further evidence “no 1” is commended for use in “chronic rheumatism, glandular swellings, later forms of syphilis, convalescence from scarlet fever, la grippe and malaria, chronic malarial infection, marasmus, joint or other suppuration of standing, diseases of skin, chorea, anaemia, neurasthenia, obstinate neuralgia, scrofulous affections in general, and diarrhea or dysentery subacute or chronic in childhood ”“no 2” is said to be “prepared especially for the treatment of chronic throat, nasal, bronchial and pulmonary diseases ”in the advertising circular statements regarding the variousingredients of budwell emulsion are quoted from obsolete textbooks these statements, for the most writing, do not represent modernopinions on the subject for instance, the circular praises the actionof guaiacol as eliminated directly by the lungs, thus exerting abeneficial local effect and causing bacilli to diminish in numbers orto disappear all of this is directly contradicted in authoritativemodern publications on pharmacology, which hold that the excretion ofguaiacol by the lungs is infinitesimal and its action on bacilli isnil the council held the preparations in conflict with its rules asfollows:1 thesis of the therapeutic claims are exaggerations 2 the method of exploitation amounts to an indirect invitation to thepublic to use these preparations as “consumption cures ”3 the preparations are unscientific, they constitute a reprehensibleinvitation to uncritical prescribing and their use is inimical to thebest interests of the profession and the public it is difficult toimagine in what conditions such a combination would be indicated thesepreparations are a remnant of the days of polypharmacy their use isnot in keeping with present medical thought and practice -- from thejournal a m a , feb 20, 1915 rheumalgine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryrheumalgine eli lilly & co , indianapolis is put up both in tabletform and as a liquid each tablet, or teaspoonful of the liquid, issaid to contain. “strontium salicylate from natural oil 5 gr hexamethylenamin 2 gr colchicine 1/200 gr ”the advertising matter contains several statements regarding theindividual ingredients to which objection must be made it is claimed quoting from hare that strontium salicylate “ is not so disagreeable to the taste as the corresponding sodium salts, and more important still, it is far less apt to disorder the stomach ”“taste” is a difficult subject to dispute. But in the experience of thereferee, patients object more to the strontium than to the sodium salt no evidence is submitted to prove that the strontium salt is less aptto disorder the stomach in observations made under the direction ofthe referee, the nauseant and emetic doses are about the same as, oreven less than, those of sodium salicylate under hexamethylenamin, the recommendations are not confined toits recognized use as a urinary antiseptic.

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“filudine restores the liver functions it is to the liver what digitalis is to the heart. It overcomes the insufficiency and stimulates the debilitated organ ” in malaria “it is the only true specific when associated with quinine ” “filudine is the ideal medication for tuberculosis, conforming as it does with the most recent researches in the therapeusis of this affection ” “we will not go as far as to say that opotherapy completely restores unhealthy livers, for although the lesions of the hepatic parenchyma may be obliterated by regeneration, the lesions of the connective tissues are permanent, and may be observed at the postmortem examination the new cells, however, do not present the same unhealthy conditions as those of the former diseased gland which they have replaced, and the liver can therefore function normally, so that the patient lives on. And he is satisfied with that ” “therefore, while regenerating the liver with filudine, we cleanse it and combat its congested state with urodonal we cause it to produce urea from the excess of uric acid which it contains ” “by the judicious and harmonious combination of the beneficial effects of filudine and urodonal, physicians not only possess the means of treating by rational methods cirrhosis of the liver in its various forms which is one of the most terrible diseases which can afflict anyone but what is still better, they can cure it ” “the liver of a person suffering from obesity being incapable of fulfilling its functions in regard to the fatty tissues, the rational and up-to-date method of treatment is therefore to restore to the system, in the form of filudine, the liver extracts which are lacking ”filudine is a mixture of semisecret composition the therapeuticclaims are manifestly unwarranted the name is not indicative of thecomposition, whatever that may be, and no rational excuse is offeredfor the combination of liver and spleen extracts with or without bileextracts with “thiomethylarsinate” or “thiocinnamate” of caffein the council therefore held filudine ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 18, 1915 lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrymixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therapeutically irrational;the two substances are not indicated in the same conditions, nor canthey act together under physiologic conditions, such mixtures arechemically impossible. In a liquid medium the ingredients destroy eachother lactopeptin is manufactured by the new york pharmacal association, yonkers, n y it is sold under the claim that it contains, pepsin, diastase, pancreatin, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid this productwas among the first proprietary preparations examined by the council onpharmacy and chemistry the report of the investigation was publishedin the journal, march 16, 1907, p 959 the preparation was found to bepractically inert-- “essentially a weak saccharated pepsin, ” devoid oftryptic activity six years later it was still widely advertised with the same irrationalclaims a referee a therefore examined lactopeptine powdered forthe council in 1913, and confirmed the previous findings the refereereport was published in the journal, aug 2, 1913, p 358 nearly four months after this publication, the manufacturer protestedagainst the report, maintaining, contrary to the findings of thecouncil, that lactopeptine possesses pancreatic activity and contains“loosely combined” hydrochloric acid referee a therefore repeatedhis examination, and a second referee b, independently, examinedspecimens of lactopeptine powder purchased on the open market for thepurpose shortly before a few specimens examined by these two referees showed a slight trypticactivity. Most