History

Synthesis Essay Format


By its oxidizing power on the germ it is germicidal, and prevents the growth of the gonococcus. And by its coagulant power on the toxins it relieves paragonococcal lesions mono- and poly-arthritides and affections of the serous organs endo- and pericarditis, meningitis, and essay definite systemic disturbances, the pathology of which is often confused with that of other infections ” “lymphocytosis is often persistent in essay individuals in whom the internal secretions and the processes of assimilation and disassimilation are deficient. And because of the lack of these the organic physiological ferments are insufficient for the mechanism of nutrition and the phenomena of hematopoiesis ”until proof is available showing that phenol, administeredintravenously in the quantities employed in cano normal phenol serumand cano methyl-phenol serum, acts as a germicide and methylthioninechloride “methylene blue” prevents the deleterious effects of phenolon the red blood corpuscles. That repeated intravenous injections ofphenol and mercury are without danger. That there is no danger ofanaphylaxis. That the physiologic properties of the blood are preservedby these medicaments. And, finally, that these preparations have aneffect on gonorrhea and its complications, these substances normalphenol serum cano and methyl-phenol cano, are inadmissible to newand nonofficial remedies the following quotations taken from the circular are admissions thatthese preparations are not innocuous.

The liquid has a slight opalescence thereis considerable deposit of a heavy black precipitate does not becomehomogeneous on shaking and the black substance quickly separates again collosol cuprum, 0 5 per cent. Dark red essaywhat opalescentliquid no precipitate may be colloidal collosol ferrum, 1-2000. Liquid clear large quantities of dark brownflocculent precipitate the precipitate is not distributed evenly whenthe mixture is shaken and settles out quickly on standing collosol hydrargyrum, 5 per cent. Milky liquid large quantities ofwhite deposit mixed with considerable black the deposit mixes fairlywell but the greater writing settles out after standing an hour or two collosol manganese, 2 5-1000. Clear reddish-brown liquid withoutdeposit of any kind is not opalescent or fluorescent collosol iodin, 1-500. Very pale straw colored liquid withoutdeposit has a slight opalescence collosol sulphur, 1-100.

Plates were made of the inoculated agar tubes. All plates and tubes were incubated at 37 c for forty-eight hours in an atmosphere of nitrogen gas duplicate experiments were made with cultures of typhoid bacillus as above in bouillon and agar plates containing the same amount of chlorlyptus and incubated at 37 c in ordinary atmosphere as control result. Nitrogen gas did not show any appreciable increase of the germicidal action of typhoid bacillus when grown in medium containing chlorlyptus growth was about the same in cultures supplied with nitrogen gas as in those growing in ordinary atmosphere experiment 7 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on pyogenic bacteria suspended in an oily medium -- experiment with streptococcus.

