History

Synthesis Essay Ap Lang


And this i had from dr reason in whose body dr reason dwells not, dwells dr madness, andhe brings in his brethren, dr ignorance, dr folly, and dr sickness, and these together make way for death, and the latter end of that manis worse than the beginning pride was the cause of adam fall. Pridebegat a daughter, i do not know the father of it, unless the devil, but she christened it, and called it appetite, and sent her daughterto taste these wormwoods, who finding this the least bitter, made thesqueamish wench extol it to the skies, though the virtues of it neverreached the middle region of the air its due praise is this. It isweakest, therefore fittest for weak bodies, and fitter for those bodiesthat dwell near it, than those that dwell far from it. My reason is, the sea those that live far from it, know when they come near itcasts not such a smell as the land doth the tender mercies of godbeing over all his works, hath by his eternal providence, plantedseriphian by the seaside, as a fit medicine for the bodies of thosethat live near it lastly, it is known to all that know any thing inthe course of nature, that the liver delights in sweet things, ifso, it abhors bitter. Then if your liver be weak, it is none of thewisest courses to plague it with an enemy if the liver be weak, aconsumption follows. Would you know the reason?. it is this, a manflesh is repaired by blood, by a third concoction, which transmutes theblood into flesh, it is well i said, concoction say i, if i had said boiling every cook would have understood me the liver makes blood, and if it be weakened that if it makes not enough, the flesh wastes;and why must flesh always be renewed?.

like the tyree product, this, too, is essentially a mixtureof zinc sulphate and boric acid, with minute amounts of phenol, eucalyptol, menthol and thymol, to say nothing of a dash of salicylicacid this official article has at least the virtue of constancy ofstrength, composition and purity assured under the federal food anddrugs act -- from the journal a m a , may 17, 1919 wheeler tissue phosphates “the commissioner of health directs me to call to your attention the enclosed advertisement issued by t b wheeler, m d , company, montreal, canada, in which the name of the association journal is being used ”accompanying this brief note to the journal from the secretary of dr haven emerson, commissioner of the dewritingment of health of the cityof new york, was a four page leaflet devoted to the exploitation of“wheeler tissue phosphates ” the trend of the circular is to leadthe average reader to infer that the journal of the american medicalassociation has endorsed wheeler tissue phosphates for example, indescribing the preparation one reads. “it embodies the best recent scientific opinion concerning the treatment of the disease tuberculosis as stated by the official journal a m a ”elsewhere in the circular the journal criticisms of thehypophosphites and the glycerophosphates proprietary preparationswhich are competitors of the wheeler product are quoted and twistedinto a tribute to the ingredients of wheeler tissue phosphates garbling quotations, distorting statements, separating phrases fromtheir contexts and omitting qualifying clauses, all for the purposeof making out a case for essay proprietary remedy is a trick as old asquackery itself that it should be used in advertising wheeler tissuephosphates is entirely fitting obviously, the t b wheeler, m d , company esteems the opinion of the journal on pharmacologic matters this being the case, it should, in the interest of truth and scientificaccuracy, publish in its advertising circulars just what the journalhas said about wheeler tissue phosphates it could not do this betterthan by quoting from a recent editorial note which commented on areport of the chemical laboratory on this preparation here is writing ofthe the journal comment. “‘wheeler tissue phosphates’ is an unscientific shotgun mixture whose most active and powerful drug is the alcohol it contains that it was not years ago relegated to the realms of obsolete and discarded preparations is a commentary alike on the lack of scientific discrimination and on the power of advertising ”here we have “wheeler tissue phosphates” stripped of the verbalcamouflage with which its exploiters have invested it -- editorialfrom the journal a m a , sept 22, 1917 briefer paragraphs alcresta lotion to the editor:-- what is the composition of alcresta lotion?. l t a hotten, m d , paris, idaho according to a circular in our files, “alcresta dental lotion-libby”contains “emetin, the active amebicidal principle of ipecac, togetherwith benzoic