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By having the grave deep, over six feet in depth ifpossible by the body being well wrapped and secured in a tight coffin, a lead one being the best in this respect lime or charcoal appliedfreely about a body will retard decomposition, as will also injectionof the body through the arteries with such substances as arsenic, chloride of zinc, or antimony the ultimate effect of putrefactionis to reduce all bodies to inorganic compounds, chiefly water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide three conditions are necessary for itsestablishment, 1 synonym for essay a given temperature, 2 moisture, 3 free accessof air the order in which the various organs and tissues undergodecomposition, as given by casper, who has investigated the subjectcarefully, is as follows. Trachea and larynx, brain of infants, stomachand intestines, spleen, omentum and mesentery, liver, brain of adults, heart and lungs, kidney, bladder and œsophagus, pancreas, largevessels, and last of all the uterus as the result of putrefaction, fluids, generally blood-stained, collectin the serous cavities of the body, and should not be confoundedwith serous effusions occurring during life so also the softeningof the organs and tissue resulting from decomposition should becarefully distinguished from those resulting from inflammation thesecadaveric softenings are most frequently found in the brain, spleen, and gastro-intestinal mucous membrane inflammatory softenings aredifferentiated by being rarely general but almost always limited, bythe substance of the inflamed writing being infiltrated with serum orpus and showing traces of vascular injection in doubtful paper thepathologist should have recourse to the microscope as the result of putrefaction, various changes take place in the mucousmembrane of the stomach and intestines which simulate the effectsof poisons the color of the stomach varies from red, which becomesbrighter on exposure to the air, to a brown, slate, or livid purple wecan only presume that these color-changes are the result of irritantpoisons when they are found in non-dependent writings and writings not incontact with organs engorged with blood, when they are seen soon afterdeath, and when the membrane is covered with coagulated blood, mucus, or flakes of membrane effects on putrefaction of submersion in water there are certain modifications of the putrefactive changes when bodieshave been submerged in water in the first place, the changes are muchless rapid. They often do not show themselves until about the twelfthday, and then as discolorations appearing generally first about theears and temples, then on the face, from which they spread to the neck, shoulders, chest, abdomen, and finally to the legs this is almost theinverse order of the putrefactive changes in bodies exposed to the air as a result of the formation of gases, the body in a short time becomesbuoyant. After floating on the surface of the water for a time, thegases escape and the body sinks, rising a second time when fresh gashas formed the rapidity of decomposition in water varies, being most rapid whenthe temperature is from 64° to 68° f stagnant as well as shallow waterfavors putrefaction if a body becomes coated with mud the change isdelayed submersion in a cesspool also retards it, and the conditionsare such as to favor the formation of adipocere after a body has been removed from the water an exposure of a very fewhours to the air causes rapid decomposition, so that in twenty-fourhours more marked changes may occur than would have resulted from afortnight longer submersion the face soon becomes bloated and black, so that identification is well-nigh impossible it is quite importantin medico-legal paper to estimate the time which has elapsed sincedeath in bodies found submersed in water the following are the variouschanges ordinarily seen at different periods of time, as estimated bydevergie, who has especially investigated the subject:first four or five days - little change. Rigor mortis may persist, writingicularly if the water is cold fourth or fifth day - skin of the ball of the thumb and littlefinger, also the lateral surface of the fingers, begins to whiten thiswhitening gradually extends to the palms of the hands and soles of thefeet the skin of the face will appear softened and of a more fadedwhite than the rest of the body fifteenth day - face slightly swollen and red. A greenish spotbegins to form on the neck and skin of the mid-sternum the skin of thehands and feet is quite white and wrinkled the subcutaneous cellulartissue of the thorax is reddish and the upper writing of the corticalsubstance of the brain of a greenish tint at one month - the face is reddish-brown, the eyelids and lips greenand swollen, and the neck slightly green a greenish discoloration isalso seen over the upper and middle writing of the sternum the skin iswrinkled the hair and nails still remain intact the scrotum and penisare distended by gas the lungs become very emphysematous and overlapthe heart saponification when the bodies were removed from the cimetière des innocents in paris, in 1786, fourcray observed that thesis of them had been converted intoa substance which he termed adipocere he gave it this name becauseit resembles both fat adeps and wax cera under certaincircumstances which will be considered later, it is known to be