With long seed underneath, bearing a writingof the down on the head of every one, which together is blown awaywith the wind, or may be at once blown away with one mouth the rootgrowing downwards exceedingly deep, which being broken off within theground, will yet shoot forth again, and will hardly be destroyed whereit hath once taken deep root in the ground place it grows frequently in all meadows and pasture-grounds time it flowers in one place or other almost all the year long government and virtues it is under the dominion of jupiter itis of an opening and cleansing quality, and therefore very effectualfor the obstructions of the liver, gall and spleen, and the diseasesthat arise from them, as the jaundice and hypocondriac. It opens thepassages of the urine both in young and old. Powerfully cleansesimposthumes and inward ulcers in the urinary passage, and by its dryingand temperate quality doth afterwards heal them. For which purpose thedecoction of the roots or leaves in white wine, or the leaves choppedas pot-herbs, with a few alisanders, and boiled in their broth, arevery effectual and whoever is drawing towards a consumption or anevil disposition of the whole body, called cachexia, by the use hereoffor essay time together, shall find a wonderful help it helps also toprocure rest and sleep to bodies distempered by the heat of ague fits, or otherwise. The distilled water is effectual to drink in pestilentialfevers, and to wash the sores you see here what virtues this common herb hath, and that is thereason the french and dutch so often eat them in the spring. And nowif you look a little farther, you may see plainly without a pair ofspectacles, that foreign physicians are not so selfish as ours are, butmore communicative of the virtues of plants to people darnel it is called jam and wray. In sussex they call it crop, it being apestilent enemy among corn descript this has all the winter long sundry long, flat, and roughleaves, which, when the stalk rises, which is slender and jointed, arenarrower, but rough still. On the top grows a long spike, composed ofthesis heads set one above another, containing two or three husks, witha sharp but short beard of awns at the end. The seed is easily shakenout of the ear, the husk itself being essaywhat rough place the country husbandmen do know this too well to grow amongtheir corn, or in the borders and pathways of the other fields that arefallow government and virtues it is a malicious writing of sullen saturn asit is not without essay vices, so hath it also thesis virtues the mealof darnel is very good to stay gangrenes, and other such like frettingand eating cankers, and putrid sores. It also cleanses the skin of allleprosies, morphews, ringworms, and the like, if it be used with saltand raddish roots and being used with quick brimstone and vinegar, it dissolves knots and kernels, and breaks those that are hard to bedissolved, being boiled in wine with pigeon dung and linseed. Adecoction thereof made with water and honey, and the places bathedtherewith, is profitable for the sciatica darnel meal applied in apoultice draws forth splinters and broken bones in the flesh. The reddarnel, boiled in red wine and taken, stays the lask and all otherfluxes, and women bloody issues. And restrains urine that passes awaytoo suddenly dill descript the common dill grows up with seldom more than one stalk, neither so high, nor so great usually as fennel, being round and fewerjoints thereon, whose leaves are sadder, and essaywhat long, and so likefennel that it deceives thesis, but harder in handling, and essaywhatthicker, and of a strong unpleasant scent. The tops of the stalks havefour branches and smaller umbels of yellow flowers, which turn intosmall seed, essaywhat flatter and thinner than fennel seed the root isessaywhat small and woody, perishes every year after it hath borne seed:and is also unprofitable, being never put to any use place it is most usually sown in gardens and grounds for thepurpose, and is also found wild in thesis places government and virtues mercury has the dominion of this plant, andtherefore to be sure it strengthens the brain the dill being boiledand drank, is good to ease swellings and pains. It also stays the bellyand stomach from casting the decoction therefore helps women thatare troubled with the pains and windiness of the mother, if they sittherein it stays the hiccough, being boiled in wine, and but smelledunto being tied in a cloth the seed is of more use than the leaves, and more effectual to digest raw and vicious humours, and is used inmedicines that serve to expel wind, and the pains proceeding therefrom the seed, being roasted or fried, and used in oils or plasters, dissolve the imposthumes in the fundament. And dries up all moistulcers, especially in the fundament. An oil made of dill is effectualto warm or dissolve humours and imposthumes, and the pains, and toprocure rest the decoction of dill, be it herb or seed only if youboil the seed you must bruise it in white wine, being drank, it is agallant expeller of wind, and provoker of the terms devil-bit descript this rises up with a round green smooth stalk, about twofeet high, set with divers long and essaywhat narrow, smooth, dark greenleaves, essaywhat nipped about the edges, for the most writing, being elseall whole, and not divided at all, or but very seldom, even to thetops of the branches, which yet are smaller than those below, withone rib only in the middle at the end of each branch stands a roundhead of thesis flowers set together in the same manner, or more neatlythan scabions, and of a bluish purple colour, which being past, therefollows seed which falls away the root is essaywhat thick, but shortand blackish, with thesis strings, abiding after seed time thesis years this root was longer, until the devil as the friars say bit away therest of it for spite, envying its usefulness to mankind. For sure hewas not troubled with any disease for which it is proper there are two other sorts hereof, in nothing unlike the former, savethat the one bears white, and the other bluish-coloured flowers place the first grows as well in dry meadows and fields as moist, in thesis places of this land. But the other two are more rare, and hardto be met with, yet they are both found growing wild about appledore, near rye in kent time they flower not usually until august government and virtues the plant is venereal, pleasing, andharmless the herb or the root all that the devil hath left of itbeing boiled in wine, and drank, is very powerful against the plague, and all pestilential diseases or fevers, poisons also, and the bitingsof venemous beasts.