acid, thymol, eucalyptol and aromatics ” the theorythat emetin is an active amebicide against pyorrhea alveolaris hasbeen exploded in this connection, it is interesting to note thatthe firm does not list the product in the latest catalogue in ourfiles -- query from the journal a m a , oct 29, 1921 calcidin tablets abbott to the editor:-- what is the composition of calcidin tablets abbott and what is their value?. j s answer -- calcidin is claimed to be a mixture of iodin, lime and starch in contact with water, the iodin and lime react to form calcium iodidand calcium iodate by the acid of the gastric juice, the calcium iodidand calcium iodate are decomposed with liberation of free iodin theadministration of calcidin tablets amounts to giving free elementaryiodin in the past, the advertising for calcidin has contained theunwarranted claim more or less directly that it was the most effectiveand only noninjurious preparation of iodin for internal use, and thatit possesses all of the valuable properties of the iodin with all ofthe objectionable effects left out so far as we know, the effectsproduced by the administration of free iodin do not differ from thoseproduced by the administration of iodids and, therefore, calcidin hasno advantage over the iodids, such as sodium iodid -- query in thejournal a m a , sept 25, 1920 di-crotalin treatment of epilepsy to the editor:-- do you have any literature or information relative to the di-crotalin treatment for epilepsy?. i will be very grateful if you can furnish information as to method of preparation, rationale of the treatment, etc r c decker, captain, m r c , u s soldiers’ home, washington, d c answer -- di-crotalin is a rattlesnake venom preparation sold by theswan-myers company of indianapolis as a “treatment for epilepsy, chorea, bronchial asthma, chronic or hereditary nervous headache, nervous prostration incident to change of life, hysteria-mania, insomnia, neurasthenia, etc ” dr thomas j mays of philadelphiaadvocated the use of rattlesnake venom for tuberculosis later hisformer assistant, dr r h spangler, used the same material in thetreatment of epilepsy that any measure of success sufficient tojustify the adoption of the rattlesnake venom or crotalin treatmentfor epilepsy has resulted is not to be concluded from the availablereports still less evidence is there for the use of rattlesnakevenom in the list of conditions for which the swan-myers company hasrecommended its preparation there are a number of good reasons why acautious physician will shun the administration of this treatment andadvise against it j f anderson, working in the hygienic laboratoryof the united states public health service, reported a death from thecrotalin treatment in consequence of infection, and reports that themarket supply of crotalin solution and crotalin tablets is highlycontaminated he also found both crotalin and crotalin solution tovary in activity the use of rattlesnake venom was discussed in thejournal, march 15, 1913, p 850 -- query in the journal a m a , aug 17, 1918 estivin to the editor:-- what is “estevin, ” or essaything like that?. it is said to be good in hay-fever constant reader answer -- the product called “estivin” is sold by schieffelin andcompany, new york a request for a statement of the composition of thispreparation sent to schieffelin and company by the council on pharmacyand chemistry brought the indefinite and, therefore, meaninglessstatement that “‘estivin’ is an extract of rosa gallica containing noalcoholic or foreign ingredients ”-- query from the journal a m a , nov 12, 1921 iron arsenite to the editor:-- can you inform me how iron arsenite can be prepared for subcutaneous injection?. a commercial firm furnishes physicians with ampules of arsenite of iron is this really arsenite of iron?. s h kempner, m d , new york answer -- ferric arsenite iron arsenite is in itself relativelyinsoluble in water, but may be treated with ammonium citrate, theresulting product thus being soluble. The latter substance wasat one time described in new and nonofficial remedies as “ferricarsenite, soluble” and is essaytimes sold as a solution in ampuleform in 1912, the council on pharmacy and chemistry deleted “ferricarsenite, soluble” from new and nonofficial remedies because “onecannot, in administering ferric arsenite, soluble, give a usefuldose of iron without giving too much arsenic. And, vice versa, onecannot give a safe dose of arsenic without giving too little iron ”the council, therefore, held the preparation to be irrational andunscientific -- query in the journal a m a , feb 19, 1921 k-y lubricating jelly to the editor:-- 1 what is the composition of “k-y lubricating jelly”?.