alate product of the putrefactive processes adipocere is a substanceof a cheese-like consistency, yellow or yellowish-brown in color, and composed chiefly of a mixture of the fatty acids chevreul hasshown by analysis that it is a true ammoniacal soap, but that whenformed in water impregnated with lime a calcareous may be substitutedfor an ammoniacal base this may take place either in a body exposedto river-water or buried in a grave wet by water containing calciumcarbonate or sulphate saponification can only take place when animalfat is in contact with nitrogenous matter neither fat nor fibrin whenkept separate will saponify skin deprived of all its fat will not betransformed into adipocere saponification commences in the fat of the female breast, of the cheeksand other writings of the body where large accumulations of fat are found, such as around the kidneys and in the omentum as fat is distributedextensively throughout the body, nearly all writings may undergo thistransformation taylor gives the following conditions as favorable tothe change:1 bodies of young persons, because the fat is abundant and chieflyexternal 2 bodies of corpulent adults 3 exposure of bodies to the soil of water-closets 4 the immersion of bodies in water, the change taking place morerapidly in running than in stagnant water 5 humid soil, especially when bodies are placed in it one upon theother in this case the lowest of them is first changed when a body has been completely saponified it may remain in this statefor years in one instance, after seventeen years’ burial thesis of theorgans could still be recognized the time required for saponification to take place is essaytimes ofmedico-legal importance three years are usually necessary for bodiesburied in the earth the change occurs more rapidly in water paper arerecorded where the body of a new-born child was completely saponifiedin six weeks, and again, the change had commenced in a body which hadbeen in the water about four months. But these are unusual paper data upon which opinion as to time of death is formed the changes which take place in a body before putrefaction sets in mayenable a medical jurist to form an opinion as to the probable timewhich has elapsed since death. Yet it must be remembered, to pronouncethe time which has elapsed can only be done approximately, for verythesis conditions will have to be considered, which will vary in eachindividual case the importance of considering the minutest detail iswell illustrated by the death of prince de condé, duke of bourbon, who was found dead in his bedroom in the chateau of st cyr whendiscovered at 8 o’clock in the morning, the deceased was found writinglyundressed, hanging by his cravat to one of the window shutters thebody was cold and the lower extremities rigid as in asphyxia fromhanging the warmth of the body is usually preserved longer than undercommon circumstances, viz , from twelve to fifteen hours, before whichperiod rigidity is seldom complete, the medical examiner inferred thatthe deceased must have died very soon after he retired to his bedroomon the previous night as this was proven to have been 10 p m , itfollowed that only ten hours had elapsed a short time for cooling andrigidity to have taken place it was thus rendered probable that thehanging took place soon after deceased reached his bedroom it wasalleged that the duke had been murdered, and that his body had beenafterward suspended to create a suspicion of suicide the condition ofthe body was, among other things, adverse to this opinion from 10 to12 o’clock it was proved there were numerous attendants moving aboutnear the duke awritingments they would have heard any unusual noise theduke must have made in resisting his assailant but no noise was heardin the room at that or any other time, and the presumption of thisbeing a homicide was thus strongly rebutted cadaveric rigidity, while often it will aid to, is not a reliableguide when once it is established it may remain two, three, or fourdays, according to the season of the year and other circumstances, andwhen it exists there is no rule by which it can be determined whether abody has been in this state three hours or three days putrefaction, while appearing on an average, under a meantemperature, in from three to six days, is yet influenced by thesiscircumstances the heat and moisture of the surroundings, the age, sex, amount of flesh on the body, mode of death, position and coverings ofbody, all must be considered the temperature of the body aids us, yet the retention of warmth bythe abdominal viscera may be met with in a marked degree twenty hoursafter death. In one case, personally known to me, the thermometerregistered 76° f seventeen hours after death the temperature of the body, its rigidity, and the evidences ofputrefaction all furnish data from which we can estimate the probabletime which has elapsed since death it must be remembered that no oneof them furnishes any positive proof essay medical jurists have attempted to give a more definite characterto these changes in the recently dead body by dividing the intervalbetween the stopping of the heart action and the beginning ofputrefaction into three periods in the first, the warmth, pliability, and muscular irritability remain in the second, these conditions arelost and the body is cold and rigid in the third, the body is coldand pliant, the muscles are relaxed, and