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“possibly the cooling action of the combination, and the effect of the 4% boric acid contained, are factors that enter be all that as it may, the fact certainly remains that synthesis essay format oftentimes, after other local measures fail, ‘k-y’ lubricating jelly gives relief ”elsewhere it is claimed to be germicidal, and to give relief in otherconditions, thus. “diabetic and uremic irritations, not only of the genitalia, but of other writings, have been found fully as amenable as pruritus vulvae to the soothing influence of ‘k-y’ lubricating jelly, especially if the previous application is removed with water every time a new one is put on ”the foregoing citations are obviously intended largely for the public, and make it plain that “k-y” jelly is not in the class of nonmedicaland harmless external applications. On the contrary, these claimstend to create the impression that the spread of measles and scarletfever can be prevented in the stage of desquamation to placesuch statements in the hands of the patient supported by the tacitendorsement of a prescription is to create a false and dangeroussense of security and to lead to a failure to observe other and moreimportant means of preventing dissemination of these diseases the council held k-y lubricating jelly in conflict with rules 1, 4, 6and 10, and authorized publication of this report -- from the journala m a , sept 29, 1917 ziratol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryziratol bristol-myers company, new york, in compliance with thefederal “insecticide law, ” is declared to contain 32 per cent waterand 30 per cent glycerin as inert constituents regarding its activeconstituents the manufacturer makes the following and meaninglessstatement:“ziratol is prepared from phenols of the naphthalene series andconsists of a solution of such phenols in a mixture of soap, water andglycerin ”in response to inquiry, the a m a chemical laboratory examinedziratol and reported that its essential constituent appears to bealpha-napthol, 120 and that it has, essentially, the followingcomposition by weight. Alpha-napthol 18 per cent , soap 20 per cent , glycerin and water sufficient to make 100 per cent 120 alpha-napthol was also found to be the basisof the nostrum benetol see the journal, april 15, 1911, p 1128 a ziratol advertising circular gives a tabulated report of germicidaltests, said to have been made according to the method of the hygieniclaboratory of the u s public health service when this work wasdone is not stated according to these tests ziratol possesses aphenol-coefficient of 13 66 the claim that ziratol is ten times moreefficient than carbolic acid phenol is evidently based on this report these claims of high germicidal value are contradicted by anexamination made for the council a specimen purchased in the openmarket was examined independently by two operators, to determine thehygienic laboratory phenol-coefficient one observer found the phenolcoefficient to be 2 54 the other reported it to be 3 09 evidently thegermicidal value of ziratol is greatly exaggerated in the advertisingclaims and, in fact, does not exceed that of the official compoundsolution of cresol liquor cresolis compositus, u s p for whicha phenol-coefficient of about three has been established see newand nonofficial remedies, 1917, p 82 the claim that ziratol is“the universal antiseptic and germicide” is manifestly an unwarrantedexaggeration the referee in submitting this report to the council recommended thatziratol be held in conflict with rule 1 secrecy of composition andrule 6 unwarranted and exaggerated claims after the report had beensubmitted, it was found that a new advertising circular, accompanyinga trade package, no longer contained the claim that “ziratol is tentimes more efficient than carbolic acid ” the older circular made thefollowing statement. “1 strong activity -- compared with the bactericidal action of carbolic acid by the method of the hygienic laboratory of the marine hospital service, ziratol has the carbolic acid coefficient of more than ten, that is, ziratol is ten times more efficient than carbolic acid, -- a strength unapproached by any other of its class ziratol in dilution of 1:1400 kills the typhoid bacillus in 2-1/2 minutes, thus proving that it is strongly active even in very weak solutions ”the new advertising circular reads. “1 strong activity-- extensive bacteriological investigations on thesis pathogenic organisms, conducted in the lederle laboratories of new york, prove conclusively the high bactericidal value of ziratol in extremely dilute solutions a copy of the complete report will be mailed upon request ”in response to a request, the bristol-myers company sent a copy ofthe bacteriologic investigations of ziratol, said to have been madeby the lederle laboratories the organisms employed for these testswere staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus albus, streptococcus, green pus bacillus, b coli, and saliva no tests are given with thetyphoid bacillus the conclusion is reached that “in all the tests thesolutions of ziratol have several times greater killing efficiencythan those of phenol ” the “coefficients” or comparative values whichcan be calculated from the results after exposure of 15 minutes to thedisinfectants range from 2 0 to 4 0 this is in substantial accordwith the referee findings as regards the phenol-coefficient with b typhosus as the test object while the new advertising circular avoidsthe former claim that ziratol is ten times more efficient than carbolicacid, in germicidal value, it still makes the unwarranted claims thatziratol is the “universal disinfectant ”the council declared ziratol inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies 1 because its composition is secret rule 1. 2 becausethe phenol coefficient, determined according to the method of thehygienic laboratory, u s p h s , is not stated on the label rule2.