An ounce or two thereof maybe taken at any time the young green nuts taken before they be halfripe, and preserved with sugar, are of good use for those that haveweak stomachs, or defluctions thereon the distilled water of the greenhusks, before they be half ripe, is of excellent use to cool the heatof agues, being drank an ounce or two at a time. As also to resist theinfection of the plague, if essay of the same be also applied to thesores thereof the same also cools the heat of green wounds and oldulcers, and heals them, being bathed therewith the distilled water ofthe green husks being ripe, when they are shelled from the nuts, anddrank with a little vinegar, is good for the place, so as before thetaking thereof a vein be opened the said water is very good againstthe quinsy, being gargled and bathed therewith, and wonderfully helpsdeafness, the noise, and other pains in the ears the distilled waterof the young green leaves in the end of may, performs a singular cureon foul running ulcers and sores, to be bathed, with wet cloths orspunges applied to them every morning wold, weld, or dyer weed the common kind grows bushing with thesis leaves, long, narrow andflat upon the ground. Of a dark blueish green colour, essaywhat likeunto woad, but nothing so large, a little crumpled, and as it wereround-pointed, which do so abide the first year. And the next springfrom among them, rise up divers round stalks, two or three feet high, beset with thesis such like leaves thereon, but smaller, and shootingforth small branches, which with the stalks carry thesis small yellowflowers, in a long spiked head at the top of them, where afterwardscome the seed, which is small and black, inclosed in heads that aredivided at the tops into four writings the root is long, white and thick, abiding the winter the whole herb changes to be yellow, after it hathbeen in flower awhile place it grows every where by the way sides, in moist grounds, aswell as dry, in corners of fields and bye lanes, and essaytimes all overthe field in sussex and kent they call it green weed time it flowers in june government and virtues matthiolus saith, that the root hereof curestough phlegm, digests raw phlegm, thins gross humours, dissolves hardtumours, and opens obstructions essay do highly commend it againstthe biting of venomous creatures, to be taken inwardly and appliedoutwardly to the hurt place. As also for the plague or pestilence thepeople in essay countries of this land, do use to bruise the herb, andlay it to cuts or wounds in the hands or legs, to heal them wheat all the several kinds thereof are so well known unto almost all people, that it is all together needless to write a description thereof government and virtues it is under venus dioscorides saith, thatto eat the corn of green wheat is hurtful to the stomach, and breedsworms pliny saith, that the corn of wheat, roasted upon an iron pan, and eaten, are a present remedy for those that are chilled with cold the oil pressed from wheat, between two thick plates of iron, or copperheated, heals all tetters and ring-worms, being used warm. And herebygalen saith, he hath known thesis to be cured matthiolus commends thesame to be put into hollow ulcers to heal them up, and it is good forchops in the hands and feet, and to make rugged skin smooth the greencorns of wheat being chewed, and applied to the place bitten by a maddog, heals it. Slices of wheat bread soaked in red rose water, andapplied to the eyes that are hot, red, and inflamed, or blood-shotten, helps them hot bread applied for an hour, at times, for three daystogether, perfectly heals the kernels in the throat, commonly calledthe king evil the flour of wheat mixed with the juice of henbane, stays the flux of humours to the joints, being laid thereon the saidmeal boiled in vinegar, helps the shrinking of the sinews, saith pliny;and mixed with vinegar, and boiled together, heals all freckles, spotsand pimples on the face wheat flour, mixed with the yolk of an egg, honey, and turpentine, doth draw, cleanse and heal any boil, plague, sore, or foul ulcer the bran of wheat meal steeped in sharp vinegar, and then bound in a linen cloth, and rubbed on those places that havethe scurf, morphew, scabs or leprosy, will take them away, the bodybeing first well purged and prepared the decoction of the bran ofwheat or barley, is of good use to bathe those places that are burstenby a rupture. And the said bran boiled in good vinegar, and appliedto swollen breasts, helps them, and stays all inflamations it helpsalso the biting of vipers which i take to be no other than our englishadder and all other venomous creatures the