the joints are flexible, thecadaveric rigidity having entirely ceased there can be no doubt about the existence of these stages, but when wecome to define the precise time at which one begins and the other ends, we find it impossible for example, the first stage embraces a periodwhich cannot be more closely defined than by stating that the personmay have been dead from a few minutes to twenty hours a statement toovague to be upheld by a counsel who defends a prisoner the changes which take place in these periods and the average time theylast have been given as follows by devergie:first period, few minutes to twenty hours - characterized by warmthof the body and general or writingial relaxation of the voluntary muscles to what portion of this period the special case belongs must beestimated according to the degree of heat in the trunk and extremitiesand the degree of rigidity in the muscles, the neck and the jawscommonly showing this condition first, the legs last warmth of thebody rarely remains as long as twenty hours. In general it is sensiblycold in from ten to twelve hours during this period the muscles aresusceptible of contraction under the galvanic current, and in the earlystage under the stimulus of blows second period, ten hours to three days - the body is perfectly coldthroughout and rigidity is well marked the muscles no longer respondto stimuli the duration of this period seems long, yet in one instancethe body will be found cold and rigid nine hours after death again, cooling and rigidity may not come on for three or four days third period, three to eight days - the body is perfectly cold thelimbs and trunk pliant and free from cadaveric rigidity the musclesare not capable of contracting in summer this period is much shorter;often it will come on before three days putrefaction commences when a body is kept under the most favorableconditions, in from six to twelve days, as a slight greenishdiscoloration of the abdomen which gradually spreads throughout thebody the time at which putrefaction shows itself and the rapidity withwhich it advances is dependent upon so thesis factors, thesis of whichit is impossible often for the medical examiner to ascertain, thattoo much reliance must not be placed upon it casper estimates thefollowing to be the average changes generally found in the periods oftime given:twenty-four to seventy-two hours after death a slight green color isvisible over the centre of the abdomen the eyeballs are soft and yieldto external pressure three to five days after death the green color of the abdomen becomesintensified and general, spreading if the body be exposed to the air orburied in the ground in the following order.

Heart-beat, eighty perminute. Thorax opened, heart exposed. Right auricle showed full andregular contractions and dilatations the spinal cord was then divided one hundred and twenty minutes, heart-beats forty per minute thesepulsations of right auricle continued at intervals for three and a halfhours longer. Readily excited by point of scalpel heart normal. Leftventricle contracted. Right ventricle not so. No coagulation brainnormal. Lungs collapsed.

The juice either simply used, orboiled with hog grease and applied, helps cramps, convulsions, andpalsy the juice, or distilled water, is of much good use for all heatsand redness in the eyes, to drop essay thereof into them. As also intothe ears, to ease pains in them. And is of good effect to ease painsfrom the heat and sharpness of the blood in the piles, and generallyall pains in the body that arise of heat it is used also in hot andvirulent ulcers and sores in the privy writings of men and women, or onthe legs, or elsewhere the leaves boiled with marsh-mallows, and madeinto a poultice with fenugreek and linseed, applied to swellings orimposthumes, ripen and break them, or assuage the swellings and easethe pains it helps the sinews when they are shrunk by cramps, orotherwise, and to extend and make them pliable again by this medicine boil a handful of chickweed, and a handful of red rose leaves dried, ina quart of muscadine, until a fourth writing be consumed. Then put to thema pint of oil of trotters or sheep feet. Let them boil a good while, still stirring them well. Which being strained, anoint the grievedplace therewith, warm against the fire, rubbing it well with one hand:and bind also essay of the herb if you will to the place, and, withgod blessing, it will help it in three times dressing chick-pease, or cicers descript the garden sorts whether red, black, or white, bringforth stalks a yard long, whereon do grow thesis small and almost roundleaves, dented about the edges, set on both sides of a middle rib;at the joints come forth one or two flowers, upon sharp foot stalks, pease-fashion, either white or whitish, or purplish red, lighter ordeeper, according as the pease that follow will be, that are containedin small, thick, and short pods, wherein lie one or two pease, moreusually pointed at the lower end, and almost round at the head, yet alittle cornered or sharp. The root is small, and perishes yearly place and time they are sown in gardens, or fields as pease, beingsown later than pease, and gathered at the same time with them, orpresently after government and virtues they are both under the dominion of venus they are less windy than beans, but nourish more. They provoke urine, and are thought to increase sperm.