of them showed none the amount of hydrochloric acidpresent was insignificant the reports of the two referees were referred to the manufacturers, whoagain protested vehemently against these findings, this time on theground that the specimens were old the manufacturers also cited thework of three chemists to disprove the findings of the referees, anddemanded that the council reexamine lactopeptine, making use of freshspecimens the council refused for the following reasons:1 so long as the packages of lactopeptine are not dated, the activityof specimens known to be fresh is of no practical importance theactivity of the actual market supply is the only question of interestto the profession the only fair test is that made on specimensrepresentative of the product sold to the ultimate consumer 2 the evidence presented by the manufacturers did not warranta reexamination, since the work of two of the chemists citedsubstantially corroborates the results obtained by the councilreferees from the fresher specimens the figures for tryptic activityobtained by the third chemist cited by the manufacturers could not beaccepted by the council, since it was at variance with all other knownresults of investigations of lactopeptine 3 as stated at the outset, whatever the tryptic activity of themixture, it is therapeutically useless a demonstration of trypticactivity in a mixture containing both pepsin and pancreatin is ofmerely theoretical interest such activity, of course, cannot be expected, even on theoreticalgrounds, in liquid mixtures like elixir lactopeptine the council therefore again declared lactopeptine powder and tabletsand elixir lactopeptine ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies andauthorized publication of the following statement w a puckner, secretary the council reportlactopeptine powder new york pharmacal association, yonkers, n y was examined by the council in 1907 at that time it was claimed tocontain “ the five active agents of digestion-- pepsin, diastase veg ptyalin, pancreatin, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid-- combined in the proper proportion to insure the best results ”the examination showed that the preparation was essentially “a weaksaccharated pepsin, ” containing but small amounts of pepsin, nohydrochloric acid, or mere traces only, and no diastase or pancreatin the journal, march 16, 1907 in 1913, the product was reexamined, because the claims, as to bothcomposition and therapeutic value, were still being made sampleswere tested both of the american product, and of a british productfrom john morgan richards & sons, london the original findings wereconfirmed and the results were published in the journal, aug 2, 1913, p 358 nearly four months later november 24 the new yorkpharmacal association wrote to the council, objecting to the findingsand maintaining that lactopeptine possesses pancreatic activity andcontains “in loose chemical combination” hydrochloric acid inaccordance with the custom of the council, the work was sent back forreview to the referee a, whose conclusions were then tested by asecond referee b, a physiologic chemist, not a member of the council, selected because of his special knowledge of the subject in december, 1913, referee a made a large number of new tests todetermine proteolytic and amylolytic power his results show thatthe ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition in practical use the tests also show that the amount oflactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” or both present is too small tohave any appreciable physiologic activity and therefore to be of anytherapeutic value nine samples of lactopeptine purchased in the open market in december, 1913, and january, 1914, were examined by referee b early in 1914 hisstudies show absence of amylase in all samples. Presence of pepsin, giving weak reactions even when compared with those of old pepsinpreparations. Complete absence of trypsin in seven out of nine samples, tryptic reaction being obtained in two samples, in one of which thereaction, “slight at best and of no practical import, ” was obtainedonly after treatment for twelve hours or more the presence of tryptic activity in two out of the nine samples maybe due to the fresher condition of these specimens, as indicatedby the serial numbers the evidence shows that it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity it should be reaffirmed that mixtures combining peptic and pancreaticactivities are not feasible, because pepsin cannot act except in thepresence of acid, and pancreatin is destroyed by acid and by pepticactivity furthermore, in conditions in which pancreatin is calledfor, pepsin is not, and vice versa. Therefore the administration ofmixtures of pepsin and pancreatin would be unjustified, even if bothconstituents could be expected to exert activity the foregoing observations apply to lactopeptine in powder and tabletform while mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are unscientific andunjustified, theoretically the two substances may coexist in a solidpreparation, and the activity of such a preparation is consequently aproper subject of investigation theoretically as well as practically, however, pepsin and pancreatin cannot exist together in solution theclaims made for elixir lactopeptine and all other liquid preparationssold as mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therefore impossible the council has previously taken action the journal, feb 2, 1907, p 434 refusing to approve for inclusion with new and nonofficialremedies such preparations, calling the attention of the medicalprofession and of manufacturers to their worthlessness, and requestingthe american pharmaceutical association to instruct its committee onthe national formulary to omit from the next edition of that work aliquid preparation of pepsin and pancreatin recognized under the titleof “elixir digestivum compositum ”it is recommended that the council reaffirm this previous action, and that lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine be declared ineligiblefor new and nonofficial remedies because of conflict with rule 10 “no article will be admitted which, because of its unscientificcomposition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of the publicor of the medical profession” manufacturers’ protest and council answerthe foregoing was submitted, together with the findings of the tworeferees, to the manufacturers they protested again, alleging that. Age of specimensfirst -- the specimens of lactopeptine examined by the second refereewere old the dates of manufacture corresponding to the several batchnumbers are supplied by the manufacturers as follows.