leaves of wheat mealapplied with essay salt, take away hardness of the skin, warts, and hardknots in the flesh wafers put in water, and drank, stays the laskand bloody flux, and are profitably used both inwardly and outwardlyfor the ruptures in children boiled in water unto a thick jelly, andtaken, it stays spitting of blood. And boiled with mint and butter, ithelps the hoarseness of the throat the willow tree these are so well known that they need no description i shalltherefore only shew you the virtues therof government and virtues the moon owns it both the leaves, bark, and the seed, are used to stanch bleeding of wounds, and at mouth andnose, spitting of blood, and other fluxes of blood in man or woman, and to stay vomiting, and provocation thereunto, if the decoction ofthem in wine be drank it helps also to stay thin, hot, sharp, saltdistillations from the head upon the lungs, causing a consumption theleaves bruised with essay pepper, and drank in wine, helps much the windcholic the leaves bruised and boiled in wine, and drank, stays theheat of lust in man or woman, and quite extinguishes it, if it be longused. The seed also is of the same effect water that is gathered fromthe willow, when it flowers, the bark being slit, and a vessel fittingto receive it, is very good for redness and dimness of sight, or filmsthat grow over the eyes, and stay the rheums that fall into them. Toprovoke urine, being stopped, if it be drank. To clear the face andskin from spots and discolourings galen saith, the flowers have anadmirable faculty in drying up humours, being a medicine without anysharpness or corrosion. You may boil them in white wine, and drink asmuch as you will, so you drink not yourself drunk the bark works thesame effect, if used in the same manner, and the tree hath always abark upon it, though not always flowers. The burnt ashes of the barkbeing mixed with vinegar, takes away warts, corns, and superfluousflesh, being applied to the place the decoction of the leaves or barkin wine, takes away scurff and dandriff by washing the place with it it is a fine cool tree, the boughs of which are very convenient to beplaced in the chamber of one sick of a fever woad descript it hath divers large leaves, long, and essaywhat broadwithal, like those of the greater plantain, but larger, thicker, of agreenish colour, essaywhat blue withal from among which leaves rises upa lusty stalk, three or four feet high, with divers leaves set thereon;the higher the stalk rises, the smaller are the leaves. At the top itspreads divers branches, at the end of which appear very pretty, littleyellow flowers, and after they pass away like other flowers of thefield, come husks, long and essaywhat flat withal. In form they resemblea tongue, in colour they are black, and they hang bobbing downwards the seed contained within these husks if it be a little chewed givesan azure colour the root is white and long place it is sowed in fields for the benefit of it, where thosethat sow it, cut it three times a year time it flowers in june, but it is long after before the seed isripe government and virtues it is a cold and dry plant of saturn essaypeople affirm the plant to be destructive to bees, and fluxes them, which, if it be, i cannot help it i should rather think, unless beesbe contrary to other creatures, it possesses them with the contrarydisease, the herb being exceeding dry and binding however, if any beesbe diseased thereby, the cure is, to set urine by them, but set it ina vessel, that they cannot drown themselves, which may be remedied, ifyou put pieces of cork in it the herb is so drying and binding, thatit is not fit to be given inwardly an ointment made thereof stanchesbleeding a plaister made thereof, and applied to the region of thespleen which lies on the left side, takes away the hardness and painsthereof the ointment is excellently good in such ulcers as abound withmoisture, and takes away the corroding and fretting humours. It coolsinflammations, quenches st anthony fire, and stays defluxion of theblood to any writing of the body woodbine, or honey-suckles it is a plant so common, that every one that hath eyes knows it, and hethat hath none, cannot read a description, if i should write it time they flower in june, and the fruit is ripe in august government and virtues doctor tradition, that grand introducer oferrors, that hater of truth, lover of folly, and the mortal foe to dr reason, hath taught the common people to use the leaves or flowers ofthis plant in mouth-water, and by long continuance of time, hath sogrounded it in the brains of the vulgar, that you cannot beat it outwith a beetle.