The leaves areessaywhat greater, the heads essaywhat less, synonym for essay the seed alike. And the rootand leaves abide all winter, and perish not as the former place the first grows only in gardens, the second plentifully infields that are near the sea time they flower in july or thereabouts government and virtues the herb is cold, and dry, and saturnine i suppose it obtained the name of flea-wort, because the seeds areso like fleas the seeds fried, and taken, stays the flux or lask ofthe belly, and the corrosions that come by reason of hot choleric, orsharp and malignant humours, or by too much purging of any violentmedicine, as scammony, or the like the mucilage of the seed madewith rose-water, and a little sugar-candy put thereto, is very good inall hot agues and burning fevers, and other inflammations, to cool thethirst, and lenify the dryness and roughness of the tongue and throat it helps also hoarseness of the voice, and diseases of the breastand lungs, caused by heat, or sharp salt humours, and the pleurisyalso the mucilage of the seed made with plantain water, whereuntothe yoke of an egg or two, and a little populeon are put, is a mostsafe and sure remedy to ease the sharpness, pricking, and pains of thehæmorrhoids or piles, if it be laid on a cloth, and bound thereto ithelps all inflammations in any writing of the body, and the pains thatcome thereby, as the headache and megrims, and all hot imposthumes, swellings, or breaking out of the skin, as blains, wheals, pushes, purples, and the like, as also the joints of those that are out ofjoint, the pains of the gout and sciatica, the burstings of youngchildren, and the swellings of the navel, applied with oil of rosesand vinegar it is also good to heal the nipples and sore breasts ofwomen, being often applied thereunto the juice of the herb with alittle honey put into the ears helps the running of them, and the wormsbreeding in them. The same also mixed with hog grease, and applied tocorrupt and filthy ulcers, cleanses them and heals them flux-weed descript it rises up with a round upright hard stalk, four or fivefeet high, spread into sundry branches, whereon grow thesis greyish greenleaves, very finely cut and severed into a number of short and almostround writings the flowers are very small and yellow, growing spikefashion, after which come small long pods, with small yellowish seed inthem the root is long and woody, perishing every year there is another sort, differing in nothing, save only it has essaywhatbroad leaves. They have a strong evil saviour, being smelled unto, andare of a drying taste place they flower wild in the fields by hedge-sides and highways, and among rubbish and other places time they flower and seed quickly after, namely in june and july government and virtues this herb is saturnine also both the herband seed of flux-weed is of excellent use to stay the flux or lask ofthe belly, being drank in water wherein gads of steel heated have beenoften quenched. And is no less effectual for the same purpose thanplantain or comfrey, and to restrain any other flux of blood in man orwoman, as also to consoladate bones broken or out of joint the juicethereof drank in wine, or the decoction of the herb drank, doth killthe worms in the stomach or belly, or the worms that grow in putridand filthy ulcers, and made into a salve doth quickly heal all oldsores, how foul or malignant soever they be the distilled water ofthe herb works the same effect, although essaywhat weaker, yet it is afair medicine, and more acceptable to be taken it is called flux-weedbecause it cures the flux, and for its uniting broken bones, &c paracelsus extols it to the skies it is fitting that syrup, ointment, and plaisters of it were kept in your house flower-de-luce it is so well known, being nourished up in most gardens, that i shallnot need to spent time in writing a description thereof time the flaggy kinds thereof have the most physical uses. Thedwarf kinds thereof flowers in april, the greater sorts in may government and virtues the herb is luner the juice or decoctionof the green root of the flaggy kind of flower-de-luce, with a littlehoney drank, doth purge and cleanse the stomach of gross and toughphlegm, and choler therein. It helps the jaundice and the dropsy, evacuating those humours both upwards and downwards. And because itessaywhat hurts the stomach, is not to be taken without honey andspikenard the same being drank, doth ease the pains and torments ofthe belly and sides, the shaking of agues, the diseases of the liverand spleen, the worms of the belly, the stone in the reins, convulsionsand cramps that come of old humours. It also helps those whose seedpasses from them unawares. It is a remedy against the bitings andstingings of venomous creatures, being boiled in water and vinegar anddrank boiled in water and drank, it provokes urine, helps the cholic, brings down women courses.