It may be remarked that theadvertisements contain no therapeutic recommendation, and do not, ontheir face, urge the public to employ aspirin but apparently merelytell the public how it may protect itself against sophistication in synthesis essay ap lang substance, they say. “if you are a user of aspirin, this is howyou may obtain the genuine ” it might be said that this is not anattempt to increase the use or sale of aspirin-- the ordinary object ofadvertising-- but that the means of protection against adulteration isa “subject on which the public should be instructed ” the principleof such exceptions is stated in the comments to rule 3 new andnonofficial remedies, 1916, p 15. And although the present case doesnot come under the exceptions specified under these comments, it may beurged that the exceptions need to be increased as occasion arises thenotorious adulteration of aspirin may well be urged as establishing aneed for a similar exception in its use the general principle of protecting the public against fraud, adulteration and substitution is directly in line with the objects ofthe council, and deserves commendation and support it is obvious, however, that the means adopted for this end must be efficient, that they must not open the door to other, perhaps greater evilsand that they must be used in good faith the policy of advertising“aspirin-bayer” must be examined in these respects in the first place, the acceptance of a product by the council impliesan agreement by the manufacturers or agents that they will adherestrictly to the council rules and will not dewriting from the letter orspirit of these rules without notice to the council this principle hasbeen grossly infringed in the present case there can be no doubt thatthe agents were aware that their advertisements conflicted, at leastwith the letter of rule 3 nevertheless, they did not, in any way, inform the council of the change in policy in this respect, at least, they have not acted in good faith secondly, the wording of the advertisement implies that only thetablets stamped with “the bayer cross” are genuine this is misleading, since every druggist has the right to make unstamped tablets ofaspirin, fully as genuine as those stamped with the cross thirdly, the cross itself cannot be considered an efficient protection;for people who imitate aspirin will not hesitate to imitate thestamp the remedy, in either case, and as with any other drug, is theexamination of trade samples, and the vigorous prosecution of thoseguilty of violating the law fourthly, the permanent affixing of the name “aspirin” to thevest-pocket boxes is also inefficient as a protection, and servesmainly as an advertisement fifthly, whatever may have been the motives of the advertisers, andhowever carefully the advertisements are worded, they will inevitablytend to increase the use of aspirin by the public, and this is directlyagainst the interests of public health the public does not know, asphysicians do, that headaches are merely symptoms of other, essaytimesvery serious conditions. And that they are often the signal for theneed of a thorough physical examination and diagnosis it is true thatthey are often also the symptoms of very minor derangements, which willright themselves spontaneously. And that, in such paper, drugs likeaspirin may give relief and may do no harm the patient, however, isnot educated to distinguish one class from the other, and thereforeanything that tends to promote the indiscriminate use of such remediesas aspirin is detrimental to the public health furthermore, aspirinitself is not always harmless alarming idiosyncrasies are sufficientlycommon that the use of the first doses, at least, should requiremedical supervision with these considerations in mind, the referee isof the opinion that the direct and indirect advertising of aspirin isto be condemned -- from the journal a m a , jan 20, 1917 pil cascara compound-robins report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrya circular issued by the a h robins company of richmond, va , contains the following statement. “pil cascara compound-robins is a rational therapeutic formula, composed of cascara, podophyllin, colocynth and hyoscyamus, which promotes a natural flow of secretions, which is, in turn, the physiologic stimulant of peristalsis thus, a normal evacuation is produced without subsequent inhibition “they contain no mercury, strychnia nor belladonna “an ideal aid to any remedial agent, when a mild, medium or strong alimentary stimulant is needed sic “made in two strengths, the dosage may be easily regulated so as to obtain the effects of an anti-dyspeptic, aperient, laxative or cathartic, as desired they never cause discomfort unless given in larger dose than needed ”this preparation is another example of the innumerable mixtures ofwell-known drugs having nothing in the way of originality or of specialtherapeutic value to recommend them the advertising implies that this writingicular combination has a specialaction on the secretions of the gastro-intestinal tract. Otherwiseit would be hard to explain the claim that the preparation isantidyspeptic, if that means anything more than a laxative or cathartic the claim is made that this preparation contains no belladonna-- yetit admittedly contains hyoscyamus!. this manifests either ignorance onthe writing of the manufacturers, or an effort to impose on the medicalprofession both belladonna and hyoscyamus contain variable amountsof similar alkaloids, chiefly hyoscyamin hyoscyamus is feeblerthan belladonna in its action, as it contains less alkaloid thequalitative differences between the two drugs, with reference to theiruse as laxatives, is so slight as to make the company claim forhyoscyamus appear either deliberately misleading or to be the resultof crass ignorance promoting this mixture of well-known laxatives andcathartics as an “ideal aid to any remedial agent when a mild, mediumor strong alimentary stimulant is needed” is a slur on the intelligenceof physicians pil cascara compound-robins is not acceptable for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , jan 27, 1917 casta-flora report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycasta-flora is one of those complex preparations which are offeredto the medical profession, with plausible arguments in support ofthe claims made it is put out by the wm s merrell chemical co , cincinnati each fluidounce is said to represent.