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| | | | | | | | | fever after | | | | | | | | | injection | | | | | | | | | of 1 2 c c 15 | 4 | 1 | soms | 4 2 | 7 da | to |secondary |no | | | | | | | | condyl- | improve- | | | | | | | | omas | ment | 16 | 9 | 3 |omommsmso| 10 4 |12 da | |secondary |pustules |slight | 2 | 2 | so | | | | pustular| dried up;| gingivitis | | | | | | | syph | headache | following | | | | | | | | and fever| dose of | | | | | | | | gone | 1 5 c c 17 | 5 | 1 | ssmsu | 13 3 |18 da | to |tertiary. |general | | 2 | 2 | ms | | | | aortitis | condition| | 2 | 3 | ms | | | | | improved | 18 | 4 | 2 | oomm | 9 5 |13 da |- to |latent | | | 2 | 1 | mm | | | | |markedly | | | | | | | | | improved | 19 | 2 | 3 | mu | 2 5 | 5 da | |gumma | | 20 | 5 | 2 | mmmmo | 9 |14 da | to |latent |marked |small | 2 | 3 | ms | | | | | general | induration | | | | | | | | improve- | following | | | | | | | | ment | no 3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- corpora lutea soluble extract, parke, davis & co report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfollowing inquiries, the council took up for consideration “corporalutea soluble extract, ” marketed by parke, davis & co in the form ofampules and proposed for hypodermic administration the report whichappears below was submitted to the council by a committee, and wasadopted by the council corpora lutea soluble extract was declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, and publication of thereport authorized w a puckner, secretary corpora lutea soluble extract has not been submitted by themanufacturer the information of the referee is based, therefore, onthe claims made in the trade package, and on the statements in theprice list these show that the product is essentially secret andclaims made for the actions and uses of the preparation do not makeclear the essentially experimental status of the article, and aretherefore misleading conflict with rule 1 -- no definite statement of composition appearsbeyond the indefinite claim that it is an aqueous solution of “solublecorpora lutea extract, ” each ampule corresponding to 0 2 gm ofdesiccated gland how these soluble products are obtained, whether theyrepresent all the water-soluble principles, or whether essay have beeneliminated, are questions that are not answered yet such informationis essential to intelligent and scientific use, for, as there is nomethod of standardization, the method of preparation is the only markof identity for instance, we do not know at this time whether proteinshave anything to do with the supposed value of corpora lutea it is, therefore, essential to know whether or not the proteins have beeneliminated conflict with rule 6 -- the circular in the package advises thehypodermic use of this extract, not only in functional amenorrheaand the ordinary reflex consequences of physiologic or artificialmenopause, but also in. “‘neurasthenic’ symptoms during menstrual life”. “sterility, not due to pyogenic infection or mechanical obstruction”. “repeated abortions, not due to disease or mechanical factors”. “hyperemesis in the early months of pregnancy ”these are not stated merely as conditions in which various enthusiastshave tried corpus luteum, but as conditions “for which it will be foundserviceable ”it is not necessary to inform the medical profession that thisstatement is calculated to raise expectations which cannot possibly befulfilled even the manufacturers seem to realize this. At least theyspeak essaywhat indefinitely of “suitable paper, ” “good judgment, ” “realindications, ” etc but they proceed to nullify this warning-- if it wasintended as a warning-- by their illustrations of unsuitable paper, for instance, “amenorrhea due to extreme anemia, dysmenorrhea due tocervical stenosis, ” etc finally, they sum up the case. “therefore, additional emphasis on the necessity for the proper selection of paper is essential in order that this useful preparation may not be unjustly discredited ”how these paper of sterility, abortions, etc , are to be selectedis not revealed in other words, the restriction is no more than aconvenient device by which every improvement is to be attributed to themedicine, and every failure to the physician the referee recommends that corpora lutea soluble extract, parke, davis & co , be held ineligible to n n r , because it is a secretpreparation advertised under extravagant claims editorial comment -- was it not in weir mitchell “adventures offrançois” that the itinerant promised to pull teeth without anypain, if the patient would hold absolutely still?. and, mirabiledictu, the ones who suffered were those who had not held absolutelystill!. -- from the journal a m a , april 7, 1917 wheeler tissue phosphates report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council held that the contribution from the a m a chemicallaboratory, “wheeler tissue phosphates, ” demonstrates that this is asemisecret, complex and irrational preparation, sold with misleadingclaims concerning its medicinal constituents and therapeutic properties the council directed that the report be included with the annualcouncil reports and declared wheeler tissue phosphates in conflictwith rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 w a puckner, secretary wheeler tissue phosphates l e warren, ph c , b s “wheeler tissue phosphates, ” known also as “compound elixir ofphosphates and calisaya, ” is advertised as a nerve food and anutritive tonic the label states that it contains calcium, iron, sodium trihydrogen phosphates, alkaloids of peruvian bark with 12-1/2per cent of alcohol the preparation is sold by the t b wheeler, m d co , of rouses point, new york according to the manufacturer, wheeler tissue phosphates “ is an inorganic combination of the phosphates of iron and calcium and hydrogen phosphoric acid together with hydrochloric acid, hydrocyanic acid, and quinine, cheerful coloring, and a delicious, cordial-like flavoring ” “ the iron is the green, inorganic phosphate and the calcium the simple white phosphate of your early student days ”the preparation is a red liquid, having an acid reaction, asweet-bitter taste and the odor of wild cherry qualitative testsindicated the presence of calcium, iron, a phosphate, a chlorid, asulphate, quinin or cinchona alkaloids, alcohol, sodium, cochinealcoloring and invert sugar ammonium salts, glycerol, citrates orlactates were not found from the quantitative values obtained thepreparation may be taken to represent. Sp gr at 25c /25c 1 1087 alcohol per cent, by volume 11 35 gm per 100 c c calcium phosphate ca₃ po₄₂*  0 397 iron phosphate fepo₄ 4h₂o* 0 068 chlorid as hydrochloric acid 0 407 sodium sulphate na₂so₄ 10h₂o  0 043 quinin sulphate u s p 0 041 sodium phosphate na₂hpo₄ 12h₂o  0 065 invert sugar 26 824 water, cochineal and flavor, to make 100 c c * it should be understood that the calcium and iron salts are held in solution by the hydrochloric acid the dose of wheeler tissue phosphates recommended by the manufactureris a tablespoonful or about 15 c c 1/2 oz the total calcium in adose of the preparation is equivalent to about one-sixth of an averagedose of the official calcium chlorid, and the total phosphate to eachdose is equivalent to about one-fourth of a dose of the officialdiluted phosphoric acid each prescribed dose of the preparationcontains about 0 01 gm 2/13 grain of iron phosphate or about onetwenty-fifth of the average dose, and to obtain a pharmacopeial dose ofiron phosphate the patient would be obliged to take three-fourths ofthe contents of an entire bottle-- or 12 ounces-- of the preparation ifit be assumed that all of the chlorid present is in the form of freehydrochloric acid, each dose of the preparation contains the equivalentof about two-thirds of one pharmacopeial dose of diluted hydrochloricacid each dose of the preparation contains about 0 0062 gm 1/10grain of quinin sulphate, or about one-sixteenth of the average tonicdose in other words, to obtain the amount of quinin sulphate given inthe u s pharmacopeia as the tonic dose, the patient would be requiredto swallow 7-1/2 fluidounces of the proprietary preparation, or thecontents of nearly half a bottle the fallacy of prescribing wheelertissue phosphates either for its quinin or its iron content is apparent wheeler tissue phosphates is, then, a mildly bitter flavored syrupwhich contains nearly 12 per cent of alcohol, small quantities each ofcalcium phosphate and hydrochloric acid and insignificant amounts ofiron and quinin salts in other words, essentially it is a sweetenedsolution of small quantities of calcium phosphate in very dilutehydrochlorid acid together with 12 per cent of alcohol bearing in mind the analysis of the preparation, how ludicrous essay ofthe claims appear. “tissue phosphates is not a hypophosphite preparation.