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Only in one eighth of the tablets was the variation less than 5per cent the connecticut investigators substantiate once again the workpreviously reported, namely, that there are a number of firms who areeither incompetent or careless for tablets of simple composition, a variation from the declaration of 10 per cent should be amplysufficient to compensate for the errors of careful manufacture it maybe added that the best tablets originate generally from firms havingcompetent chemical control -- from the journal a m a , july 27, 1918 therapeutic evidence. Its crucial testo torald sollmann, m d , clevelando read before the section on pharmacology and therapeutics at thesixty-eighth annual session of the american medical association, newyork, june, 1917 o this article clearly states the difficulties experienced by thecouncil in estimating the merits of a proprietary medicinal productand clearly defines the method which has been found to be practical injudging of the therapeutic value of such preparations the council hasapproved this discussion of the subject and has directed that the paperbe published in the annual council reports w a puckner, secretary according to the good old truism, the last and crucial proof of thepudding is in the eating thereof. And so, the last and crucial test ofa therapeutic agent is its consumption by a patient there is, however, one essential difference. When the pudding is eaten, with a sense ofsatisfaction, we know that it was a good, or at least an eatable, pudding if the patient improves after taking a remedy, we do not yet knowthat he improved on account of the remedy the post hoc type ofreasoning or logic is not respectable. But it is all too apt to creepin unawares, unless one takes great precautions indeed clinical evidence needs especially to be on its guard against thispitfall, for the conditions of disease never remain constant. Nor is itpossible to foresee with certainty the direction which they are goingto take it is just this point which makes the clinical evidence somuch more difficult to interpret than laboratory evidence, in whichthe conditions can be more or less exactly controlled, and any changesforeseen it is on this account, also, that clinical experiments mustbe surrounded with extra painstaking precautions in brief, while the “proof” of a remedy is on the patient, that is notthe whole story, but merely an introduction the real problem is toestablish the causative connection between the remedy and the events the imperfect realization of this has blocked therapeutic advance, hasdisgusted critical men to the point of therapeutic nihilism, and hasfertilized the ground for the commercial exploitation of drugs that areof doubtful value or worse this has been impressed on me writingicularly by my service on the councilon pharmacy and chemistry in the course of its work of passing on theclaims advanced for commercial remedies, this council is forced toinquire critically into the basis of the claims of manufacturers it is interesting to note the qualitative differences in the evidencefor the various kinds of claims. The chemical data are usuallypresented in such a form that it is possible to tell at a glancewhether or not they are based on demonstrated facts, which couldusually be verified or refuted without special difficulty thedeductions are usually such as can be legitimately drawn from the data, or else they are obviously absurd all this agrees with the relativelyexact status of chemical science in passing to data and deductions from animal experiments, a distinctchange is noticeable. Not only are the data less reliable, and lessworthy of confidence, but they are more often stated in a lessstraightforward manner the presentation of the data often showsevidence of manipulation of the results, so as to make them mostfavorable to a preconceived conclusion that would recommend the drug this is not always intentional, but is writingly due to the less exactnature of animal experimentation, which leaves a wider play to thearbitrary interpretation of the reporter a certain amount of thisis unavoidable no serious objection can be raised, provided theexperimenter presents all the essential data, and discusses fairly allof the interpretations that would apply to them on the whole, it is usually possible to form a fairly definite estimateof the value of experimental data when one comes to the clinical evidence, an entirely differentatmosphere obtains when the council demands evidence of the usefulnessof a remedy, the manufacturers generally respond with every sign ofenthusiasm they may have ready a series of articles already published, or they instruct their agents to bring in letters from physicians thelast method seems to meet the most cordial response, judging from thedeluge of letters and opinions that floods the council the quality of the published papers is a fair reflection of thedeficiencies of what is still the common type of clinical evidence a little thought suffices to show that the greater writing cannotbe taken as serious evidence at all essay of the data are merelyimpressions-- usually the latest impressions of an impressionableenthusiast-- the type of man who does not consider it necessary topresent evidence for his own opinions.